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PSYCH406: Gender and Sexuality

Unit 2: Biology and the Brain   This unit will introduce you to the biological and neurological similarities and differences between men and women.  It will attempt to explain some of the ways that the physical differences between men and women affect functioning.  This unit will focus on sex, or the physical characteristics of being male or female, rather than gender.  While a background in biology is not necessary, you may wish to review your notes from past biology courses or refer to ancillary materials on the subject. 

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 20 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 2.5: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 2.6: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.7: 2 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this section, students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the biologically based characteristics, including differences and similarities, between genders.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the biological determinates of sex.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of chromosomal and gonadal sex.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of internal and external genitalia, both male and female.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the gender based brain differences and similarities.

2.1 Biologically-Based Approaches   - Lecture: University of Houston: Herb W. Agan, Ed.D.’s “Biological Influences on Gender Type” Link:University of Houston: Herb W. Agan, Ed.D.’s “Biological Influences on Gender Type” (YouTube)
 
Also Available in:
Adobe Flash
 
Instructions: View this lecture, which discusses the topic of biological influences on gender.  Note that this viewing will cover the material you need to know for all subunits in section 2.1 (2.1.1 through 2.17).
 
It is approximately 1 hour, 17 minutes in length.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.1.1 Differences Based Entirely on Biology   2.1.2 Biology and Experience Interactions   2.1.3 Gender Differences and Genes, Hormones, and Brain Structure   2.1.4 Our Changing Biology: Modification Through Experience   2.1.5 Controlling our Biology   2.1.6 Universality and Existence of Traits   2.1.7 Minimizing the Effect of Socialization   2.2 Biological Determination of Sex   - Reading: Indiana University: John Bingham’s “Biological Factors of Human Sexuality” Link: Indiana University: John Bingham’s “Biological Factors of Human Sexuality

 Instructions: Read this article.  Note that this resource will
cover the material you need to know for all subunits in sections 2.2
and 2.3 (2.2.1 through 2.3.5), as well as 2.6.6 and 2.6.7.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Discovery Health: Maria Colenso’s "How Gender Identity Disorder Works" Link: Discovery Health: Maria Colenso’s "How Gender Identity Disorder Works" (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read all sections of this article (1-5), including the links within the sections.  Note that reading covers the material you need to know for all subunits in section 2.2 and 2.3 (2.2.1 through 2.3.5) and 2.6.1. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.2.1 What Determines Sex?   2.2.2 Independent Stages of Development   2.2.3 Bipotentiality of Sex Differentiation: Both Male and Female Structures Available at Creation   2.3 Stage 1: Chromosomal Sex   2.3.1 XY vs. XX   2.3.2 Turner Syndrome: XO   2.3.3 Turner Syndrome and Stereotypical Female Behaviors   2.3.4 Klinefelter Syndrome: XXX   2.3.5 XYY Syndrome   2.4 Stage 2: Gonadal Sex   - Lecture: University of California: Marian Diamond, Ph.D.’s “Male Reproductive System I” Link: University of California: Marian Diamond, Ph.D.’s “Male Reproductive System I” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: View this lecture, which presents material on the topic of the male reproduction system.  Note that this viewing will cover the material you need to know for subunits in 2.4.1 through 2.4.4.
 
This lecture is approximately 54 minutes long.
 
Terms of Use: This video was reposted from UC Berkeley Webcast, http://webcast.berkeley.edu (Accessed January 27, 2009). It is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 license, and the original version can be found at: http://www.academicearth.org/lectures/male-reproductive-systems.

2.4.1 What are Gonads?   2.4.2 Differentiated vs. Undifferentiated Gonads   2.4.3 Male: 2 Testes   2.4.4 Development of Testes   2.4.5 Female: 2 Ovaries   - Lecture: University of California: Marian Diamond, Ph.D.’s “Endocrine System II” Link: University of California: Marian Diamond, Ph.D.’s “Endocrine System II”(YouTube)
 
Instructions: View this lecture.  Note that this viewing will cover the material you need to know for subunits 2.4.5 and 2.4.6.
 
This lecture is approximately 50 minutes in length.
 
Terms of Use: This video is reposted from UC Berkeley Webcast,http://webcast.berkeley.edu (Accessed January 27, 2009). It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 license and the original version can be found here.

2.4.6 Development of Ovaries   2.5 Stage 3: Internal Genitalia   - Lecture: University of California: Marian Diamond, Ph.D.’s “Endocrine System III” Link: University of California: Marian Diamond, Ph.D.’s “Endocrine System III” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: View this lecture.  Note that this viewing will cover the material you need to know for all 2.5 subunits (2.5.1 through 2.5.6).
 
This lecture is approximately 47 minutes in length.
 
Terms of Use: This video was reposted from UC Berkeley Webcast,http://webcast.berkeley.edu (Accessed January 27, 2009). It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 license.

2.5.1 Internal Plumbing   2.5.2 Male: Seminal Vesicles, Epididymus, Ejaculatory Ducts   - Lecture: University of California: Marian Diamond, Ph.D.’s “Male Reproductive System II; Integumentary System I” Link: University of California: Marian Diamond, Ph.D.’s “Male Reproductive System II; Integumentary System I” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: View this lecture.  Note that this viewing will cover the material you need to know for subunits 2.5.2 and 2.5.3.
 
