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STS203: History of Technology

Unit 5: New Science and Industrialization   Historians typically present the Scientific Revolution (sixteenth through seventeenth centuries) as a major theoretical achievement, and present the Industrial Revolution (late 18th and early 19th centuries) as primarily a technological accomplishment. In actuality, contributors to the Scientific Revolution like Galileo and Robert Boyle worked hard to spread interest in craft knowledge; leaders of the Industrial Revolution, such as James Watt, were served well by their knowledge of mechanical theory.  
 
This unit continues our analysis of craft knowledge by showing how Galileo, a mathematician and instrument-maker, struggled to find higher status for these ‘hands-on’ activities. Others of the Scientific Revolution also sought to undermine the ancient distinction between scholars and craftsmen. You will then turn to the Industrial Revolution in England, focusing on the replacement of muscle power with machines in the cotton industry, the spread of steam power, and the spike in iron production. This complex of technological change would impact mainland Europe and beyond, promoting an industrial society that became characteristic of the 19th century Western world and beyond. The United States provides a useful case of the adoption of industrial methods and appropriation into new forms. One example was a new system of production in the U.S.: interchangeable parts.

Unit 5 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 23.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 5.1: 11 hours ☐    Subunit 5.1.1: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 5.1.2: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.1.3: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.1.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 5.2: 10 hours ☐    Subunit 5.2.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2.2: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 5.2.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 5.2.5: 5.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.3: 3.5 hours

Unit5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- define the Scientific Revolution; - explain how early telescopes worked; - identify the Jesuit contribution to mathematics; - define the Industrial Revolution; - explain how Watt’s steam engine worked; - identify and explain criticism of industrialization and the factory system; - identify and discuss key components of industrial society; - explain the work of women and children in early industrial society; - compare and contrast American and European industrialization; and - define the “American System” of manufacture.

5.1 Scientific Revolution   5.1.1 New Science and Mathematics   - Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Early Modern European History: “Lecture 10: The Scientific Revolution, 1543-1600,” “Lecture 11: The Scientific Revolution, 1600-1642,” and “Lecture 12: The Scientific Revolution, 1642-1730” Links: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Early Modern European History: ** “Lecture 10: The Scientific Revolution, 1543-1600”, “Lecture 11: The Scientific Revolution, 1600-1642”, and “Lecture 12: The Scientific Revolution, 1642-1730” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the links above, and read all three lectures on the Scientific Revolution. Pay close attention to the work of Copernicus, Galileo, Boyle, and Newton, as well as their important contexts: for example, the Vatican for Galileo or the Royal Society for Boyle and Newton. 
 
Readings and note-taking should take approximately 4 hours.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.1.2 Jesuit Mathematicians   - Reading: The Galileo Project: Albert van Helden’s “Collegio Romano” Link: The Galileo Project: Albert van Helden’s “Collegio Romano” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above, and read the brief webpage. It is important to see that Galileo’s conflict with the Catholic Church was more about authority than a battle between science and religion, as it is often characterized today. This short passage on the Collegio Romano is a reminder that the Jesuits were leaders in mathematics and that Galileo owed a huge debt to their work.
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
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  • Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s version of Père du Halde’s “Teaching Science to the Manchu Emperor, c.1680” Link: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: ** Paul Halsall’s version of Père du Halde’s “Teaching Science to the Manchu Emperor, c.1680” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link above, and read this entire text. The Jesuits were also missionaries overseas. In this primary source reading, you can see how they attempted to win favor from the Chinese emperor by presenting him with scientific instruments as gifts. Notice the Emperor’s experience of these instruments and their bearers from the West.
     
    Reading and note-taking should take approximately 2 hours.  
     
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5.1.3 Instruments and Experimentation   5.1.3.1 The Pump   - Reading: The Galileo Project: Albert van Helden’s “The Pump” Link: The Galileo Project: Albert van Helden’s “The Pump” (HTML)
                                           
Instructions: Read this piece on Galileo’s work for the Republic of Venice. Once again, we see the importance of the Arsenale (see subunit 4.4.1) and Galileo’s desire to find practical application for his labors.
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 30 minutes.   
                                           
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5.1.3.2 The Pendulum   - Reading: The Galileo Project: Albert van Helden’s “Pendulum Clock” Link: The Galileo Project: Albert van Helden’s “Pendulum Clock” (HTML)
                                           
Instructions: Read this piece on Galileo’s late work on pendulums and their application in clock making. Pay attention to how Galileo contradicted Aristotelian physics.
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 30 minutes.
                     
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5.1.3.3 The Telescope   - Reading: The Galileo Project: Albert van Helden’s “The Telescope” Link: The Galileo Project: Albert van Helden’s “The Telescope” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page on the history of the telescope. Notice its origins among craftsmen and how leading members of the Scientific Revolution improved the performance of the instrument (for example, Hevelius and Newton). Pay close attention to Galileo’s discoveries with a telescope of 1609.
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
 
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5.1.4 The Laws of Motion   - Lecture: University of Oxford: Peter Millican’s “Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton” Link: University of Oxford: Peter Millican’s “Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton” (MP4)

 Instructions: Watch this lecture. One important achievement of the
Scientific Revolution was to replace the medieval conception of
motion (built especially on Aristotle and Ptolemy) with
mathematically precise laws of motion. Key names behind this
endeavor were Galileo, Kepler, Boyle, Descartes, and Newton. As you
watch, take notes on the work of Boyle, Kepler, and Newton in
particular. You should be able to explain Newton’s law of gravity.  

