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PSYCH401: Abnormal Behavior

Unit 8: Schizophrenia   Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and debilitating mental disease. It can lead to sustained hallucinations and delusions, among other symptoms, ultimately causing an individual to lose touch with reality. Although the stigma and ignorance surrounding schizophrenia has lessened over the years, many misconceptions still exist. In this unit, we will learn about how schizophrenia has been treated and conceptualized throughout history. We will also study hard facts about the prevalence, diagnostic and prognostic picture, and treatment of various forms of schizophrenia. Lastly, we will examine the most up-to-date research on schizophrenia and the advancements being made in psychotropic and psychosocial treatment of this disorder.  

Unit 8 Time Advisory
Completing this unit will take you approximately 15.25 hours.

    Unit 9 Introduction: 7.5 hours
      Lectures: 5 hours

    Readings: 2.5 hours

    Subunit 8.1: 0.25 hour

    Subunit 8.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 8.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 8.4: 1.25 hours

☐    Subunit 8.5: 1.5 hours

    Subunit 8.7: 0.75 hour

☐    Subunit 8.8: 0.5 hour

☐    Assessment: 0.5 hour

Unit8 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - explain the historical context and current conceptualizations of schizophrenia; - identify prevalence rates and demographic factors pertinent to schizophrenia; - describe the positive and negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia and the diagnostic criteria for the various subtypes of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders; - definedelusions and hallucinations, and identify the subtypes associated with these phenomena; - explain the research on the etiology and treatment of schizophrenia; and - identify and describe the various psychotropic and psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia.

  • Lecture: Podbay: Portland Community College: Dana C. Leighton’s Abnormal Psychology: “Episode 9 – Schizophrenia Part 1 & Unquiet Mind Part 3” and “Episode 11 – Schizophrenia Part 2” Link: Podbay: Portland Community College: Dana C. Leighton’s Abnormal Psychology: “Episode 9 – Schizophrenia Part 1 & Unquiet Mind Part 3” (iTunes) and “Episode 11 – Schizophrenia Part 2” (iTunes)
     
    Instructions: Listen to these lectures. These lectures cover the topics outlined in subunits 8.2.1–8.2.4. Note: It may take a moment for the audio to begin although the page will appear to have loaded fully. Don't fret: it will start momentarily.

    Listening to these lectures and pausing to take notes should take approximately 4 hours.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: YouTube: Maryland Health Today: Ellen Beth Levitt’s Interview with Dr. Anthony Lehman on “Schizophrenia Part 1” and “Schizophrenia Part 2” Link: YouTube: Maryland Health Today: Ellen Beth Levitt’s Interview with Dr. Anthony Lehman on “Schizophrenia Part 1” (YouTube) and “Schizophrenia Part 2” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch Part 1 and Part 2 of the interview to learn about schizophrenia.These lectures cover the topics outlined in subunits 8.2.1–8.2.4.
     
    Viewing these videos and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpages displayed above.

  • Reading: University of Central Oklahoma:Dr. Caleb W. Lack’s Abnormal Psychology: “Psychotic Disorders” Link: University of Central Oklahoma: Dr. Caleb W. Lack’s Abnormal Psychology: “Psychotic Disorders” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this chapter for an overview of psychotic disorders. This reading covers the topics outlined in subunits 8.1, 8.2.1–8.2.5, and 8.8.1–8.8.3.

    Studying this reading should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDervis 3.0 Unported License.
     

  • Reading: University of Central Oklahoma: Dr. Caleb W. Lack’s Abnormal Psychology: “Psychotic Disorders” Link: University of Central Oklahoma: Dr. Caleb W. Lack’s Abnormal Psychology: “Psychotic Disorders” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this chapter for an overview of psychotic disorders. This reading covers the topics outlined in subunits 8.1, 8.2.1–8.2.5, and 8.8.1–8.8.3.

    Studying this reading should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDervis 3.0 Unported License.
     

8.1 Introduction to Schizophrenia: Statistics, Prevalence, and Demographics   Note: The readings assigned below the Unit 8 introduction covers this topic. In particular, for the National Institute of Mental Health reading, focus on the first page for some introductory information and statistics about schizophrenia. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on “Section 1: Introduction to the Psychotic Disorders.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

8.2 Overview of Diagnostic Criteria   8.2.1 Definitional Issues   Note: The National Institute for Mental Health reading and lectures assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For the National Institute for Mental Health reading, focus on the section titled “What Is Schizophrenia?” on page 1. For subunits 8.2.1 through 8.2.5, take approximately 1 hour to review pages 1–4 of the National Institute for Mental Health reading as well as Sections 1–4 and 16.

8.2.2 Positive versus Negative Symptoms   Note: The readings and lectures assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For the National Institute for Mental Health reading, focus on positive symptoms and negative symptoms on pages 2 and 3. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on the brief definitions of positive and negative symptoms under “Section 1: Introduction to the Psychotic Disorders.”

