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PSYCH402: Neuropsychology

Unit 9: Higher Functions   While there are many areas of neuropsychology that remain unexplained, we know shockingly little about the brain’s ability to control our higher functions or abilities like learning, memory, language, emotion, and consciousness. While psychologists classify these abilities as “nonessential,” since, unlike abilities like breathing or eating, we do not need them in order to survive, they remain important to our well-being. This final unit will focus on the different ways in which the brain controls these behaviors, identifying the problems that result when these behaviors are not performed.
 

Unit 9 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 12 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 9.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 9.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 9.3: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 9.4: 3 hours

Unit9 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
  - describe the basic cognitive and neurological processes underlying learning and memory; - describe the basic cognitive and neurological processes underlying language; - describe the basic cognitive and neurological processes underlying emotion; and - describe the basic cognitive and neurological processes underlying attention and consciousness.

9.1 Learning and Memory   9.1.1 Long-Term Memory: Implicit vs. Explicit Memory Stores   - Reading: PositScience’s “Types of Memory” Link: PositScience’s “Types of Memory (HTML)
 
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9.1.2 Explicit Memory: The Importance of the Hippocampus   - Reading: NewsMedical.net’s “What is the Hippocampus?” Link: NewsMedical.net’s “What is the Hippocampus? (HTML and Adobe Flash)
 
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  • Reading: NewsMedical.net’s “Hippocampus Functions” Link: NewsMedical.net’s “Hippocampus Functions (HTML)
     
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9.1.3 A Hemispheric Specialization for Explicit Memory   - Reading: crystalinks.com’s “Explicit Memory” Link: crystalinks.com’s “Explicit Memory (HTML)
 
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9.1.4 The Perirhinal Cortex   - Reading: National Institute of Mental Health: Elisabeth A. Murray and Barry J. Richmond’s “Role of Perirhinal Cortex in Object Perception, Memory, and Associations” Link: National Institute of Mental Health: Elisabeth A. Murray and Barry J. Richmond’s “Role of Perirhinal Cortex in Object Perception, Memory, and Associations (PDF)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and open the PDF Role of peririhinal cortex in objective perception, memory, and associations Current Opinion in Neurobiology 11. We recommend that you save the document to your computer. Be sure to read the entire document.
 
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9.1.5 Implicit Memory: The Importance of the Basal Ganglia   - Reading: Johns Hopkins University: James Knierim’s “Basal Ganglia” Link: Johns Hopkins University: JamesKnierim’s “Basal Ganglia (HTML)
 
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9.1.6 Motor Memories: The Motor Cortex and the Cerebellum   - Reading: Soichi Nagao’s “Discovering the Source of Long-Term Motor Memory” Link: Soichi Nagao’s “Discovering the Source of Long-Term Motor Memory(HTML)
 
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9.1.7 Emotional Memory and the Amygdala   - Reading: Mempowered!’s “The Role of Emotion in Memory” Link: Mempowered!’s “The Role of Emotion in Memory (HTML)
 
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9.1.8 Short-Term Memory: Temporal and Frontal Lobes   - Reading: McGill University’s “The Brain from Top to Bottom: The Brain, Short-Term Memory” Link: McGill University’s “The Brain from Top to Bottom: The Brain, Short-Term Memory (HTML)
 
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9.1.9 Learning through Amnesia: How We Learn Discovered from How We Forget   - Reading: McMaster University: Bruce Milliken’s “Amnesia” Link: McMaster University: Bruce Milliken’s “Amnesia (HTML)
 
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  • Reading: McGill University’s “The Brain from Top to Bottom: The Brain, Types of Amnesia” Link: McGill University’s “The Brain from Top to Bottom: The Brain, Types of Amnesia (HTML)
     
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9.1.10 Anterograde vs. Retrograde Amnesia   9.2 Language   9.2.1 The Components of Language and Sound   - Reading: Robert H. Lavenda and Emily A. Schultz’s “Components of Language” Link: Robert H. Lavenda and Emily A. Schultz’s “Components of Language (HTML)
 
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9.2.2 Precursors to Language   - Reading: Duquesne University: Martin Packer’s “Cognitive Precursors to Language” Link: Duquesne University: Martin Packer’s “Cognitive Precursors to Language (PDF)
 
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9.2.3 Language as an Evolved Ability   - Reading: Think Quest’s “The Evolution of Language” Link: Think Quest’s “The Evolution of Language (HTML)
 
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9.2.4 Multimodal Language Theory   - Reading: Joseph J. Mariani’s “Spoken Language Processing and Multimodal Communication: A View from Europe” Link: Joseph J. Mariani’s “Spoken Language Processing and Multimodal Communication: A View from Europe (HTML)
 
