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PSYCH402: Neuropsychology

Unit 2: The Organization of the Nervous System   The structure of the nervous system is extremely complex, in part because we have had to devise ways to refer to specific parts of it while excluding others, which has led to complicated naming conventions and systems of reference. For example, a psychologist may want to discuss a certain area of the brain independently of the rest of the brain – and then discuss it in reference to another part of the brain – and experts have devised distinct ways to reference both. In this unit, we will discuss the structure of the nervous system by taking a look at its subsystems and identifying the ways in which they connect to one another. Though you may find this unit dense and jargon-heavy, you will need to be familiar with the terminology introduced here throughout the remainder of the course.
 

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 16hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 2.5: 3 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
  - define the anatomical terms of direction; - describe the basic structure and organization of the nervous system; - describe how the spinal cord transmits and receives neural information; - define the three primary anatomical areas of the brain; and - describe how each side of the body is controlled by the opposite side of the brain.

2.1 Neuroanatomy   2.1.1 Locations in the Brain: Dorsal, Ventral, Rostral, Caudal, Lateral, Medial, Posterior, Anterior   - Reading: Washington University: Neuroscience for Kids’ “Directions and Planes of Section” Link: Washington University: Neuroscience for Kids’ “Directions and Planes of Section” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the entire main text. NOTE: This reading applies to subsections 2.1.1 and 2.1.2.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

  • Web Media: University of Central Lancashire’s “Anatomical Directions and Sections” Link: University of Central Lancashire’s “Anatomical Directions and Sections” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage. Click each of the links in turn to view illustrations of the basic anatomical directions and sections. NOTE: This resource applies to subsections 2.1.1 and 2.1.2.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

2.1.2 Planes of View: Coronal, Horizontal, and Sagittal sections   2.1.3 Fissures vs. Gyrus vs. Sulcus   - Reading: Answers.com’s “What Is the Difference Between the Ggyri and Sulci?” Link: Answers.com’s “What Is the Difference Between the Gyri and Sulci?” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the entire main text.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.
 

2.2 Nervous System Structure   2.2.1 Support and Protection   - Web Media: YouTube: cattosa3’s “Skull Bones” Link: YouTube: cattosa3’s “Skull Bones” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and start the video. 

 Watching this video should take approximately 3 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
included on the above webpage.

2.2.2 Blood Supply: The Blood-Brain Barrier   - Web Media: YouTube: Medical Legal Art’s “Brain Oxygenation—Medical Animation” Link: YouTube: Medical Legal Art’s “Brain Oxygenation—Medical Animation” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and start the video.

 Watching this video should take approximately 2 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
included on the above webpage.

2.2.3 Neurons and Glia   - Reading: MedicineNet.com’s “Definition of Glial Cell” Link: MedicineNet.com’s “Definition of Glial Cell” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the entire main text.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

  • Web Media: YouTube: Rich Arenas’ “How Neurons Work” Link: YouTube: Rich Arenas’ “How Neurons Work (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and start the video. 

    Watch the video up until the 2:50 time mark.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

2.2.4 The Difference between Gray, White, and Reticular Matter   - Reading: University of Alberta: Melissa Davies’ “Neuroscience: A Journey Through the Brain” Link: University of Alberta: Melissa Davies’ “Neuroscience: A Journey Through the Brain” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the section titled “Matter Types.”
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

2.2.5 Nuclei, Nerves, Tracts, and Layers   - Reading: University of Michigan Medical School’s “Medical Gross Anatomy: Nervous System Overview” Link: University of Michigan Medical School’s “Medical Gross Anatomy: Nervous System Overview (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the entire main text.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

  • Reading: University of Alberta: Melissa Davies’ “Neuroscience: A Journey Through the Brain” Link: University of Alberta:Melissa Davies’ “Neuroscience: A Journey Through the Brain” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the section titled “Nuclei and Tracts.”
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

  • Reading: Brown University’s “Cortical Layers” Link: Brown University’s “Cortical Layers” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the entire main text.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

2.3 The Spinal Cord   2.3.1 Spinal Cord Structure and the Spinal Nerves   - Web Media: YouTube: GeneEd’s “Spinal Cord Anatomy and Innervation” Link: YouTube: GeneEd’s “Spinal Cord Anatomy and Innervation” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage.

 Watching this video should take approximately 2 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
included on the above webpage.

2.3.2 Spinal Cord Function and the Spinal Nerves   - Reading: Boundless: “Spinal Nerves” Link: Boundless: “Spinal Nerves” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read this article to learn about spinal nerves, including minute anatomical structures and physiological processes. Note the function and physiology of spinal nerves working as a whole and the impact this has on major bodily structures such as limbs and organs.
 
Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Boundless, and the original version can be found here.

2.3.3 The Central Nervous System and the Somatic Nervous System: How Do They Connect?   - Reading: About.com: Kendra Cherry’s “What Is the Somatic Nervous System?” Link: About.com: Kendra Cherry’s “What Is the Somatic Nervous System?” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the entire main text.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

  • Web Media: YouTube: myinsung89’s “Neuromuscular Transmission” Link: YouTube: myinsung89’s “Neuromuscular Transmission” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and start the video. 

    Watching this video should take 1 minute.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

2.3.4 The Autonomic Nervous System   - Web Media: YouTube: TutorVista.com’s “Autonomic Nervous System” Link: YouTube: TutorVista.com’s “Autonomic Nervous System” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and start the video. 

 Watching this video should take 3 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
included on the above webpage.

