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PSYCH403: Cultural Psychology

Unit 6: Human Development   Human development was once considered a completely universal process for all humans.  Psychologists like Erikson and Piaget defined the step-by-step stages that they believed all individuals go through as they develop.  While these theories remain important to the field of psychology, they take the issue of environmental interaction too lightly.  While most biological and physical growth is somewhat universal, many aspects of how we develop are more accurately explained by the culture and society in which we develop.  Consider, for example, the fact that these theories are based on the idea of self-sufficiency (or individualism), which is highly regarded in our culture.  However, many cultures are less individualistic and may think that individualism is a sign of poor (rather than satisfactory or average) development.  These observations do not necessarily discredit the stage theories of Erikson and Piaget, but they do raise questions about their applicability to all cultures.  Further, while many psychologists would argue that development is indeed stage-based, there are some examples that seem to suggest otherwise.

Unit 6 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 12 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 6.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 6.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 6.3: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 6.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 6.5: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 6.6: 1 hour  

Unit6 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • List the phases of development from conception, pregnancy, to birth.
  • Identify child temperament patterns as well as cross-cultural differences that may be present.
  • Compare and contrast theories of attachment as described by Bowlby and Ainsworth.
  • Compare and contrast theories of development, including those developed by theorists Piaget, Kohlberg, Gilligan, and Erikson.

6.1 Early Development: Conception and Pregnancy   6.1.1 Fertilization   - Web Media: YouTube: National Geographic’s “In the Womb/ From Conception to Birth” Link: YouTube: National Geographic’s “In the Womb/ From Conception to Birth” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please watch this video to learn about the early development process, including the fertilization of the embryo through the birth of a child.  Note that this video covers the material you need to know for subunits 6.1.3–6.1.4.
 
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6.1.2 Gestation   - Reading: U.S. National Library of Medicine: Medline Plus’ “Fetal Development” Link: U.S. National Library of Medicine: Medline Plus’ “Fetal Development” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please review the page to learn about fetal development, including the gestation period of the pregnancy and its salient features.
 
Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.

6.1.3 The Embryonic Period: Organogenesis, Nutrition, Terotgens   Note: This subunit is covered by the video assigned beneath subunit 6.1.1.  Please pay particular attention to the embryonic period and the effects of teratogens from the environment and other elements that can impact fetal development. 

6.1.4 Birth   Note: This subunit is covered by the video assigned beneath subunit 6.1.1.  Please pay attention to the birthing process. 

6.2 Temperament   - Web Media: Bowdoin College: Samuel Putnam’s “Psychologist Probes the Origins of Temperament” Link: Bowdoin College: Samuel Putnam’s “Psychologist Probes the Origins of Temperament” (iTunes Audio)
 
Instructions: Please review this web media (number 7 on the linked page) in its entirety to learn about the different temperament of children and how this impacts their long-term socialization within their culture.
 
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6.2.1 Thomas and Chess: Temperament Styles   - Reading: Scientific American: Alexander Thomas, Stella Chess, and Herbert G. Birch’s “The Origin of Personality” Link: Scientific American: Alexander Thomas, Stella Chess, and Herbert G. Birch’s “The Origin of Personality” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please review pages 102–109 of this document as written by the original authors of this theory.  Note that this material covers the material you need to know for subunit 6.2.2.
 
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6.2.2 Easy, Difficult, Slow-To-Warm Up   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.2.1.  Please focus on the easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm up children in Thomas and Chess’ temperament styles. 

6.2.3 Cross-Cultural Temperament Research   - Reading: UCLA Center on Everyday Lives of Families’ “Culture, Temperament, and the ‘Difficult Child’: A Study in Seven Western Cultures” Link: UCLA Center on Everyday Lives of Families’ “Culture, Temperament, and the ‘Difficult Child’: A Study in Seven Western Cultures” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click the above link.  Navigate to “Sara Harkness & Charles Super (University of Connecticut)” and select the article title as shown above.  Review the document to learn about temperamental differences between children in different cultures and consider what might account for this. 
 
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6.3 Attachment   6.3.1 Bowlby: Evolutionary Attachment   - Reading: Simply Psychology: Saul Mcleod’s “Bowly Attachment Theory” Link: Simply Psychology: Saul Mcleod’s “Bowly Attachment Theory” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please review attachment theory as it relates to parent-child bonding practices and their implications.  Note that attachment styles may be related to cultural background and cultural expectations.
 