8.2.3 Impact on Functioning   Note: The readings and lectures assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For the National Institute for Mental Health reading, focus on “Cognitive Symptoms” on page 4. Also, for Dr. Lack’s reading, review the “Associated Features” section of each disorder.

8.2.4 Subtypes of Schizophrenia   8.2.4.1 Paranoid Schizophrenia   Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the lectures assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 2: Schizophrenia, Paranoid Type.”

8.2.4.2 Catatonic Schizophrenia   Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the lectures assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 4: Schizophrenia, Catatonic Type.”

8.2.4.3 Disorganized Schizophrenia   Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the lectures assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 3: Schizophrenia, Disorganized Type.”

8.2.4.4 Undifferentiated Schizophrenia   Note: The readings and lectures assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review “Section 16: Schizophrenia, Undifferentiated Type.”

8.2.5 Other Psychotic Disorders   8.2.5.1 Schizophreniform   Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. Review “Section 9: Schizophreniform Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review this section. 

8.2.5.2 Schizoaffective   Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. Review “Section 5: Schizoaffective Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review this section.

8.2.5.3 Delusional Disorder   Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. Review “Section 7: Delusional Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review this section.

8.2.5.4 Shared Psychotic Disorder   Note: Dr. Lack’s reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. Review “Section 8: Shared Psychotic Disorder.” Take approximately 15 minutes to review this section.

8.3 Delusions: Definition, Subtypes, and Processes   - Reading: University of Tasmania: Dr. Saxby Pridmore’s Download of Psychiatry: “Chapter 4: Delusions and Delusional Disorder” Link: University of Tasmania: Dr. Saxby Pridmore’s Download of Psychiatry: “Chapter 4: Delusions and Delusional Disorder” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Download “Chapter 4: Delusions and Delusional Disorder,” and read the first six pages of this chapter, as this portion of the chapter is the most relevant to the topic of delusions. This reading will cover the topics outlined in subunits 8.3.1–8.3.2.2. 

 Studying this reading should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution 2.5 Generic
license](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/).

8.3.1 Delusions Defined: Categories of Delusions   Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.3 covers this topic. Review the text below the heading “Aim and Definition” on pages 1 and 2. Take approximately 15 minutes to review pages 1 and 2 of the reading to cover the topics outlined in subunits 8.3.1 through 8.3.2.1.

8.3.1.1 Persecutory   Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.3 covers this topic. Review the definition of persecutory delusions in the “Categories of Delusions” section on page 2.

8.3.1.2 Grandiose   Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.3 covers this topic. Review the definition of grandiose delusions in the “Categories of Delusions” section on page 2.

8.3.1.3 Erotomanic   Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.3 covers this topic. Review the definition of erotic delusions in the “Categories of Delusions” section on page 2.

8.3.1.4 Jealous   Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.3 covers this topic. Review the definition of delusions of jealousy in the “Categories of Delusions” section on page 2.

8.3.1.5 Somatic   Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.3 covers this topic. Review the definition of somatic delusions in the “Categories of Delusions” section on page 2.

8.3.2 Process of Delusions   8.3.2.1 Ideas of Reference   Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.3 covers this topic. Review the definition of delusions of reference in the “Categories of Delusions” section on page 2.

8.3.2.2 Thought Broadcasting, Thought Insertion, and Thought Withdrawal   Note: The National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction covers this topic. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, review the section on “Delusions” on page 2. Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material.

8.4 Hallucination: Definition and Subtypes   - Reading: University of Tasmania: Dr. Saxby Pridmore’s Download of Psychiatry: “Chapter 5: Hallucinations” Link: University of Tasmania: Dr. Saxby Pridmore’s Download of Psychiatry: “Chapter 5: Hallucinations” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Download “Chapter 5: Hallucinations,” and read this chapter (16 pages) to learn about hallucinations in mental disorders and non-mental disorders. This reading will cover the topics outlined in subunits 8.4.1–8.4.2.5. 

 Studying this reading should take approximately 45 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution 2.5 Generic
license](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/).

8.4.1 Hallucinations Defined   Note: The National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction and the reading assigned below subunit 8.4 cover this topic. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, review the “Hallucinations” section on page 2. For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review the introductory information on page 1. Take less than 15 minutes to review these resources.

8.4.2 Types of Hallucinations   Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.4 covers this topic. Review the “Hallucinations in Mental Disorders” section on pages 3–6. Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material. 

8.4.2.1 Auditory   Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.4 covers this topic. Focus on the “Auditory” section on pages 3–5.

8.4.2.2 Visual   Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.4 covers this topic. Focus on the “Visual” section on page 5.

8.4.2.3 Olfactory   Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.4 covers this topic. Focus on the “Gustatory/Olfactory” section on page 6.

