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PSYCH302A: Lifespan Development

Unit 4: Adolescent Development   Child development and adolescent development are not necessarily distinct from one another; many of the processes that begin to take place toward later childhood (especially in terms of cognitive and personality development) will continue throughout adolescence. This is important to keep in mind, as in this unit, we focus on developmental changes and issues that are especially important if not unique to adolescence. As is well-known, adolescent development is characterized by rapid physical changes, including inward and outward signs of puberty; it is also marked by significant changes in the physical structure of the brain. Also, despite the continuity from childhood in some aspects of cognitive development, there are also some rather sudden changes in this domain. For example, as we will consider in-depth in one subunit, these changes often give way to shifts in how individuals think about moral dilemmas.  

It is important to note that while adolescent development does involve a number of changes, these changes typically follow a systematic, or orderly, pattern. We have become increasingly aware of these patterns thanks to the recent discoveries concerning the physical changes that occur during this time (i.e., puberty) and the different psychological changes that these bring about.

As in the unit on child development, we focus in turn on development in the physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional domains. 

Unit 4 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 15.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 4.1: 5.5 hours

☐    Subunit 4.2: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 4.3: 8.5 hours

Unit4 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - describe the physical changes in the brain that occur during adolescence; - discuss and explain the major physical changes taking place during puberty; - describe and explain Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, especially as it relates to changes in cognition during adolescence; - discuss some of the reactions to Kohlberg’s ideas; - discuss whether there are gender differences in moral development and moral judgments; - describe the development of the adolescent personality, using Erikson’s stages; - explain how characteristic features of adolescents’ cognition impact their peer relations; - discuss whether puberty is occurring at earlier ages than in past generations; - describe the causes and developmental impacts of early versus late adolescent maturation in adolescents;  - discuss the development of the mature sex drive in adolescents; and - discuss the problematic issues of adolescence, including parental conflict, sexual assault and dating violence, juvenile delinquency, and substance abuse.

4.1 Physical Development: The Changes of Puberty   4.1.1 Hormonal Changes: Increased Growth Hormone   - Reading: BBC’s Science: Human Body and Mind: “Puberty” Link: BBC’s Science: Human Body and Mind: “Puberty” (HTML and Adobe Flash)

 Instructions: After clicking on the link above, you will see a
number of options for pages with information about puberty on the
right side of your screen. Read the pages listed under “Facts and
Features” on the right side of the page from “Growth” to “Sex.” When
you’ve finished the page on “Sex,” in the box on the right-hand side
of that page, click on the “puberty demo” (under “Interactive body”)
for an interactive demonstration of the changes that take place at
puberty. Note that this covers the material you need to know for
subunits 4.1.1-4.1.4.  

 Reading and interacting with this resource should take
approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes.   

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.2 Height Changes and Weight Changes   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.1.1. This will provide a good overview of the gross physical changes associated with puberty.

4.1.3 Production of Sex Hormones   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.1.1. You should obtain a good overview of the onset of the production of sex hormones during puberty.

4.1.4 Ages of Normal Onset: Females versus Males   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.1.1. Be sure you understand that there are individual differences in the onset of puberty.

4.1.5 The Timing of Puberty   4.1.5.1 Historical Shifts in the Timing of Puberty   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Puberty” Link: Wikipedia: “Puberty” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read all parts of section 5 of the article
(“Variations”), which includes information on historical shifts
toward earlier puberty and the various factors that may contribute
to individual differences in the timing of puberty, as well as
broader population shifts. Note that some of the specific details
about factors influencing puberty are not fully empirically
supported; however, this article is important because it highlights
the broad array of factors that may contribute to pubertal timing.  

 Reading this resource should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: The article above is released under a [Creative
Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML). You can
find the original Wikipedia version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puberty) (HTML).