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6.3.2 Proximity   - Web Media: Professor Todd Andrew Terhune’s “Nonverbal Communication: Proxemics and Space” Link: Professor Todd Andrew Terhune’s “Nonverbal Communication: Proxemics and Space” (PowerPoint)
 
Instructions: On the web page, please navigate to “Intercultural Communication.”  Then click the document titled, “Nonverbal Communication: Proxemics and Space” to download the PowerPoint presentation.  Please review the media in its entirety.  This resource will review the notion of proxemics as culturally patterned in regard to how different they each define, perceive, and use space.
 
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6.3.3 Attachment Across Cultures   - Reading: Attachment across Cultures’ “Cross-Cultural Studies of Attachment” Link: Attachment across Cultures’ “Cross-Cultural Studies of Attachment” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click the link provided.  Navigate to item three, “Cross-Cultural Studies of Attachment.”  Read the general overview, as well as the brief information regarding each of the countries in which studies have been conducted: Africa, Germany, Japan, China, and Israel. What differences do you notice between each of these countries and their attachment styles?
 
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6.3.4 Exploration and Proximity   - Reading: Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science: Nina Brown’s “Edward T. Hall: Proxemic Theory” Link: Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science: Nina Brown’s “Edward T. Hall: Proxemic Theory” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the brief article regarding the notion of proxemics and expectations relative to various cultures.
 
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6.3.5 Attachment Types: Secure, Insecure, Ambivalent, and Avoidant   - Reading: John Byng-Hall’s “Creating a Secure Family Base: Some Implications of Attachment Theory for Family Therapy” Links: John Byng-Hall’s “Creating a Secure Family Base: Some Implications of Attachment Theory for Family Therapy” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click the provided link to access the intended article. Please read the article in its entirety to learn about attachment patterns and types, function and dysfunction in attachments, salience of a secure base, and effects of attachment in the family relationship.
 
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6.3.6 Ainsworth’s Strange Situation   - Web Media: YouTube: Thibs44’s “The Strange Situation—Mary Ainsworth” Link: YouTube: Thibs44’s “The Strange Situation—Mary Ainsworth” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please watch the video in its entirety and focus on the strange situation as it was presented from a Western point of view.
 
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6.3.7 The Strange Situation Across Cultures   - Reading: Leiden University: Open Access Repository: Abraham Sagi, Marinus H. Van IJzendoorn, and Nina Koren-Karie’s “Primary Appraisal of the Strange Situation: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Preseparation Episodes” Link: Leiden University: Open Access Repository: Abraham Sagi, Marinus H. Van I Jzendoorn, and Nina Koren-Karie’s“Primary Appraisal of the Strange Situation: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Preseparation Episodes” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Follow the above link and choose “View/Open” to access the PDF.  Please read the document in its entirety and focus on the strange situation, as it was adapted cross-culturally and compare this to what you learned in subunit 6.3.6.
 
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6.3.8 No Avoidant Type in Mali, Japan   - Reading: Parenting Science: Gwen Dewar’s “Is Your Child Securely Attached? The Strange Situation Test” Link: Parenting Science: Gwen Dewar’s “Is Your Child Securely Attached? The Strange Situation Test” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire document to learn how some babies are insecurely attached, some are disorganized, and some are avoidant.  This document also speculates as to why many theorists believe that the Japanese culture does not rear children of the avoidant type, but rather the disorganized type.
 
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6.4 Cognitive Development   6.4.1 Piaget’s Development   - Web Media: Virtual Psychology’s “Piaget’s Cognitive Development” Link: Virtual Psychology’s “Piaget’s Cognitive Development” (PowerPoint)
 
Instructions: Please navigate to the “search results.”  The first item will correspond to the title above.  Please download and view this PowerPoint presentation to learn the stages of cognitive development as proposed by theorist Jean Piaget and their implications and utility.  Note that this web media covers the material you need to know for subunit 6.4.2.
 