8.4.2.4 Gustatory   Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.4 covers this topic. Focus on the “Gustatory/Olfactory” section on page 6.

8.4.2.5 Tactile   Note: The reading assigned below subunit 8.4 covers this topic. Focus on the “Tactile” section on page 5.

8.5 Formal Thought Disorder   - Reading: University of Tasmania: Dr. Saxby Pridmore’s Download of Psychiatry: “Chapter 6: Form of Thought” Link: University of Tasmania: Dr. Saxby Pridmore’s Download of Psychiatry: “Chapter 6: Form of Thought” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Download “Chapter 6: Form of Thought,” and read this chapter (21 pages). This reading will cover the topics outlined in subunits 8.5.1 and 8.5.2. 
 
Studying this reading should take approximately 1 hour.

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution 2.5 Generic
license](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/).

8.5.1 Formal Thought Disorder Defined   Note: The National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction and the reading assigned below subunit 8.5 cover this topic. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, focus on the “Thought Disorder” section on page 3. For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review the introduction on pages 1–4. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

8.5.2 Neologisms and Word Salad   Note: The National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction and the reading assigned below subunit 8.5 cover this topic. The National Institute of Mental Health reading addresses neologisms in the “Thought Disorder” section on page 3. For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review the sections titled “Incoherence” and “Neologism” on pages 10–12. Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material.

8.6 Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia   - Reading: Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

8.6.1 Alogia   - Reading: Alogia The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

8.6.2 Affective Flattening   - Reading: Affective Flattening The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

8.6.3 Avolition   - Reading: Avolition The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

8.6.4 Anhedonia   - Reading: Anhedonia The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

8.6.5 Attention Impairment   - Reading: Attention Impairment The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

8.7 Treatment of Schizophrenia   8.7.1 Medication Treatments   Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review the “Empirically Supported Treatments” sections for each type of schizophrenia. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, review “How Is Schizophrenia Treated” on pages 8–11 and “How Can I Help a Person with Schizophrenia?” on page 14. Take approximately 30 minutes to review this material.

8.7.1.1 Classes of Drugs   Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on the “Empirically Supported Treatments” sections for each type of schizophrenia. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, focus on the text below the heading “Antipsychotic Medications” on pages 8 and 9.

8.7.1.2 Common Side Effects   Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on the “Empirically Supported Treatments” sections for each type of schizophrenia. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, focus on the text below the subheading “What Are the Side Effects?” through “How Do Antipsychotics Interact with Other Medications” on pages 9–11.

8.7.1.3 Compliance Issues   Note: The National Institute of Mental Health reading covers this topic. Focus on the section titled “How Can You Help a Person with Schizophrenia?”

8.7.2 Psychological and Behavioral Interventions   Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on the discussions of psychosocial treatments in the “Empirically Supported Treatments” sections for each type of schizophrenia. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, focus on the “Psychosocial Treatments” section on pages 11–13. Take approximately 15 minutes to review this material.

8.7.2.1 Types of Interventions   Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. Note the various types of treatment, including illness management skills, rehabilitation, family education, cognitive behavioral therapy, and self-help groups.

8.7.2.2 Importance of Medication and Psychological Treatments   Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. Focus on the introduction to the “Psychosocial Treatment” section; note that often psychosocial treatment comes after a patient has been stabilized on antipsychotic medication.

8.7.3 Differential Prognosis   - Reading: Differential Prognosis The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

8.7.4 Predictors of Relapse   - Reading: Predictors of Relapse The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

8.8 Contributing Factors to the Development of Schizophrenia: Research Findings and Conclusions   Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on the “Etiology” sections for each type of schizophrenia. For this reading, review the “What Causes Schizophrenia?” section on pages 6–8. Take approximately 30 minutes to review this material.

8.8.1 Biological and Genetic Contributors   Note: Dr. Lack’s reading and the National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on the “Etiology” sections for each type of schizophrenia. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, focus on the text below the subheading “Genes and Environment” on pages 6 and 7.

8.8.2 Environmental Influences   Note: The National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction covers this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on the “Etiology” sections for each type of schizophrenia. Focus on the text below the subheading “Genes and Environment” on pages 6 and 7.

8.8.3 Brain Chemistry and Structure   Note: The National Institute of Mental Health reading assigned below the Unit 8 introduction covers this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, focus on the “Etiology” sections for each type of schizophrenia. Focus on the text below the subheading “Different Brain Chemistry and Structure” on pages 7 and 8.

Unit 8 Assessment   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Diagnosis and Treatment: Schizophrenia” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Diagnosis and Treatment: Schizophrenia” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Complete this assessment, which will help test your knowledge related to the diagnoses and treatment of schizophrenia.When you are done, check your work against The Saylor Foundation’s “Diagnosis and Treatment: Schizophrenia Answer Key” (PDF).

 Completing this assessment should take approximately 30 minutes.