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PSYCH403: Cultural Psychology

Unit 7: Psychological Disorders   This final unit examines the impact that specific cultures have on psychological disorders.  There are a number of ways in which psychological disorders, their diagnoses, and their treatment are culture specific.  Our culture sees psychological disorders as a legitimate health concern.  In other cultures, however, mental health is not viewed in the same way.  Culture-specific beliefs about religious possession or evil spirits remain common.  Meanwhile, some cultures believe that shamans, medicine men, and other spiritual guides have meaningful prophetic visions.  While no one is discounting these visions, it is interesting to note that our culture might view these visions as a symptom of schizophrenia, a powerful mental disorder.  In addition, psychological disorders like depression and anorexia are fairly uncommon elsewhere, but they are prevalent in our culture.

Even cultures that accept psychological disorders may treat those disorders in different ways.  In our culture, therapy and pharmacological intervention are most common, but in other cultures, religious direction or some other form of intervention may be sought.  These are just a few examples of how psychological disorders are indeed a cultural construct.  It is important to note that this concept in no way reduces the gravity of psychological disorders in our culture; disorders and their effects are quite serious and should be treated as such.

Unit 7 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 12 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 7.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.3: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 7.4: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 7.5: 1 hour

Unit7 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • List and describe each of the five axes as represented in The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).
  • Identify the models of psychopathology/abnormality as generated by Western culture as well as those generated in other cultures.
  • Compare and contrast culture-bound syndromes with general psychology disorders as listed in the DSM.
  • Identify treatments as indicated by various cultures and belief systems. 

7.1 DSM-IV Axis Outline   - Web Media: Wiley Higher Education: Sophia F. Dziegielewski’s “DSM-IV-TR in Action: Assessment and Treatment Strategy in Adults, Adolescents, and Children” Link: Wiley Higher Education: Sophia F. Dziegielewski’s “DSM-IV-TR in Action: Assessment and Treatment Strategy in Adults, Adolescents, and Children” (PowerPoint)
 
Instructions: Please click the provided link and select “PowerPoint Slides All” from the left-hand tool bar and then click on “All PowerPoint Slides” to download the file.  Review the web media to learn about the categories utilized in the American Psychiatric Association’s most recent version of The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a text primarily based on Western psychology.  Note that this web media covers the material you need to know for subunits 7.1.1–7.1.5.
 
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7.1.1 Axis I: Psychiatric and Developmental Disorders   Note:This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 7.1.  Please focus on the psychiatric and developmental disorders. 

7.1.2 Axis II: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 7.1.  Please focus on the personality disorders and mental retardation. 

7.1.3 Axis III: Physical Disorders and Medical Conditions   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 7.1.  Please focus on the physical disorders and medical conditions.  

7.1.4 Axis IV: Psychosocial Stressors   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 7.1.  Please focus on the psychosocial stressors.  

7.1.5 Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 7.1.  Please focus on the global assessment of functioning scale.  

7.2 Models of Psychopathology   - Web Media: Wikipedia: “Models of Abnormality” Link: Wikipedia: “Models of Abnormality” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article to learn about the various models of psychopathology as seen from different theoretical perspectives.
 
Terms of Use: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Wikipedia.

7.2.1 Bio-Psycho-Social Model   - Reading: American Counseling Association: David M. Kaplan and Sharon L. Coogan’s “The Next Advancement in Counseling: The Bio-Psycho-Social Model” Link: American Counseling Association: David M. Kaplan and Sharon L. Coogan’s “The Next Advancement in Counseling: The Bio-Psycho-Social Model” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please select the link above, and then choose the title “Vistas05.Art03” to navigate to the appropriate article to learn the definition and application of the bio-psycho-social model.  Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunit 7.2.2.
 
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7.2.2 Interacting Biology, Psychological, and Social Aspects   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit7.2.1.  Please review how the biological, psychological, and social aspects interact in cultural psychology and society.

7.2.3 Psychoanalytic and Behavioral Models   - Reading: Psych Central: John M. Grohol’s “Types of Therapies” Link: Psych Central: John M. Grohol’s “Types of Therapies” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please review the document in its entirety to learn about types of therapies and treatment interventions.  Please pay close attention to the psychoanalytic and behavioral models.
 
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7.3 Psychological Disorders Across Cultures   - Web Media: University of Pittsburgh Medical Center’s “DSM-IV-TR Outline for Cultural Formulation” Link: University of Pittsburgh Medical Center’s “DSM-IV-TR Outline for Cultural Formulation” (RealPlayer)
 
Instructions: The provided link will take you to a page that lists several documents.  Please choose the category, “University of Pittsburg Medical Center Video Training on The Cultural Formulation,” to access the intended web media.  Please review the program to learn about the view of psychological disorders across cultures, including culture-bound syndromes and cultural formulations.
 
