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PSYCH401: Abnormal Behavior

Unit 6: Eating and Sleeping Disorders   Like somatoform disorders, eating and sleeping disorders can often be conceptualized as manifestations of psychological issues in physical forms. Unlike somatoform disorders, eating and sleeping disorders are relatively common psychological disorders which impact millions of people every year. In this unit, we will first turn our attention to eating disorders which have potentially grave physical consequences. These disorders particularly impact women, a fact which sheds light on the sociocultural contributors to this disorder. In this first part of unit, we will learn more about the potential sociocultural, genetic, and familial contributors to the development of eating disorders. We will also learn about the major types of eating disorders and how clinicians treat these disorders. We will then turn our attention towards sleeping disorders. We will first discuss normal sleep patterns. Next, we will studythe nature of disrupted sleep and the assessments and treatments associated with various types of sleep disorders.  

Unit 6 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 7.5 hours to complete.

☐     Subunit 6.1: 4.75 hours
    ☐     Introduction: 3.25 hours

☐     Subunit 6.1.1: 0.75 hour

☐     Subunit 6.1.3: 0.75 hour

☐     Subunit 6.2: 0.75 hour

☐     Subunit 6.3: 1.25 hours

☐     Subunit 6.4: 0.75 hour

Unit6 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - identify the potential factors which contribute to the development of eating disorders; - describe the physical consequences of eating disorders and pertinent research findings; - identify the diagnostic criteria for the different types of sleeping and eating disorders; - describe what a normal sleep pattern is and how it changes across the lifespan; and - describe the goals, interventions, and processes associated with treating these disorders.

6.1 Eating Disorders   - Lecture: Yale University: B. Timothy Walsh’s “Lecture 13 – Eating Disorders and Obesity” Link: Yale University: B. Timothy Walsh’s “Lecture 13 – Eating Disorders and Obesity” (HTML, Mp3, FLASH, QuickTime)
 
Instructions: Watch this video lecture on eating disorders and obesity. The lecture begins with some announcements that are not relevant for our course; you may skip to the introduction of Dr. Walsh, which begins at 3:41. This lecture covers the topics outlined in subunits 6.1.1.1–6.1.1.3, 6.1.3.1–6.1.3.3, and 6.2.1.
 
Viewing this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

  • Reading: University of Central Oklahoma: Dr. Caleb W. Lack’s Abnormal Psychology: “Eating Disorders” Link: University of Central Oklahoma: Dr. Caleb W. Lack’s Abnormal Psychology: “Eating Disorders” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this chapter for an overview of eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. This reading covers the topics outlined in subunits 6.1.3.1–6.1.3.3 and 6.2.1.
     
    Studying this reading should take approximately 1 hour.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDervis 3.0 Unported License.
     

  • Reading: National Institute of Mental Health’s “Eating Disorders” Link: National Institute of Mental Health’s “Eating Disorders” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, select “Download PDF,” and read this booklet (14 pages) to learn about the different types of eating disorders, how they are treated, and how males are affected. This reading covers the topics outlined in subunits 6.1.3.1–6.1.3.3 and 6.2.1.

    Studying this reading should take approximately 45 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Tasmania: Dr. Saxby Pridmore’s Download of Psychiatry: “Chapter 14: Eating Disorders” Link: University of Tasmania: Dr. Saxby Pridmore’s Download of Psychiatry: “Chapter 14: Eating Disorders” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Download “Chapter 14: Eating Disorders,” and read this chapter (16 pages) for a diagnostic criteria, contributing factors, and treatment of eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. This reading will cover the topics outlined in subunits 6.1.1, 6.1.1.1–6.1.1.3, 6.1.2, 6.1.3, and 6.2.1.

    Studying this reading should take approximately 45 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Generic license.

6.1.1 Potential Factors That Contribute to the Development of Eating Disorders   6.1.1.1 Sociocultural   Note: The lecture and readings assigned below subunit 6.1 cover this topic.

