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PSYCH406: Gender and Sexuality

Unit 5: Social Learning and Cognitive Developmental Approaches   In this unit, we will explore social learning theory and cognitive development approaches to gender and sex.  Both social learning and cognitive development theories are popular in and relate to many areas of psychology.  Accordingly, some of this unit may be a review as we will first explain the broad theories before relating them directly to gender and sex studies.  During the development section of this unit, keep the biological development processes we discussed earlier in mind; this may help you understand how the process of cognitive and development and why the process is different for the two sexes.

Unit 5 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 15 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 5.1: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 5.3: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 5.4: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 5.5: 3.5 hours

Unit5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this section, students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the social learning and cognitive developmental approaches to gender and sexuality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of gender specific behaviors.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of children’s parental gender identification.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of differences and similarities between genders in the classroom.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of Kohlberg and Piaget’s Stage Theories.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the cognitive-developmental theories of gender and sexuality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development.

5.1 Social-Learning Theory   - Lecture: University of Houston: Herb W. Agan, Ed.D.’s “Nature and Nurture Effects on Gender” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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5.1.1 Based on Environment   5.1.2 Behaviors are the Result of Associations with Consequences   5.1.3 Positive Consequences: Increased Frequency of Behavior vs. Negative Consequences: Decreased Frequency of Behavior   5.1.4 Gender Differential Reinforcement   5.1.5 Gender Inappropriate Actions are Punished   5.1.6 Individual as Passive in Developing Gender-Specific Behaviors   5.1.7 Imitation and Modeling   5.2 Social Learning and Gender Identity   5.2.1 Children Model Same-Sex Parents   - Reading: University of Akron: Susan D. Witt, Ph.D.’s “Parental Influence on Children's Socialization to Gender Roles” Link: University of Akron: Susan D. Witt, Ph.D.’s “Parental Influence on Children's Socialization to Gender Roles” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunit 5.2.1, 5.2.3, and 5.2.4.  
 
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5.2.2 Modeling Increases if Model has: Power, Rewards for Behavior, Positive Relationship and Acts in Gender-Congruent Manner   - Reading: Kent State University: Eunsook Hyun’s “Gender-Fair and Gender-Congruent Practices for Young Children's Naturalist Intelligence: From the Perspective of Developmentally and Culturally Appropriate Practice (DCAP)” Link: Kent State University: Eunsook Hyun’s “Gender-Fair and Gender-Congruent-Practices for Young Children's Naturalist Intelligence: From the Perspective of Developmentally and Culturally Appropriate Practice (DCAP)” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read this paper.  Go to the above link.  Click on the “ERIC Full Text” link on the top left of the page.  Note this article covers material you need to know for subunit 5.2.2.
 
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5.2.3 Do Parents Treat Girls and Boys Differently?   5.2.4 Differences in Encouragement of Sex-Typed Toys (GI Joe, Barbie, etc)   5.2.5 Other Sources of Reinforcement of Gender Behavior: Classroom and Peers   - Reading: The College of New Jersey: Colette Gosselin’s “Philosophy and the Role of Teacher Reflections on Constructing Gender” Link: The College of New Jersey: Colette Gosselin’s “Philosophy and the Role of Teacher Reflections on Constructing Gender” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the link and then “Eric Full Text” link at the top, left side of the page to access full text.  Read this paper.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 5.2.5 and 5.2.6.
 
About the Text: This reading was originally published in Educational Foundations, v21 n3-4 p39-57, Summer-Fall 2007.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.2.6 Do Teachers Treat Girls Differently than Boys?   5.2.7 Children More Likely to be Friends with Children who Follow Gender Role Rules   - Reading: University of Southern Queensland: Amanda Keddie’s “On Leadership and Fitting In: Dominant Understandings of Masculinities within an Early Primary Peer Group” Link: University of Southern Queensland: Amanda Keddie’s “On Leadership and Fitting In: Dominant Understandings of Masculinities within an Early Primary Peer Group” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above and then “Eric Full Text” link at the top, left side of the page to access full text.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 5.2.7 and 5.2.8
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.2.8 Peer Socialization Stronger for Boys than Girls   5.3 Cognitive-Developmental Theory   - Reading: W.C. Crain’s “Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development” Link: W.C. Crain’s “Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
 
Instructions: Read this overview.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for all subunits in section 5.3 (5.3.1 through 5.3.5).
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.3.1 Gender Identity is the Result of Passing Through Stages of Cognitive Development   5.3.2 Kohlberg and Piaget’s Stage Theories   Note: While we will not be explaining these theories in great detail here, you should have a general idea of how “stage” theories work.  The particulars of these two theories are not necessary in this course.