 Watching this lecture, taking notes, and explaining the law of
gravity should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 UK: England & Wales
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/). It
is attributed to the University of Oxford, and the original version
can be
found [here](http://vm-jorum.ds.man.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/10949/11616).

5.2 Industrial Revolution   5.2.1 Defining the Revolution   - Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 17: The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England” Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History: ** “Lecture 17: The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above, and read this lecture for an explanation of how changes in agriculture and textiles (e.g. spinning and weaving) sparked the Industrial Revolution in England. After you read, write a brief definition of the Industrial Revolution.
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 2 hours.
 
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5.2.2 Steam Engine   - Reading: Michigan State University: Carl Lira’s “Brief History of the Steam Engine” Link: Michigan State University: Carl Lira’s “Brief History of the Steam Engine” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Engine technology is a major theme in the remainder of this course. Click on the link above, and read this overview of the steam engine, paying close attention to the work of Savery, Newcomen, and Watt. Notice that drainage of mines was the immediate problem (see also subunit 1.1.3). Variations of this design soon powered locomotive trains, mine pumps, printing presses, and factory machines.
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
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5.2.3 The Stream Press   - Reading: The Magazinist: Peter Hutchinson’s “The Expansion of Printing” Link: The Magazinist: Peter Hutchinson’s “The Expansion of Printing” (HTML)
                               
Instructions: Click on the link above, and scroll down to “Part Two: The Expansion of Printing” under Chapter Three. Click on the link to access the PDF file. Read the sections “Printing” and “Paper.” Take notes on the major developments in steam-powered print and the reasons why paper-making boomed after the Civil War in America.
 
Reading and note-taking should take about 1 hour.
 
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5.2.4 Iron and Steel   - Reading: The Open University: Dr. Mike Fitzpatrick’s “The Industrial Revolution and the Development of Steel” Link: The Open University: Dr. Mike Fitzpatrick’s “The Industrial Revolution and the Development of Steel” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above, and read this passage for an introduction to the metallurgical history of the Industrial Revolution. Pay close attention to the role of coke in producing stronger iron and the first cast iron bridge as well as the Bessemer process of making steel.
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 1 hour.
 
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5.2.5 Industrial Society   - Reading: Larry E. Gates’ Advanced Placement World History: “The Industrial Revolution” Link: Larry E. Gates’ Advanced Placement World History: “The Industrial Revolution” (HTML)
                                           
Instructions: Click on the link above, and read the entire webpage, which addresses the profound social changes associated with rapid industrialization. This reading covers the topics outlined in subunits 5.2.5.1–5.2.5.5. Take notes on all four topics. 
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 3 hours.
 
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5.2.5.1 Factories and the Working Class   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.2.5. In particular, pay attention to the section after the heading “The Factory System.”

5.2.5.2 Urbanization   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.2.5. In particular, focus on the section after the heading “Industrial Society.”

5.2.5.3 Women and Children   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.2.5. In particular, focus on the section after the heading “Industrial Society.”

5.2.5.4 Spread of Industrial Society   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.2.5. Focus on the text after the heading “Industrialization’s Global Effects.”

5.2.5.5 Critics of Industrialization   Note: This topic is also covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.2.5. Focus on the section after the heading “Socialism.”

  • Reading: Internet Archive: James Phillip Kay-Shuttleworth’s “The Moral and Physical Condition of the Working Classes Employed in the Cotton Manufacture in Manchester” Link: Internet Archive: James Phillip Kay-Shuttleworth’s “The Moral and Physical Condition of the Working Classes Employed in the Cotton Manufacture in Manchester” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Find the link “Read Online” to the left. You may choose one of the other methods of accessing this reading (PDF, ePub, Kindle, etc.). Click on the link to the preferred method of reading to open the file, and read pages 3-28 of the chapter. Kay-Shuttleworth was part of a large discourse that was critical of industrialization. Write a paragraph that describes the conditions of the working-class in Manchester’s cotton industry, according to Kay-Shuttleworth.
     
    Studying this reading and writing the paragraph should take approximately 2 hours.
     
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  • Reading: New Learning: Mary Kalantzis and Bill Cope’s “Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels on Industrial Capitalism” Link: New Learning: Mary Kalantzis and Bill Cope’s “Karl Marx and Frederick Engels on Industrial Capitalism” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link above, and read this entire webpage, which illustrates how resistance to industrialization, mechanization of work, and their social consequences motivated communist theory. Notice that the authors have included a passage from Marx’s Communist Manifesto (1848) on factory workers.  
     
    Reading and note-taking should take approximately 30 minutes.
                         
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5.3 The United States   5.3.1 Early Industrialization   - Reading: University of Houston’s Digital History: “Roots of American Economic Growth” Link: University of Houston’s Digital History: “Roots of American Economic Growth” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Open the link above, and scroll down to find the heading, “Roots of American Economic Growth.” Click on and read the following links listed beneath the heading: “Resistance to Technological Innovation,” “The Introduction of the Factory System,” “Early Industrialization,” and “Accelerating Transportation.” These readings introduce the American experience of industrialization, from early resistance to all things European to wholesale adoption of the Industrial Revolution. Be thinking about how American industrialization compared to the British example.
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 3 hours.
 
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5.3.2 Interchangeable Parts – the American System   - Reading: History.com’s “Interchangeable Parts” Link: History.com’s “Interchangeable Parts” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above, and read this short account of Eli Whitney’s process of interchangeable parts in manufacturing. First implemented in armories, the basic insight would revolutionize manufacturing in America, anticipating Ford’s assembly line and forever changing factory organization and work.
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

Unit 5 Assessment   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 5 Assessment” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 5 Assessment” (HTML)

 Instructions: Complete the linked assessment.  
    
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