4.1.5.2 Early vs. Late Maturing Females   - Reading: The University of Michigan Health System: Kyla Boyse and Randall Phelps’s “Precocious Puberty” and Wikipedia: “Delayed Puberty” Links: The University of Michigan Health System: Kyla Boyse and Randall Phelps’s “Precocious Puberty” (HTML) and Wikipedia: “Delayed Puberty” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the links above, and read the webpages in their entirety for an understanding of the etiology, symptoms, and consequences of early and delayed puberty. Note that “early puberty” may include “precocious puberty” due to serious medical issues as well as the general early onset of puberty. As you read these pages, consider the social factors that may influence the ways in which boys and girls experience early and late puberty differently. Note that these readings cover the material you need to know for subunits 4.1.5.2 and 4.1.5.3.

 Reading these two resources should take approximately 1 hour.   
    
 Terms of Use: The article above is released under a [Creative
Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML). You can
find the original Wikipedia version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delayed_puberty) (HTML).

4.1.5.3 Early vs. Late Maturing Males   Note: This subunit is also covered by the readings assigned beneath subunit 4.1.5.2.

  • Reading: The National Research Center for Women & Families: Diana Zuckerman’s “Boys to Men” and Science Daily’s “Earlier, Later Puberty May Trigger Aggression in Boys, Researchers Find” Link: The National Research Center for Women & Families: Diana Zuckerman’s “Boys to Men” (HTML) and Science Daily’s “Earlier, Later Puberty May Trigger Aggression in Boys, Researchers Find” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Click on the links above, and read the webpages in full for an understanding of the etiology and symptoms of early puberty and recent research into the effects of early and late pubertal development in boys. The study is an example of the biological influence of late puberty on aggression, but keep in mind social factors may also influence these outcomes.

    Reading these two resources should take approximately 45 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.6 Brain Development   - Reading: Centers for Disease Control: Adolescent and School Health Section’s Adolescent Health Publications & Resources: “The Teenage Brain: A Work in Progress” Link: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Adolescent and School Health Section’s Adolescent Health Publications & Resources: “The Teenage Brain: A Work in Progress” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above, and then under “Cognitive Development,” click on the link to access the PDF of the listed reading. Read only the Summary and Key Findings of the full report (pages 11-14 of the PDF, or 1-4 of the report itself). As you read, center on how actual physical changes in the brains of adolescents affect their everyday thought processes. For instance, what are the implications of brain maturation for adolescents’ impulse control and organization abilities? 

 Studying this resource should take approximately 45 minutes.   

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.2 Cognitive Development in Adolescence: A Focus on Moral Understanding   - Lecture: iTunes U: Missouri State University: Great Ideas of Psychology: Professor Todd Daniel’s “Moral Development" Link: iTunes U: Missouri State University: Great Ideas of Psychology: Professor Todd Daniel’s “Moral Development” (iTunes U)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above to access iTunes U, scroll down to the lecture titled “Moral Development” (2/12/10), and select “View in iTunes”. Be sure to view the entire lecture. Note that this resource covers the material you need to know for subunits 4.2.1-4.2.4.

 Watching this lecture should take approximately 45 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.1 Kohlberg’s Theory and Stages of Moral Development   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 4.2.The first part of the lecture provides an overview of Kohlberg’s thinking.

4.2.2 Preconventional Stage: Punishment versus Obedience and Instrumental Hedonism   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 5.6. These two substages are about first learning “the rules” and then starting to understand how the rules apply to “me.”

4.2.3 Conventional Stage: Approve Orientation and Law and Order Orientation   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 4.2. Pay particular attention to the concept of the “good boy/girl” and the development of a concept of the role of rules in the context of society as a whole.

4.2.4 Postconventional Stage: Social Contract Morality and Individual Conscious/Principles   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 4.2. These are Kohlberg’s highest levels of moral development.

4.2.5 Gilligan’s Response to Kohlberg   - Reading: AdultLearnerCharacteristics: Carol Gilligan’s “Gilligan’s Moral Development” Link: AdultLearnerCharacteristics: Carol Gilligan’s “Gilligan’s Moral Development” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read this article to learn about Carol Gilligan’s take on moral development and how it compares to Lawrence Kohlberg’s views in terms of theory background, research basis, and implications for how moral orientations are shaped and evolve over time. Note that this article covers the material you need to know for subunits 4.2.5 through 4.2.7.
 
Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Carol Gilligan, and the original version can be found here.

4.2.6 Ethics of Care   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.2.5. Focus in particular on the section called, “The Care/Justice Dichotomy.”

4.2.7 Do Women’s Moral Judgments Differ from Those of Men?   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.2.5. Exploring this question is the underlying issue of the article. Read the entire webpage for a good understanding of this important issue.

4.3 Personality and Socio-Emotional Development   4.3.1 Ego-Centrism: Imaginary Audience and Personal Fable   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Egocentrism” and “Personal Fable” Link: Wikipedia: “Egocentrism” and “Personal Fable” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the first link above, then scroll down to and read the section “In Adolescence” for an overview of egocentrism in adolescence. Also click on the link above or within the Egocentrism article to learn more about the personal fables that adolescents create. You may recognize the term egocentrism from your readings on Piaget. Pay attention to the ways in which these constructs initially stemmed from Piagetian theory.

 Studying these two articles should take approximately 1 hour.   
    
 Terms of Use: The article above is released under a [Creative
Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML). You can
find the original Wikipedia version of these articles
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egocentrism#In_adolescence) and
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_fable) (HTML).

4.3.2 Erikson’s Adolescent Stage and Marcia’s Extensions   4.3.2.1 Identity versus Role Confusion   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development” Link: Wikipedia: “Erik Erikson” and “Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development” (PDF)

 Instructions: Review the above reading from subunit 3.3.3, focusing
on the adolescent stage of identity versus role confusion. This is
the central conflict of the teen years, when individuals are
experimenting, exploring, and trying to solidify their sense of
self.  

 Reviewing this resource should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: The article above is released under a [Creative
Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML). You can
find the original Wikipedia version of these articles
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_Erikson) and
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erikson%27s_stages_of_psychosocial_development)
(HTML).

4.3.2.2 Marcia’s Stages of Identity Development   - Reading: Introduction to Psychology: “Adolescence: Developing Independence and Identity” Link: “Adolescence: Developing Independence and Identity” (PDF)

 Instructions: Click on the link above, and scroll down to the
section titled, “Social Development in Adolescence.” Read this
section in its entirety, focusing on Marcia’s elaboration of
Erikson’s ideas about identity formation. Note that this reading
covers the material you need to know for subunits
4.3.2.2.1-4.3.2.2.4.  

 Reading this section should take approximately 15 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: The textbook above is released under a [Creative
Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/)
(HTML) <span
style="color: rgb(35, 35, 35); font-family: Arial;">without
attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or
licensee.</span>

4.3.2.2.1 Identity Diffusion   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.2.2. Focus in particular on the description of identity diffusion, which is when a person has neither committed nor is exploring with respect to identity formation.

4.3.2.2.2 Identity Foreclosure   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.2.2. Focus in particular on the description of identity foreclosure, which is when a person has committed without exploration.

4.3.2.2.3 Identity Moratorium   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.2.2. Focus in particular on the description of identity moratorium, which is when a person is in exploration but has not committed.

4.3.2.2.4 Identity Achievement   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.2.2. Focus in particular on the description of identity achievement, which is when a person has both explored and committed.

4.3.3 Self-Esteem in Adolescence   - Reading: ED.gov U.S. Department of Education: “My Child’s Academic Success: Confidence – Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence” Link: ED.gov U.S. Department of Education: “My Child’s Academic Success: Confidence – Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence” (HTML)

 Instructions: Although directed toward parents, this and the
resource in the next subunit provide strong research-based
information on adolescents’ socio-emotional functioning. After
clicking on the link above, read the webpage in full, giving
attention particularly to the information about gender differences
in self-esteem and Harter’s theory of self-esteem.  