  • Reading: University of Georgia: Department of Educational Psychology and Instructional Technology: Kay C. Wood, Harlan Smith, and Daurice Grossniklaus’ “Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development” Link: University of Georgia: Department of Educational Psychology and Instructional Technology: Kay C. Wood, Harlan Smith, and Daurice Grossniklaus’ “Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
     
    Instructions: Read this material.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for section 5.3.2. 
     
    Terms of Use:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.  It is attributed to the  University of Georgia and can be found in its original form here.  

5.3.3 Stages are Innately Determined   5.3.4 Stages are Changed by Cognitive Structures (Ways of Knowing)   5.3.5 Changing Cognitive Structures Causes a Change in Gender Identity Stereotypes   5.4 Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Gender and Sexuality   - Lecture: Yale University: Paul Bloom, Ph.D.’s “Lecture 5: What is It Like to Be a Baby: Development of Thought” Link: Yale University: Professor Paul Bloom’s Lecture #5, "What it’s like to be a Baby: The Development of Thought" (YouTube)

 Available in:  
 [iTunes
U](http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/05-what-is-it-like-to-be-baby/id341652575?i=63753203)  
 [HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3, or
QuickTime](http://oyc.yale.edu/psychology/psyc-110/lecture-5)  
    
 Instructions: Please view the entirety of Lecture \#5, “What it’s
like to be a Baby: The Development of Thought” from Dr. Paul Bloom’s
“Introduction to Psychology” course at Yale University.   
    
 Terms of Use: Paul Bloom, Introduction to Psychology (Yale
University: Open Yale
Courses), [http://oyc.yale.edu](http://oyc.yale.edu/) (Accessed
March 3, 2011) License: [Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/).  The
original version can be
found [here](http://oyc.yale.edu/psychology/psyc-110/lecture-5).

5.4.1 Stages of Development   - Reading: Valdosta State University: W. Huitt and J. Hummel’s “Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development” Link: Valdosta State University: W. Huitt and J. Hummel’s “Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this overview.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunit 5.4.1 only.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.4.2 Gender Labeling by Two Years Old   5.4.3 Labeling Others by Three Years Old   5.4.4 Labeling Associated with Stereotypes: Males are Big and Strong, Females are Small and Weak   5.4.5 Preference for Same-Sex Playmates, Toys are Gender-Specific, Value Their Own Gender Above the Opposite   5.4.6 Age Five: Gender Constancy   5.4.7 Gender Constancy: Consistency in Gender Identity and Competence in Dealing with World   5.4.8 Stereotypes Becoming More Complex   5.5 Applying the Cognitive-Developmental Approach   - Reading: University of Wisconsin – Parkside: Sylvia Beyer’s “Gender Differences in Causal Attribution of Imagined Performance on English, History and Math Exams” Link: University of Wisconsin – Parkside: Sylvia Beyer’s “Gender Differences in Causal Attribution of Imagined Performance on English, History and Math Exams”  (PDF)
 
Instructions: Go to the above link.  Click on the “ERIC Full Text” link on the top left of the page.  Note this article covers material you need to know for subunits in 5.5.1 through 5.5.7.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.5.1 Predictions of Performance   5.5.2 Males Overestimate Ability while Females Underestimate Ability   5.5.3 Actual Difference on Task is Rarely Gender Differential   5.5.4 Evaluations of Self-Performance   5.5.5 Attributions of Success and Failure   5.5.6 Men Attribute Success to Internal Characteristics, Females Attribute Success to External Characteristics   5.5.7 Men Attribute Failure to External Characteristics, Females Attribute Failure to Internal Characteristics   5.5.8 Moral Development: Kohlberg’s Theory   - Reading: W.C. Crain’s “Theories of Development” Link: W.C. Crain’s “Theories of Development” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the above article.  Note this material covers material you need to know for subunit 5.5.8.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.5.9 Gilligan’s Challenge to Kohlberg   - Reading: University of Penn: Wharton School of Business: Robin Derry’s “The Gilligan-Kohlberg Controversy and The Diversity Debate” Link: University of Penn: Wharton School of Business: Robin Derry’s “The Gilligan-Kohlberg Controversy and The Diversity Debate” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Go to the above link.  Scroll to the bottom of the introduction and click on the “Download Research Paper” link. Read this material.  Note this reading covers material you need to know for subunit 5.5.9.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.