  • Reading: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare: Dr. Aila Gustafsson et al.’s (2011) “How to Deal with Sociocultural Pressures in Daily Life: Reflections of Adolescent Girls Suffering from Eating Disorders” Link: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare: Dr. Aila Gustafsson et al.’s (2011) “How to Deal with Sociocultural Pressures in Daily Life: Reflections of Adolescent Girls Suffering from Eating Disorders” (PDF) (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Download the PDF version of this article using the button located below the abstract, and read this article (8 pages). Note that you may also click on the button below the abstract titled “View full-text” to read the article in HTML format. This article addresses the sociocultural aspects of eating disorders. Please note that this is a qualitative study which approaches research in a different manner than that of quantitative studies. This study takes a phenomenological approach and addresses the direct perspectives of those diagnoses with eating disorders. 

    Studying this reading should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.1.1.2 Genetics   Note: The lecture and readings assigned below subunit 6.1 cover this topic. You can read about the genetic association with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa on pages 4 and 12, respectively, of Dr. Pridmore’s reading. To cover the topics outlined in 6.1.1.2 and 6.1.1.3, take approximately 15 minutes to review the information on “Genetic Studies” through “Socio-economic Status” on pages 4–6, “Outcome” on page 8, as well as “Aetiology” through “Outcome” on pages 11 and 12. 

6.1.1.3 Personality Traits   Note: The lecture and readings assigned below subunit 6.1 cover this topic. You can read about personality traits associated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa on page 5 and 12, respectively, of Dr. Pridmore’s reading. 

6.1.2 Physical Consequences of Eating Disorders   Note: Dr. Pridmore’s reading assigned below subunit 6.1 covers this topic. Focus on the “Outcome” sections for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa on pages 8 and 12, respectively. 

6.1.3 Major Types of Eating Disorders: From Diagnosis to Epidemiology   6.1.3.1 Anorexia Nervosa   Note: The lecture and readings assigned below subunit 6.1 cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review Section 3, titled “Anorexia Nervosa.” For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review pages 3–10. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, review pages 4 and 5 for information on anorexia nervosa. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources. 

6.1.3.2 Bulimia Nervosa   Note: The lecture and readings assigned below subunit 6.1 cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review Section 4, titled “Bulimia Nervosa.” For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review pages 10–13. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, review page 5 for information on bulimia nervosa. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources

6.1.3.3 Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified   Note: The lecture and readings assigned below subunit 6.1 cover this topic. For Dr. Lack’s reading, review Section 5, titled “Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified,” Section 6, titled “Binge-Eating Disorder,” and Section 7, titled “Rumination Disorder.” For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, review the brief info on binge-eating on page 13. For the National Institute of Mental Health reading, review the information on binge-eating on page 6. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

6.2 Treatment of Eating Disorders   6.2.1 Forms of Treatment   Note: The lecture andthe readings assigned beneath subunit 6.1 cover this topic. This information is found in the “empirically supported treatment” section for the Dr. Lack reading. For Dr. Pridmore’s reading, focus on the treatment information for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa on pages 9 and 10 as well as 13, respectively. For the National Institute for Mental Health reading, this information is found on pages 6–9. Take approximately 15 minutes to review these resources.

6.2.2 Prognosis in Treatment of Disorders   - Reading: Prognosis in Treatment of Disorders The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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6.2.3 Comorbidities of Eating Disorders   - Reading: Dr. Mercedes Borda Más, Dr. Inmaculada Torres Pérez, and Dr. Carmen Del Río Sánchez’s (2008) “Dysthymia in Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa” Link: Dr. Mercedes Borda Más, Dr. Inmaculada Torres Pérez, and Dr. Carmen Del Río Sánchez’s (2008) “Dysthymia in Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read this article (12 pages), which addresses comorbidity issues with eating disorders. 

 Studying this reading should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

6.3 Sleep Disorders   6.3.1 Insomnia   - Web Media: University of Maryland Medical Center: Ellen Beth Levitt’s Interview with Dr. Steven Scharf on “Sleep and Insomnia: Part I and Part II” Link: University of Maryland Medical Center: Ellen Beth Levitt’s Interview with Dr. Steven Scharf on “Sleep and Insomnia: Part I and Part II” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Select the videos titled “Sleep and Insomnia” from the playlist, and watch Part I and Part II. In these videos, Ellen Beth Levitt interviews Dr. Steven Scharf and discusses the sleep disorder of insomnia. These videos will cover the topics outlined in subunits 6.3.1.1–6.3.1.3, 6.3.2.1, 6.4.1–6.4.3, as well as any inclusive subunits.