This lecture is approximately 49 minutes in length.
 
Terms of Use: This video has been reposted from UC Berkeley Webcast,http://webcast.berkeley.edu (Accessed January 27, 2009). It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 license and the original version can be found at:http://academicearth.web3.audioo.com/lectures/male-reproductive-system-2-integumentary-system-1

2.5.3 Development of Male Internal Genitalia: Presence of Androgens, Mullerian Inhibiting Factor and Inductor Substance   2.5.4 Female: Uterus, Fallopian Tubes, and Vagina   - Lecture: University of California: Marian Diamond, Ph.D.’s “Female Reproductive System” Link: University of California: Marian Diamond, Ph.D.’s “Female Reproductive System” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: View this lecture.  Note that this viewing will cover the material you need to know for subunits in section 2.5.4 through 2.5.6, as well as subunit 2.6.3.
 
This lecture is approximately 50 minutes in length.
 
Terms of Use: This video has been reposted from UC Berkeley Webcast,http://webcast.berkeley.edu (Accessed January 22, 2009). It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 license and the original version can be found at:http://academicearth.org/lectures/female-reproductive-system.

2.5.5 Development of Female Internal Genitalia: Absence of Androgens, Mullerian Inhibiting Factor, and Inductor Substance   2.5.6 Wolffian Ducts and Mullerian Ducts: Found in Both Male and Female Systems   2.6 Stage 4: External Genitalia   2.6.1 Undifferentiated External Genitalia   2.6.2 Male External Genitalia   - Lecture: University of California: Marian Diamond, Ph.D.’s “Male Reproductive System II; Integumentary System I” Link: University of California: Marian Diamond, Ph.D.’s “Male Reproductive System II; Integumentary System I” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: View this lecture.  Note that this viewing will cover the material you need to know for subunits 2.6.2.
 
This lecture is approximately 50 minutes in length.
 
Terms of Use: This video has been reposted from UC Berkeley Webcast,http://webcast.berkeley.edu (Accessed January 27, 2009). It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 license and the original version can be found at:http://academicearth.org/lectures/male-reproductive-system-2-integumentary-sy....

2.6.3 Female External Genitalia   - Lecture: University of California: Marian Diamond, Ph.D.’s “Female Reproductive System” Link: University of California: Marian Diamond, Ph.D.’s “Female Reproductive System” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: View this lecture.  Note that this viewing will cover the material you need to know for subunits in section 2.6.3.
 
This lecture is approximately 52 minutes in length.
 
Terms of Use: This video has been reposted from UC Berkeley Webcast,http://webcast.berkeley.edu (Accessed January 22, 2009). It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 license and the original version can be found at: http://www.academicearth.org/lectures/female-reproductive-systems.

2.6.4 Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)   - Reading: Cornell University: Melissa Hines, Charles Brook, and Gerard S. Conway et al’s “Androgen and Psychosocial Development: Core Gender Identity, Sexual Orientation and Recalled Gender Role Behaviors in Women and Men with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia” Link: Cornell University: Melissa Hines, Charles Brook, and Gerard S. Conway et al’s “Androgen and Psychosocial Development: Core Gender Identity, Sexual Orientation and Recalled Gender Role Behaviors in Women and Men with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read this article.  

 Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for
sections 2.6.4 and 2.6.5. About the Text: This article was
originally published in the Journal of Sex Research in February
2004.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

2.6.5 Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)   - Reading: The Pennsylvania State University: Sheri A. Berenbaum and J. Michael Bailey’s “Effects on Gender Identity of Prenatal Androgens and Genital Appearance: Evidence from Girls with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia” Link: The Pennsylvania State University: Sheri A. Berenbaum and J. Michael Bailey’s “Effects on Gender Identity of Prenatal Androgens and Genital Appearance: Evidence from Girls with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia”  (HTML)
 
Also available in:
PDF
 
Instructions: Read this article, which discusses the topic of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH).   Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for section 2.6.5.
 
About the article: This article It was originally published in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 88, No. 3, pages 1102-1106 (2003).
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6.6 5-alpha-reductase Deficiency   2.7 Sex and the Brain   - Lecture: Brigham Young University: Professor Emeritus Bill Bradley’s “The Case for a Biological Origin for Homosexuality” Link: Brigham Young University: Professor Emeritus Bill Bradley’s “The Case for a Biological Origin for Homosexuality” (Adobe Flash or Mp3)
 
Also available in:
iTunes U
 
Instructions: Click on the above link and listen to the lecture, which discusses the topic of gender differences and the brain.  The visuals for this material can also be accessed through this link.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for all subunits in section 2.7 (2.7.1 through 2.76) and 3.2.4.
 
The lecture is approximately 1 hour and 40 minutes in length.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.7.1 Studying Brain Differences in Animals   2.7.2 Problems with Studies of Brain Differences: Structures, Individual Differences, Environment of Brain, Cause of Structural Difference   2.7.3 Interpreting Sex Differences in Brain Structures   2.7.4 Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus (SDN)   2.7.5 INAH3 and Sex Differences   2.7.6 Gender Differences in Lateralization