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7.3.1 Anxiety: Worry, Fear and Apprehension   - Reading: Google Scholar: Laurence J. Kirmayer’s “Cultural Variations in the Clinical Presentation of Depression and Anxiety: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment” Link: Google Scholar: Laurence J. Kirmayer’s “Cultural Variations in the Clinical Presentation of Depression and Anxiety: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Select the PDF for the above title and review this document in its entirety to learn about clinical presentations of anxiety and their cultural variations.  Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunit 7.3.4.
 
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7.3.2 Cultural Specific Symptoms   - Reading: Palomar College’s “Culture-Specific Mental Disorders” Link: Palomar College’s “Culture-Specific Mental Disorders” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This link will take you to a page entitled “Culture Specific Diseases.”  Please scroll down to move from the physical disorders to the mental disorders as denoted by the title above.  Please review this document to learn of mental disorders that may be culture specific, many of which are also called culture-bound syndromes.
 
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7.3.3 Social Phobia and Offensiveness in Japanese Culture   - Reading: National Technological University: K. Okano’s “Shame and Social Phobia: A Transcultural Viewpoint” Link: National Technological University: K. Okano’s “Shame and Social Phobia: A Transcultural Viewpoint” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the section regarding shame in alternative cultures, outside of the United States, to determine how shame, social phobia, and offensiveness can be viewed in other cultures, and specifically Japan.
 
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7.3.4 Depressed Mood: Dysphoria, Anxiety, Tension, and Low Energy   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 7.3.1.  Please compare and contrast the information denoted for anxious mood and depressed mood.

7.3.5 Cultural Specific Symptoms: Guilt, Headaches, Weakness, Problems of the “Heart”   - Reading: Stanford University: Ying Wong and Jeanne Tsai’s “Cultural Models of Shame and Guilt” Link: Stanford University: Ying Wong and Jeanne Tsai’s “Cultural Models of Shame and Guilt” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please navigate to the provided link and select the above articlefrom the list to access the appropriate document.  Please read the entire document to learn of culture specific symptoms related to guilt and associated emotions.
 
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7.3.6 Schizophrenia: Biological and Environmental Causes   - Reading: Capella University: Judy M. Versola-Russo’s “Cultural and Demographic Factors of Schizophrenia” Link: Capella University: Judy M. Versola-Russo’s “Cultural and Demographic Factors of Schizophrenia” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please review the document in its entirety to learn about schizophrenia and the factors that are genetic, environmental, and culturally based.
 
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7.4 Culture-Bound Syndromes   - Lecture: iTunesU: Arizona State University: School of Human Evolution and Social Change: “Cross-Cultural Differences in Psychological Structures” (Part 1) and “Shamanism and Ritual Healing Practices” (Part 2) Link: iTunesU: Arizona State University: School of Human Evolution and Social Change: “Cross-Cultural Differences in Psychological Structures” (Part 1) (iTunesU Video) and “Shamanism and Ritual Healing Practices” (Part 2) (iTunesU Video)
 
Instructions: Please click the provided link.  The website that opens will have a list of lectures from Arizona State University.  Be sure to locate the item with the title as listed above, “Cross-Cultural Differences in Psychological Structures,” item number 11.  Place your mouse over the title and a “play” button will appear.  Please click this to start the first lecture, Part1.  Please listen to the entirety of Part 1, as it will introduce you to the psychological disorders as they are viewed from various cultural perspectives, including culture-specific symptoms and culture-bound syndromes.  Once finished, please click the second link to access Part 2.  You will follow the directions above, but in this case you will select item number 17 with the title as mentioned above. Please view Part 2 for more specific indigenous ritual practices such as shamanism.
 
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7.4.1 Twenty-Five Culture-Bound Syndromes   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Culture-Bound Syndrome” Link: Wikipedia: “Culture-Bound Syndrome” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Explore this definition of culture-bound syndromes as designated in the APA’s most recent version of The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
 
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7.5 Treatments   7.5.1 Indigenous Healing Practices   - Reading: Sci Therapies: Laurance Johnston’s “Indigenous Healing” Link: Sci Therapies: Laurance Johnston’s “Indigenous Healing” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please review the document as a whole to learn of the healing practices utilized in various divergent cultures.
 
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7.5.4 Religion and Spirituality: Japanese Naikan Therapy   - Reading: World Cultural Psychiatry Research Review: Teruaki Maeshiro’s “Naikan Therapy in Japan: Introspection as a Way of Healing Introduction to Naikan Therapy” Link: World Cultural Psychiatry Research Review: Teruaki Maeshiro’s “Naikan Therapy in Japan: Introspection as a Way of Healing Introduction to Naikan Therapy” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click the link provided.  Navigate to “Short Papers” and select the article that corresponds to the title above.  Review the document regarding healing practices in Japan.
 
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