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PSYCH402: Neuropsychology

Unit 3: Neurons, Neurotransmitters, and Receptors   Now that you are familiar with the structure of the brain, you will learn how it works. We will begin with tbe building blocks of brain functionality: neurons, or brain cells responsible for the transmission of information from one cell to another. We will then take a look at how cells in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system function in order to better understand the way in which information is transmitted throughout our bodies. You will also learn how electrical activity enables the transmission of neural information, discussing the roles that neurotransmitters and receptors play in this process.

Unit 3 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 13hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 3.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 3.3: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 3.4: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 3.5: 2 hours

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
  - describe the basic structure and function of a nerve cell; - describe the electrical properties of neural function; - describe the basic means of interneural communication; - describe the most important neurotransmitters and their functions; and - describe the basic neuroreceptor types.

3.1 The Structure of a Neuron   3.1.1 Neural Structural Overview   - Web Media: Pearson Education’s “Live!psych: Neuron Structure” Link: Pearson Education’s “Live!psych: Neuron Structure” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage. Click the link on the left to start the animation, and view all four (4) screens (see the right-pointing triangle at the lower right).
 
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3.1.2 The Cell and Energy: Its Creation and Use of Energy   - Reading: Ashland University: Professor Karen Stine’s “Cells and Energy” Link: Ashland University: Professor Karen Stine’s “Cells and Energy” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the entire main text.
 
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3.1.3 The Cell Membrane: The Gatekeeper to the Cell   - Reading: Phfr, Inc.’s “Pivotal Role of Nerve Cell Membranes” Link: Phfr, Inc.’s “Pivotal Role of Nerve Cell Membranes (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the entire main text.
 
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3.1.4 The Nucleus   - Web Media: YouTube: Joe Meyer and Anthony Constantino’s “The Nucleus and Company” Link: YouTube: Joe Meyer and Anthony Constantino’s “The Nucleus and Company” (YouTube)
 
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 Watching this video should take approximately 6 minutes.  
    
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3.1.5 The Importance of Protein Synthesis and Membrane Proteins   - Reading: On the Brain, Dr. Marina Chicurel and Dr. Christopher DeFranco’s “The Inner Life of Neurons” Link: On the Brain, Dr. Marina Chicurel and Dr. Christopher DeFranco’s “The Inner Life of Neurons (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the entire main text.
 
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3.2 The Neuron’s Electrical Activity   3.2.1 What Is an Ion and How Is It Important?   - Reading: WiseGeeks.com’s “What Is an ion?” Link: WiseGeeks.com’s “What Is an ion? (HTML)
 
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3.2.2 Ion Movement: Crossing the Cell Membrane   - Web Media: University of Central Lancashire’s “Membrane Protein: Ion Channel” Link: University of Central Lancashire’s “Membrane Protein: Ion Channel” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and watch the brief demonstration.
 
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  • Web Media: University of Central Lancashire’s “Calcium Channel” Link: University of Central Lancashire’s “Calcium Channel” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and watch the brief demonstration. Click and hold the “What’s this?” button for image labels.
     
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  • Web Media: University of Central Lancashire’s “Sodium Channel” Link: University of Central Lancashire’s “Sodium Channel” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and watch the brief demonstration. Click and hold the “What’s this?” button for image labels.
     
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3.2.3 The Resting Potential   - Web Media: Sumanas, Inc.’s “The Resting Membrane Potential” Link: Sumanas, Inc.’s “The Resting Membrane Potential” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage. Choose “Narrated” and then click the blue “Play” button to watch the entire video.

 Watching this video should take approximately 5 minutes.  
    
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3.2.4 The Action Potential   - Web Media: Sumanas, Inc.’s “The Action Potential” Link: Sumanas, Inc.’s “The Action Potential” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage. Choose “Narrated” and then click the blue “Play” button to watch the entire video.

 Watching this video should take approximately 5 minutes.  
    
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3.2.5 Graded and Local Potentials   - Web Media: University of Central Lancashire’s “EPSP IPSP and Summation” Link: University of Central Lancashire’s “EPSP IPSP and Summation” (Adobe Flash)
 
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3.2.6 Electrical Activity in an Axon   - Web Media: YouTube: Johnson County Community College’s “The Schwann Cell and Action Potential” Link: YouTube: Johnson County Community College’s “The Schwann Cell and Action Potential” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and start the video. NOTE: This resource applies to subsections 3.2.6 through 3.2.8.

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3.2.7 Nodes of Ranvier   3.2.8 Saltatory Conduction and Myelin Sheaths   - Web Media: University of Central Lancashire’s “Propagation of the Action Potential: Saltatory Conduction” Link: University of Central Lancashire’s “Propagation of the Action Potential: Saltatory Conduction” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and watch the brief demonstration.
 
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3.3 Communication Between Neurons   - Web Media: Pearson Education’s “Live!psych: Chemical Messengers” Link: Pearson Education’s “Live!psych: Chemical Messengers” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage. Click the links on the left to view all eleven (11) sections. Note that some sections have more than one screen (see theright-pointing triangle at the lower right). NOTE: This resource applies to subsections 3.3.1 through 3.3.7.
 
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3.3.1 What is a Neurotransmitter?   3.3.2 Synaptic Structure: The Gaps in Transmission   3.3.3 The Types of Synapses   3.3.4 Neurotransmitter Storage and Synthesis   3.3.5 The Release of Neurotransmitters into the Synapse   3.3.6 Neurotransmitters and Receptors: A Perfect Match   3.3.7 Transmission in the Central Nervous System vs. Transmission in the Peripheral Nervous System   3.3.8 How to Stop Neurotransmission: The Deactivation of a Neurotransmitter   - Reading: University of Texas, School of Pharmacy’s “Drugs Interfere with Neurotransmitters” Link: University of Texas, School of Pharmacy’s “Drugs Interfere with Neurotransmitters (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the entire main text.
 
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3.4 Important Neurotransmitters   3.4.1 Acetylcholine   - Reading: McGill University’s “The Brain from Top to Bottom: Neurotransmitters” Link: McGill University’s “The Brain from Top to Bottom: Neurotransmitters” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the entire main text. NOTE: This resource applies to subsections 3.4.3 through 3.4.6.
 
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3.4.2 Serotonin   3.4.3 Dopamine   3.4.4 Norepinephrine   3.4.5 GABA (Gamma-Aminobutyric acid)   3.4.6 Glutamate   3.5 Receptor Types   3.5.1 Ionotropic Receptors   - Web Media: YouTube: Interactive Biology’s “Two Types of Receptors” Link: YouTube: Interactive Biology’s “Two Types of Receptors” (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
Adobe Flash
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and start the video. NOTE: This resource applies to subsections 3.5.1 and 3.5.2.

 Watching this video should take approximately 10 minutes.  
    
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  • Reading: psychology.jrank.org’s “How Do Neurotransmitters Work?” Link: psychology.jrank.org’s “How Do Neurotransmitters Work?” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the entire main text. NOTE: This resource applies to subsections 3.5.1 through 3.5.3.
     
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3.5.2 Metabotropic Receptors   3.5.3 Immediate vs. Secondary Effects: Receptor-Type and Latency until Effect