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PSYCH402: Neuropsychology

Unit 5: The Sensory Systems   This unit will explore the sensory system, a part of the nervous system that enables us to receive stimuli from the environment around us and conduct this information to the brain for processing.The sensory system enables us to taste, smell, hear, feel, and see sensory stimuli – and without these functions, we would have minimal interaction with the world around us.As such, our sensory systems are integral to daily functioning. This unit will introduce you to each of the different sensory systems, identifying the organization, function, and methods of information transduction for each.

Unit 5 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 17 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 5.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 5.3: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 5.4: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 5.5: 3 hours

Unit5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
  - define the general principles of sensory reception, transduction, and cortical transmission; - describe reception, transduction, and cortical transmission in the visual system; - describe reception, transduction, and cortical transmission in the auditory system; - describe reception, transduction, and cortical transmission in the haptic system; - describe reception, transduction, and cortical transmission in the gustatory system; - describe reception, transduction, and cortical transmission in the olfactory system; and  - describe reception, transduction, and cortical transmission in the vestibular system.

5.1 General Principles of Sensory Systems   5.1.1 Sensory Receptors: Nose, Mouth, Eyes, Ears, and Tongue   - Reading: Clinton Community College (SUNY): Dr. Michael Gregory’s “Sensory Systems” Link: Clinton Community College (SUNY): Dr. Michael Gregory’s “Sensory Systems (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the entire main text.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

5.1.2 Transduction of Energy into Information   - Reading: Springfield Technical Community College: Dr. Dawn A. Tamarkin’s “Sensory Receptors” Link: Springfield Technical Community College: Dr. Dawn A. Tamarkin’s “Sensory Receptors (HTML).
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and then read the entire main text.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

5.1.3 Self and Other: Exteroceptive vs. Interoceptive Receptors   - Reading: serendip.com’s “Proprioception: How and Why?” Link: serendip.com’s “Proprioception: How and Why?” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and then read the entire main text.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

5.1.4 Receptors Change: Rapidly Adapting Receptors   - Reading: Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne: Dr. Bruce Abbott’s “Sensory Adaptation” Link: Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne: Dr. Bruce Abbott’s “Sensory Adaptation (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and then read the entire main text.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

5.1.5 Neural Relays   - Reading: Biology Online’s “Sensory Systems” Link: Biology Online’s “Sensory Systems (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and then read the entire main text. NOTE: This resource applies to subsections 5.1.5 and 5.1.6.
 
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5.1.6 The Coding of Sensory Information   5.2 Vision   5.2.1 Photoreceptors: Rods and Cones   - Web Media: Pearson Education’s “Live!psych: A Tour Through the Eye” Link: Pearson Education’s “Live!psych: A Tour Through the Eye” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage. The animation has eight (8) parts. You may skip directly to part #5 and watch parts #5 - #8. Alternatively, watch all eight (8) parts for an excellent review of the structure of the eye.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above document and webpage.

5.2.2 Visual Pathways: The Optic Chiasm   - Web Media: Sumanas, Inc.’s “Visual Pathways in the Human Brain”  Link: Sumanas, Inc.’s “Visual Pathways in the Human Brain” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage. Choose the “Narrated” or “Step-Through” link to view the animation. NOTE: This resource applies to subsections 5.2.2 and 5.2.3.
 
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5.2.3 The Optic Nerves and the Primary Visual Cortex   - Reading: The University of Texas Medical School at Houston: Valentin Dragoi’s “Visual Processing: Cortical Pathways” Link: Neuroscience Online, Valentin Dragoi’s “Visual Processing: Cortical Pathways (HTML).
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and then read the entire main text.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above document and webpage.

5.3 Hearing   5.3.1 Frequency, Amplitude, and Complexity of Airwaves   - Reading: Hanover College: Professor John H. Krantz’s “Experiencing Sensation and Perception” Link: Hanover College: Professor John Krantz’s “Experiencing Sensation and Perception (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click the text link for “Chapter 10: Fundamentals of Audition” and save the PDF document called “Chapter10.pdf” to your computer. Read pages #2 to #5. NOTE: This document is in a continuous state of updating. Ignore the internal notes, such as “[need illustration here],” for example. Most of the referenced figures are included at the end of the document; it is okay if not all the figures are available.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage and document.

5.3.2 The Structure of the Ear: Inner, Middle, and Outer   - Web Media: YouTube: Brandon Pletsch’s “Auditory Transduction” Link: YouTube: Brandon Pletsch’s “Auditory Transduction (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and start the video.  

 Watching this video should take approximately 7 minutes.   
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
included on the above document and webpage.

5.3.3 The Importance of the Cochlea and Hair Cells   - Reading: Georgia State University’s “HyperPhysics: The Cochlea” Link: Georgia State University’s “HyperPhysics: The Cochlea (HTML).
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and then read the main text.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage and document.

