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PSYCH403: Cultural Psychology

Unit 5: Motivation and Behavior   Human motivation has long been considered the result of evolutionary processes.  In other words, we tend to be motivated by things that help us survive (food, sex, water) and things that are associated with these essentials (money that can be used to buy food, and so on).  However, motivation is not quite so simple.  We now have a number of theories that attempt to accurately describe why certain states may motivate some people but not others.  This idea can be extrapolated at the level of culture and society as well.  For example, the state of hunger might cause us to be highly motivated by food.  However, hunger itself may be under strict cultural control.  In fact, most aspects of our eating habits are linked in some way to culture.  As such, motivators are also, in some way, linked to our culture.  This unit touches on the universal theories of motivation and examines how certain approaches to culture can better determine what will be a motivating factor versus what will not.

Unit 5 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 10 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 5.1: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 5.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 5.4: 1 hour 

Unit5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Explain various theories of motivation, including evolutionary and psychoanalytic hypotheses.
  • Explain sex across cultures, including differences in intimacy and motivation, as well as similarities in universal concepts innate to the human experience.
  • Compare and contrast differences in food preferences across cultures.

5.1 Theories of Motivation   5.1.1 Social Darwinism and Natural Selection   - Reading: Loyola Marymount University: Department of Psychology: L. C. Bernard, M. E. Mills, L. Swenson, and R. P. Walsh’s “An Evolutionary Theory of Human Motivation” Link: Loyola Marymount University: Department of Psychology: L. C. Bernard, M. E. Mills, L. Swenson, and R. P. Walsh’s “An Evolutionary Theory of Human Motivation” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the provided link.  Scroll down to the “Recent publications” category of “Evolutionary Psychology” and select the corresponding title as noted above in order to retrieve the article.  Please read the article in its entirety to review the theory of evolution as it is linked to human motivation.
 
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5.1.2 Drive-Reduction Hypothesis   - Reading: Instructional Design: Richard Culatta’s “Drive Reduction Theory (C. Hull)” Link: Instructional Design: Richard Culatta’s “Drive Reduction Theory (C. Hull)” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this brief article regarding the drive-reduction hypothesis and its application.  Consider how this motivational theory may be perceived or implemented in cultures other than your own.
 
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5.1.3 Homeostasis as a Goal   - Reading: Donette Steele’s “Motivation and Regulation” Link: Donette Steele’s “Motivation and Regulation” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this document pertaining to how motivation plays a role in the maintenance of homeostasis, homeostatic drives, and theories.
 
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5.1.4 Physiological and Psychological Deprivation   5.1.5 Psychoanalytic and Unconscious Desires   - Web Media: YouTube: Laurenh39’s “Sigmund Freud: The Unconscious Mind (Short Version)” Link: YouTube: Laurenh39’s “Sigmund Freud: The Unconscious Mind (Short Version)” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please watch this video, which covers unconscious drive theory, instincts, and personality structures as proposed by Freudian theory, all of which are formed from Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory.
 
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5.1.6 Instincts: Eros (Love) and Thanatos (Death)   - Reading: Tony White’s “Eros and Thanatos” Link: Tony White’s “Eros and Thanatos” (PDF)
 
Instructions: This link will take you to a magazine index.  Please locate and select the above title to open the intended article.  Please review this document to learn of Freud’s psychodynamic theory of opposites.
 
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5.1.7 Personality: ID, Ego, Superego   - Reading: iTunes Podcast: Dr. Linton Hutchinson’s “The Id, Ego, and Superego” Link: iTunes Podcast: Dr. Linton Hutchinson’s “The Id, Ego, and Superego” (iTunesU Audio)
 
Instructions: Please click the provided link.  The website that opens will have a list of lectures from Dr. Linton Hutchinson.  Be sure to locate the item with the title as listed above, “The Id, Ego, and Superego,” item number 6.  Place your mouse over the title and a “play” button will appear. Please click this to start the lecture.  Please listen to this entire podcast in order to learn about the basic personality constructs as posed by Sigmund Freud.
 
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5.1.8 Humanistic: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs   - Web Media: YouTube: Psychetruth Target Public Media’s “Expanded Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Human Needs, Self-Actualization, Humanistic Psychology” Link: YouTube: Psychetruth Target Public Media’s “Expanded Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Human Needs, Self-Actualization, Humanistic Psychology” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please watch the corresponding video to learn about Maslow’s initial hierarchy theory and its most recently expanded elements.  Note that this web media also covers the material you need to know for subunit 5.1.9.
 