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6.4.2 Stages: Sensorimotor (0-2 years old), Preoperational (2-7 years old), Concrete Operational (7-11 years old) and Formal Operational (11 years old and older)   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.4.1.  Please pay particular attention to the stages of development and what is achieved during each chronological and developmental phase, according to theorist Jean Piaget. 

6.5 Moral Reasoning   6.5.1 Kohlberg’s Moral Reasoning   - Reading: Prince Sultan University’s “Stages of Moral Reasoning According to Kohlberg” Link: Prince Sultan University’s “Stages of Moral Reasoning According to Kohlberg” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please locate the article from the above linked page and review the entire document, which discusses Kohlberg’s theory of moral development.  Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 6.5.3–6.5.5.
 
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6.5.2 Stages of Morality   - Reading: Character Education: Dr. Thomas Lickona’s “The Stages of Moral Reasoning: Preschool to Adulthood” Link: Character Education: Dr. Thomas Lickona’s “The Stages of Moral Reasoning: Preschool to Adulthood” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This document reviews a generalized idea of the stages of morality that occur throughout the lifespan, separate from a single theorist. Please read in its entirety and contrast to Kohlberg’s theory from subunit 6.5.1 and Gillian’s theory as posed in subunit 6.5.6.
 
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6.5.3 Preconventional: Avoid Punishment and Gain Rewards   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.5.1. Please review this stage of morality as posed by Kohlberg and contrast to those as presented in subunits 6.5.4 and 6.5.5. 

6.5.4 Conventional: Approval of Group and Legalized Morality   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.5.1. Please review this stage of morality as posed by Kohlberg and contrast to those as presented in subunits 6.5.3 and 6.5.5. 

6.5.5 Post Conventional: Individual Rights, Circumstances, and Universal Ethical Principles   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.5.1. Please review this stage of morality as posed by Kohlberg and contrast to those as presented in subunits 6.5.3 and 6.5.4.

6.5.6 Gilligan’s Rebuttal: Male vs. Female Morality   - Web Media: YouTube: Utah Valley University: Professor David R. Keller’s “Feminist Virtue Ethics” Link: YouTube: Utah Valley University: Professor David R. Keller’s “Feminist Virtue Ethics” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please review this web media in its entirety and the contents regarding gender-based morality.
 
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6.5.7 Are there Universal Ethical Principles Across Cultures?   - Reading: Santa Clara University: Manuel Velasquez, Claire Andre, Thomas Shanks, and Michael J. Meyer’s “Ethical Relativism” Link: Santa Clara University: Manuel Velasquez, Claire Andre, Thomas Shanks, and Michael J. Meyer’s “Ethical Relativism” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire document, which discusses universalities and differences in ethical principles across cultures.
 
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6.6 Psychosocial Development   6.6.1 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development   - Web Media: iTunesU: Missouri State University: Professor Todd Daniels’ “Erik Erikson on Development” Link: iTunesU: Missouri State University: Professor Todd Daniels’ “Erik Erikson on Development” (iTunesU Audio)
 
Instructions: Please click the provided link.  The website that opens will have a list of lectures from Missouri State University.  Be sure to locate the item with the title as listed above, “Erik Erickson on Development,” item number 31.  Place your mouse over the title and a “play” button will appear.  Please click this to start the lecture.  Please view this web media to review psychosocial development as proposed by Erik Erikson, a psychodynamic theorist who branched off from Freud.  Note that this podcast covers the material you need to know for subunits 6.6.2–6.6.8.
 
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6.6.2 Basic Trust vs. Mistrust Stage   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.6.1.  Please review this stage as posed in Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.

6.6.3 Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Stage   This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.6.1.  Please review this stage as posed in Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.

6.6.4 Initiative vs. Guilt Stage   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.6.1.  Please review this stage as posed in Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.

6.6.5 Industry vs. Inferiority Stage   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.6.1.  Please review this stage as posed in Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.

6.6.6 Identity vs. Role Confusion Stage   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.6.1.  Please review this stage as posed in Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.

6.6.7 Generativity vs. Stagnation Stage   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.6.1.  Please review this stage as posed in Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.

6.6.8 Integrity vs. Despair Stage   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 6.6.1.  Please review this stage as posed in Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.

6.6.9 Western/Christina Bias   6.6.10 Value of Independence in Adolescence   6.6.11 Some Cultures Require Role/Identity from Birth