  • Web Media: University of Pennsylvania Health System’s Medical Animation Library’s “Hearing and the Cochlea” Link: University of Pennsylvania Health System’s Medical Animation Library’s “Hearing and the Cochlea (Quicktime)
     
    Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and watch the animation.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage and document.

5.3.4 The Primary Auditory Cortex   - Reading: Georgia State University’s “HyperPhysics: The Auditory Nerve” Link: Georgia State University’s “HyperPhysics: The Auditory Nerve” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the text for all sections. NOTE: This resourceapplies to subsections 5.3.4 and 5.3.5.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage and document.

5.3.5 Auditory Pathways   5.3.6 Contralateral Control   - Web Media: YouTube: dizzo95’s “How the Body Works: The Auditory Pathways” Link: YouTube: dizzo95’s “How the Body Works: The Auditory Pathways” (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
Adobe Flash
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and start the video.  

 Watching this video should take approximately 2 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
included on the above webpage.  
  

5.4 Touch   5.4.1 Somatosensory Receptors   - Web Media: Sumanas, Inc.’s “Receptors in the Skin” Link: Sumanas, Inc.’s “Receptors in the Skin (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage. Choose the “Narrated”or “Step-Through”link to view the animation” 

 Watching this video should take approximately 2 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
included on the above document and webpage.

5.4.2 Nocioception: Pain and Temperature   - Web Media: YouTube: pchopra123’s “Pain Pathway” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

5.4.3 Hapsis: Fine Touch and Pressure   - Reading: S. J. Lederman and R. L. Klatzky’s “Haptic Perception: A tutorial” Link: S. J. Lederman and R. L. Klatzky’s “Haptic Perception: A tutorial (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click the link above and scroll down to Lederman, S. J., & Klatzky, R. L. (2009): Haptic perception: A tutorial. Open the PDF document. We recommend that you save the document to your computer. Be sure to read the entire document.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage and document.

5.4.4 Proprioception: Body Awareness and Balance   - Reading: serendip.com’s “Proprioception: How and Why?” Link: serendip.com’s “Proprioception: How and Why? (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and then read the entire main text.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

5.4.5 The Somatosensory Pathways   - Reading: Boundless: “Somatosensory System” Link: Boundless: “Somatosensory System” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read this article to learn about the somatosensory system, including the general organization of neuronal structure and processing, somatosensory pathways, and mapping primary areas. Note tactile and proprioceptive sensations and the anatomical and physiological influences behind each.
 
Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Boundless, and the original version can be found here.

5.4.6 The Homuncular and the Somatosensory Cortex   - Reading: MD Anderson Cancer Center: Patrick Dougherty’s “Somatosensory Processes” Link: MD Anderson Cancer Center: Patrick Dougherty’s “Somatosensory Processes” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and then read the entire main text.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

5.4.7 The Vestibular System: Movement and Balance   - Web Media: YouTube: dizzo95’s “How the Body Works: The Organs of Balance” Link: YouTube: dizzo95’s “How the Body Works: The Organs of Balance” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and start the video. 

 Watching this video should take approximately 2 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
included on the above webpage.

5.5 Taste and Smell   5.5.1 Chemical Receptors: Taste Buds and Olfactory Epithelium   - Reading: Stanford University: Professor Lera Boroditsky’s “Taste, Smell, and Touch: Lecture Notes” Link: Stanford University: Professor Lera Boroditsky’s “Taste, Smell, and Touch: Lecture Notes (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and read sections “I: Taste” and “II: Smell.” Do not be concerned if some of the links to figures and illustrations do not work.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage and document.

  • Reading: BBC’s Science and Nature: Human Body and Mind: “Nervous System—Taste” Link: BBC’s Science and Nature: Human Body and Mind: “Nervous System—Taste (HTML and Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and then read the main text. In addition, click the “Taste Animation” link and flip through the animation using the yellow, right-pointing triangle.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

5.5.2 Gustatory Pathways   - Reading: West Virginia University: Mandy Hatfield’s (for Professor Kevin Daly) “The Gustatory Pathway” Link: West Virginia University, Mandy Hatfield’s (for Professor Kevin Daly) “The Gustatory Pathway (PowerPoint)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to open the webpage, and find the text/link called “Taste” (third section from the top of the page). Open or download this PowerPoint document and view all the slides.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above document and webpage.

5.5.3 Olfactory Pathways   - Reading: West Virginia University: Faizan Kalwar’s (for Professor Kevin Daly) “The Olfactory Pathway” Link: West Virginia University, Faizan Kalwar’s (for Professor Kevin Daly) “The Olfactory Pathway (PowerPoint)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to open the webpage, and find the text/link called “Olfactory” (third section from the top of the page). Open or download this PowerPoint document and view all the slides.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above document and webpage.