 Reading this resource should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.3.4 Peer Relations in Adolescence   4.3.4.1 Adolescent Friendship   - Reading: ED.gov U.S. Department of Education: “My Child’s Academic Success: Friendships – Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence” Link: ED.gov U.S. Department of Education: “My Child’s Academic Success: Friendships – Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence” (HTML)

 Instructions: How did the basis and nature of your friendships
changes as you progressed from early childhood to middle childhood
to adolescence? Click on the link above and read the webpage in its
entirety to learn about typical peer relations – including
friendship formation and the influence of peers versus parents –
during early adolescence.  

 Reading this resource should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.3.4.2 Sexuality in Adolescence   - Reading: The University of Denver: The Relationship Center’s version of W. Furman and E. A. Wehner’s “Adolescent Romantic Relationships: A Developmental Perspective” Link: The University of Denver: The Relationship Center’s version of W. Furman and E. A. Wehner’s “Adolescent Romantic Relationships: A Developmental Perspective” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above to access the University of Denver website, and then scroll down to the article titled “Adolescent Romantic Relationships: A Developmental Perspective.” Click on the hyperlink for the title to open the PDF file. Read the entire article (18 pages), paying special attention to the application of attachment theory, covered earlier in this course, to adolescent relationships. Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 4.3.4.2-4.3.4.4.

 Studying this resource should take approximately 2 hours.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.3.4.3 Moving from Same Sex Friendships to Opposite Sex Friendships   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.4.2. This is a milestone in adolescent development. Be sure you have a good understanding of the important factors in this transition.

4.3.4.4 From Friendship to Dating   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.4.2. Life becomes more interesting – and challenging – as the stakes of friendship get higher.

4.3.4.5 Sexual Assault and Dating Violence   - Reading: The University of Denver: The Relationship Center’s versions of Flanagan and Furman’s “Sexual Victimization and Perceptions of Close Relationships in Adolescence” Link: The University of Denver: The Relationship Center’s versions of Flanagan and Furman’s “Sexual Victimization and Perceptions of Close Relationships in Adolescence” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above to access the University of Denver’s website, and then scroll down to the lecture titled “Sexual Victimization and Perceptions of Close Relationships in Adolescence.” Click on the hyperlink for the title to open the PDF file. Read the text in its entirety (11 pages) for an understanding of violence in adolescent relationships.

 Reading this resource should take approximately 1 hour.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.3.4.6 Kinsey’s Sexual Behavior Research   - Reading: The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction: “Alfred Kinsey’s 1948 and 1953 Studies” Link: The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction: “Alfred Kinsey’s 1948 and 1953 Studies” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above, and read the webpage for a summary of a number of Alfred Kinsey’s findings.

 Studying this summary should take approximately 1 hour.   
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.3.5 Family Relations   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Adolescence” and ED.gov U.S. Department of Education: “My Child’s Academic Success: Communication – Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence” Link: Wikipedia: “Adolescence” (PDF) and ED.gov U.S. Department of Education: “My Child’s Academic Success: Communication – Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence” (HTML)

 Instructions: Click on the first link above and scroll down to the
section entitled “Family” within the broader section “Relationships”
for an overview of how relationships with parents and siblings tend
to change at adolescence. Click on the second link and read the
webpage in its entirety to see the practical applications of
research on adolescent development for improving child-parent
communication.  

 Reading these resources should take approximately 45 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: The article above is released under a [Creative
Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML). You can
find the original Wikipedia version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolescence) (HTML).

4.3.6 Juvenile Delinquency   - Reading: The National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention: “Truancy Prevention” and “Substance Abuse, Violence, Mental Health, and Academic Success” Link: The National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention: “Truancy Prevention” (HTML) and “Substance Abuse, Violence, Mental Health, and Academic Success” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above, and read the webpages in their entirety for an understanding of the relationships between delinquency and substance abuse and what research points to in terms of effective prevention. As you read these articles, consider the Freudian, Eriksonian, and Piagetian stages adolescents are considered to be in and how these may or may not influence delinquent behavior. Note that these readings cover the material you need to know for subunits 4.3.5 and 4.3.6.

 Reading these resources should take approximately 1 hour.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.3.7 Illicit Substances   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 4.3.6. Focus in particular on the potential cultural influences on how intelligence is defined and measured.