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PSYCH406: Gender and Sexuality

Unit 7: Aggression   Our final unit in this course will examine gender differences in aggression.  Aggression is a particularly interesting concept in the study of gender and sex, as it was once primarily thought of as a masculine ideal.  The notion was that, from an evolution perspective, aggression was important for males, but not as important for females, and it therefore became a masculine trait.  However, research has found that this is not the case.  We will take a close look at much of this research in this unit. 

Please note that this unit does not intend to suggest that there are no differences between the sexes in terms of aggression, but that those differences are less prominent than one might assume. 

Unit 7 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 10 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 7.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 7.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.4: 3 hours

Unit7 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this section, students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the commonalities and differences between gender and aggression.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the physiological reactions to aggression.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of aggression in childhood.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of female aggressive behavior.
  • Demonstrate an understanding the male susceptibility to violence and aggression.

7.1 Studying Aggression   - Reading: University of California, Irvine: Cynthia Odgers et al’s “A Review of Findings from the “Gender and Aggression Project” Informing Juvenile Justice Policy and Practice Through Gender-Sensitive Research”, and Cynthia Odgers et al’s Aggressive and antisocial girls: Research update and future challenges. International Journal of Forensic and Mental Health, 2, 17-33. The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

7.1.1 Defining Aggression   7.1.2 Measuring Aggressive Tendency   7.1.3 Teacher-Learner Paradigms: “Teacher” Shocking “Student”   7.1.4 Same-Sex Pairs   7.1.5 Unmotivated vs. Motivated Condition   7.1.6 Gender Differences Appear in Motivated Condition   7.1.7 Gender Differences Appear in Mixed-Pairs: Women Similar Levels of Aggression Against Males and Females, Men Use Higher Levels of Aggression Against Males   7.1.8 Studying Retaliation: The “Game” Paradigm   7.2 Aggression and Retaliation   - Reading: Purdue University: Eagly & Steffen’s “Gender and Aggressive Behavior: A Meta-analytic Review of the Social Psychological Literature” Link: Purdue University: Eagly & Steffen’s “Gender and Aggressive Behavior: A Meta-analytic Review of the Social Psychological Literature” (PDF)
 
Also available in:

[EPUB](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/psych406-7.2-Eagly.epub)  

 Instructions: Read this paper by going to the above link and
clicking on the “PDF” located under the abstract.  Note this article
covers material you need to know for subunits 7.2.1 through 7.2.8.  
    
 About the Text: This article originally appeared in **Psychological
Bulletin, 100**, 309-330.  
    
 Terms of Use:  <span class="Apple-style-span"
style="font-family: Arial, 'Helvetica Neue', 'Liberation Sans', FreeSans, sans-serif; font-size: 13px; line-height: 22px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); ">This
work is licensed under a </span><span class="Apple-style-span"
style="font-family: Arial, 'Helvetica Neue', 'Liberation Sans', FreeSans, sans-serif; font-size: 13px; line-height: 22px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); ">[Creative
Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)</span><span
class="Apple-style-span"
style="font-family: Arial, 'Helvetica Neue', 'Liberation Sans', FreeSans, sans-serif; font-size: 13px; line-height: 22px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); ">.
 It is attributed to </span> Eagly & Steffen and can be viewed in
its original form
[here](http://generallythinking.com/research/eagly-a-steffen-v-j-1986-gender-and-aggressive-behavior-a-meta-analytic-review-of-the-social-psychological-literature/). 

7.2.1 Equal Likelihood of Retaliation Across Genders   7.2.2 Physiological Responses to Expectation of Aggression and Retaliation   7.2.3 Gender Differential Physiological Reactions   7.2.4 Increasing Blood Pressure Similar for Both Genders   7.2.5 Males: Aggressive Responses Lower Blood Pressure   7.2.6 Females: Aggressive Reponses Keep Blood Pressure High   7.2.7 Effect of Women on Aggression by Men: Men Observed by Men are More Aggressive than Men Observed by Women   7.2.8 Male’s Influenced by Observer’s Attitude Towards Aggression   7.3 Aggression Through the Lifespan   7.3.1 Ages Three to Six: Higher Levels of Aggression in All-Male Play Groups than in All-Female Groups   - Reading: Nancy Gropper and Merle Froschl’s “The Role of Gender in Young Children’s Teasing and Bullying” Link: Nancy Gropper and Merle Froschl’s “The Role of Gender in Young Children’s Teasing and Bullying” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read this paper by going to the above link and clicking on the “ERIC Full Text” tab on the top left of the page.  Note that this article covers material you need to know for subunit 7.3.1. 
 
Note on the Text: This paper was originally presented at the American Educational Research Association 1999 Annual Meeting. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.3.2 Girls Hide Aggression from Adults   - Reading: Syblle Artz and Diana Nicholson’s “Understanding Aggressive Girls in Canada: A Literature Review” Link: Syblle Artz and Diana Nicholson’s “Understanding Aggressive Girls in Canada: A Literature Review” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read this paper by going to the above link and clicking on the “ERIC Full Text” tab on the top left of the page.  Note this article covers material you need to know for subunit 7.3.2.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.3.3 Girls Use Verbal Aggression While Boys Use Physical Aggression   - Reading: Laurence D. Owens’ “Aggression in School: Gender and Developmental Differences” Link: Laurence D. Owens’ “Aggression in School: Gender and Developmental Differences” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the following link and then “Eric Full Text” link at the top, left side of the page to access full text.  Read this paper.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunit 7.3.3.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.3.4 Most Aggressive Behaviors Subside over Time: Growing Interpersonal Skills   - Reading: Laurie A. Rudman and Peter Glick’s “Prescriptive Gender Stereotypes and Backlash Toward Agentic Women” Link: Laurie A. Rudman and Peter Glick’s “Prescriptive Gender Stereotypes and Backlash Toward Agentic Women” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunit 7.3.4.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.3.5 Males Are More Susceptible to Weapons, Violence, Collective Violence   - Reading: Laura A. Daly’s “Exposure to Media Violence and Other Correlates of Aggressive Behavior in Preschool Children” Link: Laura A. Daly’s “Exposure to Media Violence and Other Correlates of Aggressive Behavior in Preschool Children”  (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above and then “Eric Full Text” link at the top, left side of the page to access full text.  Then read this paper in its entirety. Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunit 7.3.5.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.