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5.1.9 Self-Actualization   Note: This subunit is covered by the web media assigned beneath subunit 5.1.8.  Please pay particular attention to the notion of self-actualization in the video.

5.2 Sex Across Cultures   - Web Media: iTunesU: Yale University: Professor Paul Bloom’s “What Motivates Us: Sex” Link:YouTube: Yale University: Professor Paul Bloom’s “What Motivates Us: Sex” (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
Adobe Flash, Mp3, or QuickTime

[iTunes](http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/13-why-are-people-different/id341652575?i=63753198)  
    
 Instructions: Please click the provided link.  The website that
opens will have a list of lectures from Open Yale Courses.  Be sure
to locate the item with the title as listed above, “What Motivates
Us: Sex,” item number 14. Place your mouse over the title and a
“play” button will appear.  Please click this to start the lecture. 
Please listen to this lecture to learn about sex as a means of human
motivation, a critical part of human instinct, and how it appears
across cultures.  
    
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displayed on the webpage above.

5.2.1 Basic Cultural Views on Sex   - Reading: Psicothema: Silvia Ubillos, Darios Paez, and Jose Luis Gonzalez’s “Culture and Sexual Behavior” Link: Psicothema: Silvia Ubillos, Darios Paez, and Jose Luis Gonzalez’s “Culture and Sexual Behavior” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click the provided link.  Once there, please select the title of the article as denoted above.  Please read the article in its entirety to learn about some of the basic views on sex and sexuality in the 25 countries that are studied by the researchers, including sexual permissiveness, sexual frequency, and extramarital affairs, and the factors in each culture that may impact each of these notions.
 
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5.3 Sex Similarities and Differences Across Cultures   - Reading: University of Hawaii: Elaine Hatfield’s “Passionate Love and Sexual Desire: Cross-Cultural and Historical Perspectives” Link: University of Hawaii: Elaine Hatfield’s “Passionate Love and Sexual Desire: Cross-Cultural and Historical Perspectives” (PDF) 
 
Instructions: Please click on “Publications” on the left-hand sidebar and then click on “Books & Book Chapters.”  Then scroll down to Chapter 80 to find the corresponding title.  Please review the sections on cultural factors affecting passionate love, sexual desire, and mate selection.
 
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5.3.1 Divorce: Adultery and Sterility   - Reading: National Healthy Marriage Resource Center’s “Marriage and Divorce Statistics by Culture” Link: National Healthy Marriage Resource Center’s “Marriage and Divorce Statistics by Culture” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This document reviews the marriage and divorce patterns in various cultures, including the process of mate selection, courting, and other related areas.  Please read the introductory paragraph that is viewable when you first navigate to the website.  From there, please click on each listed cultural group (African Americans, Asian and Pacific Islanders, etc.) and read the content as described in each category. Note that this subunit covers the material you need to know for subunits in 5.3.2–5.3.7.
 
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5.3.2 Mate Selection and Reproduction   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.1.  Please pay attention to the process of mate selections amongst various cultures. 

5.3.3 Courting/Flirting Patterns Similar in Different Cultures   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.1.  Please pay particular attention to the process of courting in different cultures.

5.3.4 Physical Attraction   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.1.  Please pay particular attention to the patterns of physical attraction in various cultures. 

5.3.5 Selection Characteristics: Kindness, Intelligent, Exciting, Healthy, Religious   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.1.  Please pay particular attention to selection characteristics as utilized in different cultures, reviewing both the similarities and differences. 

5.3.6 Differences in Kissing and Touching Among Cultures   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.1.  Please pay particular attention to information regarding affection as displayed in different cultures.  

5.3.7 Accepting Marital Infidelity   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.3.1.  Please focus on infidelities and how they are perceived across various cultures.  

5.4 Food Preference   - Reading: Marriage and Family Encyclopedia’s “Food and Culture” Link: Marriage and Family Encyclopedia’s “Food and Culture” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this article to learn the role that food plays in culture—often an indicator of differences in accessibility of various food options.  Food also plays a role in shared meaning within a culture, and rituals around food may be transmitted through generations.  Consider your own cultural food practices while reading through this document.
 
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5.4.1 Religious Rules Concerning Food: Muslims and Jews   - Reading: Minority Nurses: Gihan ElGindy’s “Meeting Jewish and Muslim Patients’ Dietary Needs” Link: Minority Nurses: Gihan ElGindy’s “Meeting Jewish and Muslim Patients’ Dietary Needs” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please review this document in its entirety to learn about the differences in dietary restrictions as required by Muslim and Jewish religions, respectively.
 
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