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PSYCH404: Psychotherapy

Unit 2: Psychoanalytic Therapy   How many films and TV shows have you seen that present the image of an individual lying on a couch, talking to his therapist about his dreams and the influence of his mother? Thanks to its prominent place in pop culture, this form of therapy – psychoanalytic therapy – is perhaps the best-known in contemporary society. Though the principles of psychoanalysis were first developed over 100 years ago and are attributed to the legendary and highly controversial figure of Sigmund Freud, psychologists continue to draw from them today. Psychoanalytics were the first practitioners to attempt to explain mental disorders and design specific therapies in order to treat patients. This unit will introduce you to the principles of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic therapy, discussing many of Freud’s findings, which, though hotly contested, remain influential.

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 11.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4: 3.5 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • identify the main contributions of Freud’s theory to psychotherapy;
  • describe how psychoanalytic therapists would conceptualize a) human nature, b) psychopathology, and c) the therapeutic change process;
  • identify the major therapeutic techniques used to promote change in psychoanalytic therapy; and
  • define defense mechanisms and identify a) the different types of defense mechanisms and b) their importance in this theory.

2.1 Psychoanalytic Theory   2.1.1 Human Nature: The Importance of the First Six Years of Life   - Lecture: iTunes University: Kent University: Kathy Walker and Linda Pollack “Child Development–Introduction and Theories: Psychoanalytic1” Link: iTunes University: Kent University: Kathy Walker and Linda Pollack “Child Development–Introduction and Theories: Psychoanayltic1” (iTunes)
 
Instructions: Listen to this lecture in its entirety for a review of Freud’s theory of personality development and its focus on early childhood. You may recognize this lecture from PSYCH302A: Lifespan Development if you have already completed that course.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

2.1.2 Instincts: Libido, Life Instincts, Death Instincts   - Reading: Shippensburg University: Personality Theories: Dr. C. George Boeree’s “Sigmund Freud” Link: Shippensburg University: Personality Theories: Dr. C. George Boeree’s “Sigmund Freud” (HTML)
 
Also available in:
PDF
 
Instructions: Read this webpage in its entirety for an overview of Freud’s theory of personality. Note that this reading applies to 2.1.2-2.1.9. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpagesabove. 

2.1.3 ID and the Pleasure Principle   2.1.4 Ego and the Reality Principle   2.1.5 Superego, the Conscience, and the Ego Ideal   2.1.6 Parapraxes or “Freudian Slips”   2.1.7 Projective Tests   2.1.8 Hypnosis and Posthypnotic Suggestions   2.1.9 The Three Anxieties (i.e., moral, neurotic, and realistic)   2.1.10 Ego Defense Mechanisms   Note: While defense mechanisms play an important role in psychoanalysis, and while you should know how they function, you needn’t memorize each of them. You may find it useful to take a close look at a few examples, but a general understanding of how these mechanisms work as a whole is far more important.

  • Reading: Boundless: “Examining Defense Mechanisms” Link: Boundless: “Examining Defense Mechanisms” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Read this article to understand Freud’s proposed defense mechanism, which individuals use to manage reality and maintain self-image. Note the many types of defense mechanisms that can be used in various situations.
     
    Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Boundless, and the original version can be found here.

2.2 Psychoanalysis   2.2.1 Deterministic   - Reading: The Romanian Association for Psychoanalysis Promotion: Psychoanalysis: Techniques and Practice: Jean Chiriac’s “About the Free Associations Method.” Link: The Romanian Association for Psychoanalysis Promotion: Psychoanalysis: Techniques and Practice: Jean Chiriac’s “About the Free Associations Method” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Note that this reading applies to 2.1.1 and 2.1.2.
 
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2.2.2 Free-Association   2.2.3 The Importance of Dreams   - Reading: The Romanian Association for Psychoanalysis Promotion: Psychoanalysis: Techniques and Practice: Jean Chiriac’s “Dream Interpretation and Psychoanalysis.” Link: The Romanian Association for Psychoanalysis Promotion: Psychoanalysis: Techniques and Practice: Jean Chiriac’s “Dream Interpretation and Psychoanalysis.” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read through the page for a discussion of Freud’s views on dream analysis and the role it plays in psychoanalysis.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.3 Development of Personality   2.3.1 The Importance of Early Development   - Reading: The Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood in History and Society’s “Freud, Sigmund (1856–1939)” Link: The Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood in History and Society’s “Freud, Sigmund (1856–1939)” (HTML)
 
Instructions: After clicking on the above link, read the associated webpage in its entirety. Although some information will be repetitive, this article focuses on the importance of early development in Freud’s works and highlights Freud’s contribution to the field of developmental psychology.
 
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2.3.2 Comparing Freud’s and Erikson’s Models   - Lecture: iTunes University: Kent University: Kathy Walker and Linda Pollack “Child Development–Introduction and Theories: Psychoanalytic2” Link: iTunes University: Kent University: Kathy Walker and Linda Pollack “Child Development–Introduction and Theories: Psychoanayltic2” (iTunes)
 
Instructions: Listen to this lecture in its entirety for a review of Erikson’s theory of personality development.  

 Listening to this lecture should take approximately 15 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above. 
  • Lecture: Shippensburg University: Personality Theories: Dr. C. George Boeree’s “Erik Erikson” Link: Shippensburg University: Personality Theories: Dr. C. George Boeree’s “Erik Erikson” (HTML)
     
    Also available in:
    PDF
     
    Instructions: After clicking on the above link, read the associated webpage in its entirety. Pay special attention to the discussion of the similarities and differences between Erikson’s and Freud’s developmental models and developmental stages. Consider the ways in which Erikson agreed and disagreed with Freud.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

2.4 The Therapeutic Process   2.4.1 Function and Role: Transference Relationships and Projections   - Reading: The Sage of Asheville: Dr. Cecil H. Patterson’s “Transference and Countertransference” and Freudfile.com: “Transference” Links:The Sage of Asheville: Dr. Cecil H. Patterson’s “Transference and Countertransference” (PDF) and Freudfile.com’s: “Transference” (HTML)
 
Instructions: After clicking on the first link, choose the “click here” button near the top of the page to find a list of Dr. Patterson’s publications. Scroll down to download the PDF titled “Transference and Countertransference” for an introduction to the concepts of transference and countertransference. Then, click on the second link in order to read some of Freud’s statements on the subject of transference. Note that these readings apply to subunits 2.4.1-2.4.3.
 
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2.4.2 Countertransference   2.4.3 Interpretation of Transference   2.4.4 Interpretation of Resistance   - Reading: Freudfile.org: “Resistances” Link: Freudfile.org: “Resistances” (HTML).
 
Instructions: Click on the above link to read Freud’s thoughts on resistance.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.