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PSYCH403: Cultural Psychology

Unit 3: Intelligence   Intelligence is a difficult concept to define, even within one culture.  In the West, the concept of “intelligence” started out as a general measure of knowledge and understanding, but it has come to mean everything from emotional acuity to academic potential and everything in between.  It has come to be thought of as essential to success.  However, this idea may not be shared by, or may be construed in a different manner within, other cultures.  The West has even developed tests (like IQ tests) that aim at measuring one’s intelligence.  However, because these tests are based on the Western idea of intelligence, they may fail to accurately measure intelligence in another culture. 

In this unit, we will review the different ways intelligence has been defined, both as part of Western psychology and across different cultures.  We will also ask how, by changing how we understand intelligence, we must change how we measure and quantify it.  

Unit 3 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 10 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 3.3: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 3.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.5: 3 hours 

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • List various models of intelligence and their limitations in regard to cultural biases.
  • Compare and contrast various intelligence assessment tools and any cultural adaptations.
  • Demonstrate an awareness and familiarity with the process of reasoning and judgment and how this can be culturally influenced.  

3.1 Models of Intelligence   3.1.1 Spearman’s G-Factor: Verbal, Quantitative and Spatial   - Reading: Bryn Mawr University’s “Understanding Intelligence” Link: Bryn Mawr University’s “Understanding Intelligence” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please navigate to the provided link and select author Xuan-Shi, Lim.  The listings provided are in alphabetical order.  Then click on the article title as shown above.  Please utilize this information to help you compare and contrast multiple intelligences as proposed by different well-known theorists Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.1.2–3.1.3.
 
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3.1.2 Can We Have Multiple Intelligences?   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.1.1.  Please focus on the concept of multiple intelligence as posed by Gardner and the different ways that people learn and retain information—there is no universal means of information processing

3.1.3 Sternberg’s Three Intelligences: Componential, Experiential, and Contextual   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.1.1. Please review Sternberg’s three intelligences that he posed in challenge to the psychometric approach to intelligence.

3.2 Measuring Intelligence   3.2.1 The Traditional Tests: The Stanford-Binet Scale and Wechsler Scale   - Reading: About.com: Kendra Cherry’s “History of Intelligence Testing: The History and Development of Modern IQ Testing” Link: About.com: Kendra Cherry’s “History of Intelligence Testing: The History and Development of Modern IQ Testing” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read about the two most widely known and utilized intelligence tests, including considerations of how they differ and the circumstances in which each one would be most applicable.
 
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3.2.2 Does Speed Equal Intelligence?   - Reading: Wilderdom’s “Intelligence as Speed of Processing” Link: Wilderdom’s “Intelligence as Speed of Processing” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this article regarding processing speed and speed of information retrieval in regard to measure of intelligence.
 
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3.2.3 Does Intelligence Change over Time?   - Reading: University of Washington School of Medicine’s “The Seattle Longitudinal Study” Link: University of Washington School of Medicine’s “The Seattle Longitudinal Study” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the first point (number 1) in this document regarding changes to crystallized and fluid intelligence over the lifespan.
 
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3.2.4 Cultural Biases: Based on Dominant Culture   - Reading: American Psychological Association: Etienne Benson’s “Intelligence across Cultures: Research in African, Asia, and Latin America Is Showing How Culture and Intelligence Interact” Link: American Psychological Association: Etienne Benson’s “Intelligence across Cultures: Research in African, Asia, and Latin America Is Showing How Culture and Intelligence Interact” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This document highlights the fundamental differences in ideas and learning that occur amongst various cultures.  Please read the document in its entirety to see how these differences are measured, particularly by Western-based intelligence tests.
 
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3.2.5 Possible Cultural Differences in Tests   - Reading: University of California, San Diego’s “The Illusion of Culture- Free Intelligence Testing” Link: University of California, San Diego’s “The Illusion of Culture-Free Intelligence Testing” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this document in its entirety to review how cultural factors can play a role in both verbal and nonverbal intelligence testing and the notion that we can never separate ourselves from our culture and history, regardless of how a test is constructed.          
 
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3.3 Group Differences in Testing   3.3.1 Biological and Genetic Factors: Twin and Adoption Studies of Intelligence   - Reading: SparkNotes’ “The Influence of Heredity and Environment” Link: SparkNotes’ “The Influence of Heredity and Environment” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this document in its entirety to learn about the nature versus nurture debate in regard to intelligence.  Twin studies are reviewed to show how environment may play a role that is not accounted for through genetic components.
 