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9.2.5 Localization of Language: Lesion Studies   - Reading: Duke University: Bora Lee’s “The Biological Foundations of Language” Link: Duke University, Bora Lee’s “The Biological Foundations of Language” (HTML)
 
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9.2.6 Mapped Speech Zones in Imaging Studies   - Reading: Pélagie M. Beeson’s “Neuroimaging Research: Brain-Behavior Relationships and Language” Link: Pélagie M. Beeson’s “Neuroimaging Research: Brain-Behavior Relationships and Language (HTML)
 
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9.2.7 Aphasias and Language Disorders   - Reading: California State University: Patrick McCaffrey’s “The Fluent Aphasias” Link: California State University: Patrick McCaffrey’s “The Fluent Aphasias” (HTML)
 
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9.2.8 Cortical and Subcortical Components of Aphasia   9.3 Emotion   9.3.1 What is a Feeling?: Emotions and Behavioral Response   - Reading: University of Rhode Island: Richard W. Scholl’s “Affective Motivation & Emotional Competency” Link: University of Rhode Island: Richard W. Scholl’s “Affective Motivation & Emotional Competency” (HTML)
 
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9.3.2 The Production of Affective Behavior   - Reading: Gerald Schueler’s “Cognitive-Affective Bases of Behavior” Link: Gerald Schueler’s “Cognitive-Affective Bases of Behavior” (HTML)
 
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9.3.3 Personality Differences in Emotion and Brain Structures   - Reading: The New York Times: Sindya N. Bhanoo’s “Linking Personality to Brain Structure” Link: The New York Times: Sindya N. Bhanoo’s “Linking Personality to Brain Structure (HTML)
 
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9.3.4 The Brain Circuitry for Emotions   - Reading: Júlio Rocha do Amaral and Jorge Martins de Oliveira’s “Limbic System: The Center of Emotions” Link: Júlio Rocha do Amaral and Jorge Martins de Oliveira’s “Limbic System: The Center of Emotions (HTML)
 
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9.3.5 Asymmetry in Emotional Processing   - Reading: Nelson Alves, Sérgio Fukusima, and J. Antonio Aznar-Casanova’s “Models of Brain Asymmetry in Emotional Processing” Link: Nelson Alves, Sérgio Fukusima, and J. Antonio Aznar-Casanova’s “Models of Brain Asymmetry in Emotional Processing (PDF)
 
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9.3.6 Temporal-Lobe Personality and Emotional Behaviors   - Reading: TemporalLobeEpilepsy.org’s “Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Personality” Link: TemporalLobeEpilepsy.org’s “Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Personality (HTML)
 
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  • Web Media: YouTube: Nova’s “Secrets of the Mind: Temporal Lobe Epilepsy” Link: YouTube: Nova’s “Secrets of the Mind: Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (YouTube)
     
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9.3.7 Social Cognitive Neuroscience: Understanding Others’ Actions, Minds, and Emotional Processes   - Reading: Beth Azar’s “At the Frontier of Science” Link: Beth Azar’s “At the Frontier of Science (HTML)
 
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9.4 Attention and Consciousness   9.4.1 Attention: Automatic and Conscious Processing Compared   - Reading: Indiana University: Professor Gabriel Frommer’s “Controlled and Automatic Processing” Link: Indiana University: Professor Gabriel Frommer’s “Controlled and Automatic Processing (HTML)
 
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9.4.2 Parallel Processing of Sensory Input   - Reading: Saul Mcleod’s “Information Processing” Link: Saul Mcleod’s “Information Processing (HTML)
 
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9.4.3 Networks and Mechanisms of Attention   - Web Media: Michael Posner’s “The Anatomy of Attentional Networks: A Historical Perspective on Attention Research” Link: Michael Posner’s “The Anatomy of Attentional Networks: A Historical Perspective on Attention Research (Adobe Flash)
 
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9.4.4 The Neural Basis of Consciousness   - Reading: California Institute of Technology: Christof Koch and Francis Crick’s “The Neural Basis of Consciousness” Link: California Institute of Technology: Christof Koch and Francis Crick’s “The Neural Basis of Consciousness (HTML)
 
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9.4.5 Cerebral Structures and Consciousness   - Reading: Rodolfo Llinas’ “An Introduction to the Physiology of Ordinary Consciousness” Link: Rodolfo Llinas’ “An Introduction to the Physiology of Ordinary Consciousness (HTML)
 
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9.4.6 Emotional Processing and Consciousness   - Reading: Ralph D. Ellis and Natika Newton’s “The Interdependence of Consciousness and Emotion” Link: Ralph D. Ellis and Natika Newton’s “The Interdependence of Consciousness and Emotion (PDF)
 
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