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PSYCH406: Gender and Sexuality

Unit 4: Sociobiological and Psychoanalytic Approaches   We will now take a look at sociobiological and psychoanalytic approaches to gender.  While these approaches are independently useful for explaining certain aspects of gender and sex, no single approach can explain everything or serve as an all-encompassing guide to gender and sexuality.  Certain theories may have more research, while others have less.  In many cases, approaches change as new research emerges and new conclusions are formed. 

Unit 4 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 12 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 4.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 4.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 4.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 4.4: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 4.5: 2 hours

Unit4 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this section, students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the sociobiological and psychoanalytic approaches to sexuality and gender identity.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of theories of sociobiology as it relates to gender and sexuality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of early childhood in sexual identity.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of Freud’s psychological approaches to gender and sexuality.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of other psychological approaches to gender and sexuality.

4.1 Basic Sociobiological Framework   - Lecture: Yale University: Paul Bloom, Ph.D.’s “What Motivates Us: Sex” Link: Yale University: Paul Bloom, Ph.D.’s "What Motivates Us: Sex" (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3, or QuickTime 

 Instructions: View this lecture, which discusses evolutionary
theories concerning, as well as current studies relating to, sex and
gender differences.  Information relating to mate selection and
sexual orientation is also presented.  Note that this viewing will
cover the material you need to know for all subunits in sections 4.1
and 4.2 (4.1.1 through 4.2.7).  
    
 This lecture is approximately 53 minutes long.  
    
 Terms of Use: Paul Bloom, Introduction to Psychology (Yale
University: Open Yale
Courses), [http://oyc.yale.edu](http://oyc.yale.edu/ "http://oyc.yale.edu") (Accessed
November 16, 2010). License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0.  The
original version can be found
[here](http://oyc.yale.edu/psychology/psyc-110/lecture-14).

4.1.1 Social Behaviors as Evolutionary Drives   4.1.2 Evolve to Preserve Species   4.1.3 Evolution by Natural Selection   4.1.4 Fitness and Reproduction   4.2 Sociobiological Approach to Gender and Sexuality   - Lecture: UCLA: Thomas Bradbury, Ph.D.’s “Sex and Gender Orientation” Link: UCLA: Thomas Bradbury, Ph.D.’s “Sex and Gender Orientation” (YouTube)
 
Also Available in:
iTunes U (Lecture 5)
 
Instructions: View this lecture.  Note that this viewing will cover the material you need to know for all subunits in section 4.2 (4.2.1 through 4.2.7)
 
This lecture is approximately 1 hour, 03 minutes in length.
 

<span style="font-size: 12px; "><span
style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; ">Terms of Use:
Thomas Bradbury, Communication and Conflict in Couples and Families,
Spring 2009. (UCLA:
UCLA), [http://ucla.edu](http://ucla.edu/ "http://ucla.edu") (Accessed
August 23, 2009). License: Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0. The original version can be found
at: <http://academicearth.org/lectures/sex-and-gender-orientation>.</span></span>

 

4.2.1 Gender Differences Arise from Optimal Mating Strategy   4.2.2 Males: Able to Produce Large Number of Offspring, Low Parental Investment   4.2.3 Females: Produce Fewer Offspring, High Parental Investment   4.2.4 Mate Selection as Evolutionary Process   4.2.5 Male: Choose Mate with High Reproductive Capacity   4.2.6 Female: Look for Resources, Protection   4.2.7 Nurturing: Females More Involved in Caring for Young   4.3 Basic Psychoanalytic Theory   - Reading: Media Education and Resource for Learning and Online Teaching: Cathy Swift’s "On the Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis" Link: Media Education and Resource for Learning and Online Teaching: Cathy Swift’s "On the Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis"

 Instructions: Click on the above link.  Click on the “Location: Go
to Material” tab. Read all material on this handout.  Note that this
reading will cover the material you need to know for all subunits in
section 4.3 (4.3.1 through 4.3.5).  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.3.1 Unconscious Processes   4.3.2 Early Childhood is Critical for Development   4.3.3 Identification with Parents   4.3.4 Gender Differential Behaviors From Association with Same-Sex Parent   4.3.5 The Reactions to External Genitalia   4.4 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Approach to Gender and Sexuality   - Lecture: Yale University: Paul Bloom, Ph.D.’s “Lecture 3: Foundations of Freud” Link: Yale University: Paul Bloom, Ph.D.’s “Lecture 3: Foundations of Freud” (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
iTunes U
HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3, or Quicktime

 Instructions: View this lecture.  Note that this viewing will cover
the material you need to know for all subunits in section 4.4 (4.4.1
through 4.4.10)  
    
 This lecture is approximately 53 minutes long.  
    
 Terms of Use: Paul Bloom, Introduction to Psychology (Yale
University: Open Yale
Courses), [http://oyc.yale.edu](http://oyc.yale.edu/ "http://oyc.yale.edu") (Accessed
November 11, 2010).  License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0.  The
original version can be found
[here](http://oyc.yale.edu/psychology/psyc-110/lecture-3).
  • Reading: Reading: Purdue University: Dino Felluga’s Modules on Freud Link: Purdue University: Dino Felluga’s Modules on Freud

    Instructions: Read each of the five modules listed.  To access additional modules, click on the left side.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for all subunits in section 4.4 (4.4.1 through 4.4.10), as well as subunits 3.4.7 and 3.4.8.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Paul Rosenfels’ “Freud and the Scientific Method (1980)” Link: Paul Rosenfels’ “Freud and the Scientific Method (1980)” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this material.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for all subunits in section 4.4 (4.4.1 through 4.4.10).
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.4.1 Male Development: Begins with Identifying With Mother   4.4.2 The Oedipal Complex: From Platonic to Sexual Association with Mother   4.4.3 Competition Between Dad and Son   4.4.4 Castration Anxiety   4.4.5 Identification with Dad and Mimicking Behaviors   4.4.6 Female Development: Begins with Identifying with Mother   4.4.7 Awareness of Genitalia and Penis Envy   4.4.8 Penis Envy: Causes Masochism and Passivity   4.4.9 The Elektra Complex: Competing with Mom for Dad’s Love   4.4.10 Mimicking Mom’s Behavior   4.5 Other Psychoanalytic Approaches   - Reading: Hope College: Jane R. Dickie et al’s “Children’s Gendered Self Perceptions: A Test of Social Role Versus Feminist Psychodynamic Theory” Link: Hope College: Jane R. Dickie et al’s “Children’s Gendered Self Perceptions: A Test of Social Role Versus Feminist Psychodynamic Theory” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above and then “Eric Full Text” link at the top, left side of the page to access full text.  Then read this paper.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 4.5.1 through 4.5.7
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.5.1 Chodorow’s Reproduction of Mothering   4.5.2 Concept of the “Self” and the “Other”   4.5.3 Girls Learn “Self” from Mother   4.5.4 Show Communal Behavior and Mimic Mother   4.5.5 Boys Learn “Self” From Differentiating Self from Mother   4.5.6 Masculine is Defined as Not Feminine   4.5.7 Seek to Act in Opposition to Mother