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3.3.2 Environmental Factors: Resources   - Web Media: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Paul Blooom’s “Why Are People So Different?” Link: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Paul Blooom’s “Why Are People So Different?” (YouTube)
 
Also Available in:
Adobe Flash, Mp3, or QuickTime

[iTunes](http://itunes.apple.com/us/itunes-u/13-why-are-people-different/id341652575?i=63753198)  
    
 Instructions: Please watch this lecture, as the instructor reviews
the environmental factors that play a significant role in the
shaping our of cognition and personalities traits.   
    
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displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.3 The Influence of Nutrition on IQ   - Reading: Psych Central: Rick Nauert’s “Early Childhood Nutrition May Influence Adult IQ” Link: Psych Central: Rick Nauert’s “Early Childhood Nutrition May Influence Adult IQ” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please review this document to learn how nutrition in early life may impact IQ, in some instances, regardless of the number of years of education.
 
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3.3.4 The Influence of Technology on IQ   - Reading: CNN Health: Elizabeth Landau’s “Do Digital Diaries Mess Up Your Brain?” Link: CNN Health: Elizabeth Landau’s “Do Digital Diaries Mess Up Your Brain?” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this article in regard to the potential for technology to impact humans’ ability to understand and retain information.
 
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3.3.5 Family Factors on IQ: SES, Parental Education, Birth Order, and Family Size   - Reading: Centros de Estudios Monetario Y Financieros’ “Older and Wiser: Birth Order, Family Size, and IQ of Young Men” Link: Centros de Estudios Monetario Y Financieros’ “Older and Wiser: Birth Order, Family Size, and IQ of Young Men” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Follow the above link and then choose the above titled article by Paul Devereux.  Once open, please read the “Introduction” section as well as the “Conclusion.”  You may read other parts of the document as well if you like; however, this is not required. 
 
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3.3.6 Nature vs. Nurture in IQ Testing: Snyderman & Rothman Experiment   - Reading: Wikipedia: “The IQ Controversy, the Media and Public Policy” Link: Wikipedia: “The IQ Controversy, the Media and Public Policy” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this synopsis of the experiment conducted by Snyderman and Rothman, including how the psychological community received their work.
 
Terms of Use: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Wikipedia.

3.4 Cultural Cognitive Styles   - Reading: Brigham Young University-Hawaii: Lynne Hansen-Strain’s “Educational Implications of Group Differences in Cognitive Style: Evidence from Pacific Cultures” Link: Brigham Young University-Hawaii: Lynne Hansen-Strain’s “Educational Implications of Group Differences in Cognitive Style: Evidence from Pacific Cultures” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please navigate to the web page.  In the “Articles” section, scroll down to the provided title and then click on the “PDF” link in order to open the document.
 
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3.5 Reasoning   - Reading: The University of British Columbia: Emma E. Buchtel and Ara Norenzayan’s “Which Should You Use, Intuition or Logic? Cultural Differences in Injunctive Norms about Reasoning” Link: The University of British Columbia: Emma E. Buchtel and Ara Norenzayan’s  “Which Should You Use, Intuition or Logic? Cultural Differences in Injunctive Norms about Reasoning” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click the above link and then navigate to the titled  “BuchtelNorenzayanCulturalValuesReasoning.pdf.”  Be sure to read pages 2–7 and 14–19 in order to review content necessary for this unit; however, you may read the entire article if you wish.  Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunit 3.5.1.
 
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3.5.1 Types of Reasoning: Formal vs. Informal   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.5.  Please focus on formal reasoning, or logic, and informal reasoning, or intuition, to learn the material required for this subunit. 

3.5.2 Different Cultural Norms in Reasoning   - Reading: University of Michigan’s Professor Richard E. Nisbett, University of Illinois’ Ara Norenzayan, University of Michigan’s Edward E. Smith, and Yonsei University’s Beom Jun Kim’s “Cultural Preferences for Formal Versus Intuitive Reasoning” Link: University of Michigan’s Professor Richard E. Nisbett, University of Illinois’ Ara Norenzayan, University of Michigan’s Edward E. Smith, and Yonsei University’s Beom Jun Kim’s  “Cultural Preferences for Formal Versus Intuitive Reasoning” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click the provided link and then scroll down to the bottom of the page and select the article with the corresponding title as mentioned above and click “PDF of Final Manuscript” to open the article.
 
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