 Watching these videos and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 45 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

6.3.1.1 Circadian Rhythms   Note: The web media assigned below subunit 6.3.1 covers this topic. For information on circadian rhythms focus on the first “Sleep and Insomnia” interview (14:37 minutes). In this video, Dr. Scharf also gives strategies of how to get acclimated to your circadian rhythm, especially if you have a schedule (i.e., working a night shift or having a job that lends itself to sleep deprivation) that is in opposition to your natural circadian rhythm. To cover the topics outlined in subunits 6.3.1.1 through 6.3.1.3, review the first 15 minutes of the first interview. 

6.3.1.2 Stages of Sleep   Note: The web media assigned below subunit 6.3.1 covers this topic. Focus on Part I of the lecture for a discussion on stages of sleep. 

6.3.1.3 REM Sleep   Note: The web media assigned below subunit 6.3.1 covers this topic. Focus on Part I of the lecture for a discussion on REM sleep. 

6.3.2 Dyssomnias: From Diagnosis to Epidemiology   6.3.2.1 Primary Insomnia   Note: The web media assigned below subunit 6.3.1 covers this topic. For a definition of and discussion on insomnia, make sure to focus on Part II of the interview, titled “Sleep and Insomnia” (12 minutes). Dr. Scharf also discusses treatments of insomnia, which is covered further in subunit 6.4. Take approximately 15 minutes to review Part II of the interview. 

6.3.2.2 Primary Hypersomnia   - Reading: Primary Hypersomnia The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

6.3.2.3 Narcolepsy   - Reading: Narcolepsy The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

6.3.2.4 Breathing-Related Disorder   - Reading: Breathing-Related Disorder The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

6.3.2.5 Circadian Rhythm Disorder   - Reading: Circadian Rhythm Disorder The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

6.3.3 Parasomnias: From Diagnosis to Epidemiology   - Reading: Parasomnias: From Diagnosis to Epidemiology The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

6.3.3.1 Nightmare Disorder   - Reading: Nightmare Disorder The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

6.3.3.2 Sleep Terror Disorder   - Reading: Sleep Terror Disorder The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

6.3.3.3 Sleepwalking Disorder   - Reading: Sleepwalking Disorder The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

6.4 Treatment   6.4.1 Cognitive/Behavioral Recommendations   - Reading: University of Maryland Medical Center’s Sleep Disorder Center: “Sleep Hygiene: Helpful Hints to Help You Sleep” and “Treatment of Insomnia” Link: University of Maryland Medical Center’s Sleep Disorder Center: “Sleep Hygiene: Helpful Hints to Help You Sleep” (HTML) and “Treatment of Insomnia” (HTML)

   
 Instructions: First, read “Sleep Hygiene: Helpful Hints to Help You
Sleep.” Next, read the brief introductory paragraph for “Treatment
of Insomnia,” and click on the individual links titled “Cognitive
Therapy” and “Simple Things to Try When You Can’t Sleep.” Note that
some or even many individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for sleep
disorders may still struggle with sleep even after these
recommendations have been implemented successfully. For this reason,
doctors and psychologists often recommend a combined
medication-therapy approach to treat patients with more chronic
issues surrounding sleep.   
    
 Studying these readings should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

6.4.2 Relaxation Exercises   - Web Media: University of Maryland Medical Center’s Sleep Disorder Center: “Relaxation Techniques” Link: University of Maryland Medical Center’s Sleep Disorder Center: “Relaxation Techniques” (HTML and WMA Audio)
 
Instructions: Read about various relaxation techniques, and click on the hyperlinks to listen to one of the audio tapes associated with the listed relaxation techniques. This will help you understand the nature and practice of using relaxation techniques, a common recommendation for dealing with sleep issues.

 Studying this reading and exploring the audio of one relaxation
technique should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above

6.4.3 Drug Treatment   Note: The web media assigned below subunit 6.3.1 covers this topic. In particular, focus on the end of Part II of the interview, titled “Sleep and Insomnia,” in which Dr. Scharf discusses various treatments for insomnia including drug therapy.