2.4 Anatomical Structure of the Brain   - Reading: McGill University’s “The Brain from Top to Bottom: The Brain, The Nervous System” Link: McGill University’s “The Brain from Top to Bottom: The Brain, The Nervous System” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the entire main text. NOTE: This resource applies to all of subsection 2.4.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

  • Web Media: MedLinePlus’ “Brain Components” Link: MedLinePlus’ “Brain Components (QuickTime)
     
    Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and start the video. NOTE: This resource applies to all of subsection 2.4.

    Watching this video should take approximately 4 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

  • Reading: Lundbeck Institute, Brainexplorer.Org’s “Brain Atlas” Link: Lundbeck Institute, Brainexplorer.Org’s “Brain Atlas (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage. From the menu near the top, choose “Forebrain,” then “Midbrain,” and then “Hindbrain,” and read the descriptions of these three important brain regions. NOTE: This resource applies to all of subsection 2.4.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

  • Web Media: YouTube: Medical Legal Art’s “Brain Anatomy and Functions” Link: YouTube: Medical Legal Art’s “Brain Anatomy and Functions” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and start the video. 

    Watching this video should take approximately 3 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

2.4.1 The Forebrain   - Reading: Lundbeck Institute’s “Brain Atlas: Forebrain” Link: Lundbeck Institute’s “Brain Atlas: Forebrain” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the entire main text. Use the links on the left in the box labeled “More maps of the brain” to see more detailed views of brain structures. Roll your mouse over the brain images to view labels for the different brain areas.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

2.4.2 The Midbrain   - Reading: Lundbeck Institute’s “Brain Atlas: Midbrain” Link: Lundbeck Institute’s “Brain Atlas: Midbrain” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the entire main text. Use the links on the left in the box labeled “More maps of the brain” to see more detailed views of brain structures. Roll your mouse over the brain images to view labels for the different brain areas.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

2.4.3 The Hindbrain   - Reading: Lundbeck Institute’s “Brain Atlas: Hindbrain” Link: Lundbeck Institute’s “Brain Atlas: Hindbrain” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage and read the entire main text. Use the links on the left in the box labeled “More maps of the brain” to see more detailed views of brain structures. Roll your mouse over the brain images to view labels for the different brain areas.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

2.4.4 The Diencephalon   - Web Media: YouTube: Ben Brahim Mohammed’s “Anatomy of the Brain: Diencephalon, Thalamus and Hypothalamus” Link: YouTube: Ben Brahim Mohammed’s “Anatomy of the Brain: Diencephalon, Thalamus and Hypothalamus” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and start the video. 

 Watching this video should take approximately 5 minutes.   
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
included on the above webpage.

2.4.5 The Basal Ganglia   - Web Media: YouTube: GeneEd’s “Anatomy and Diseases of the Basal Ganglia” Link: YouTube: GeneEd’s “Anatomy and Diseases of the Basal Ganglia” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and start the video. 

 Watching this video should take approximately 2 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
included on the above webpage.

2.4.6 The Limbic System   - Web Media: YouTube: dizzo95’s “How the Body Works: Units of the Limbic System” Link: YouTube: dizzo95’s “How the Body Works: Units of the Limbic System” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and start the video.  

 Watching this video should take approximately 1 minute.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
included on the above webpage.
  • Web Media: YouTube: dizzo95’s “How the Body Works: Center of Emotion and Memory” Link: YouTube: dizzo95’s “How the Body Works: Center of Emotion and Memory” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and start the video.

    Watching this video should take approximately 3 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

2.4.7 The Neocortex   - Reading: Dartmouth Medical School: Dr. Rand Swenson’s “Review of Clinical and Functional Neuroscience: Chapter 11” Link: Dartmouth Medical School: Dr. Rand Swenson’s “Review of Clinical and Functional Neuroscience: Chapter 11” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Use the link above to navigate to the webpage. Read the sections titled “General Organization” and “The Neocortex.”
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

2.5 The Crossed Brain   2.5.1 Ipsilateral vs. Contralateral Control   - Web Media: Pearson Education’s “Live!psych: Hemispheric Specialization” Link: Pearson Education’s “Live!psych: Hemispheric Specialization” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage. Click the links on the left to view all four (4) sections. Note that some sections have more than one screen (see the right-pointing triangle at the lower right).
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

2.5.2 The Vision System and Contralateral Control: A Complex Example   - Reading: University of Utah School of Medicine: “The Visual System” Link: University of Utah School of Medicine: “The Visual System” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article to learn about the organization of the visual system, including the major anatomical components and the neuroanatomy of two major visual reflexes, the pupillary light reflex and the near response.
 
Reading this article should take approximately 45 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 Generic License. It is attributed to the University of Utah, and the original version can be found here.

  • Web Media: YouTube: dizzo95’s “How the Body Works: The Visual Mechanism” Link: YouTube: dizzo95’s “How the Body Works: The Visual Mechanism” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage and start the video. 

    Watching this video should take approximately 2 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use included on the above webpage.

2.5.3 The Corpus Callosum and Crossing Information   - Web Media: MedicaLook’s “The Cerebrum” Link: MedicaLook’s “The Cerebrum (HTML and YouTube Video)
 
Instructions: Click the link above to navigate to the webpage. Scroll down to near the bottom of the page where you will see two rows of three (3) brain images each. Click the first image in the bottom rowand start the video. 

 Watching this video should take approximately 3 minutes.   
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
included on the above webpage.