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PSYCH302A: Lifespan Development

Unit 3: Child Development   While the development process is unique to every individual, there are certain milestones that children reach in the course of normal development in their first few years. This unit begins by identifying these milestones and other expectations, with a focus on motor development and discussing what it means when these milestones are delayed or expectations are not met. It is important to note that these are just expectations – not requirements – for normal development.

The unit then turns to cognitive development or changes in how individuals think and gain knowledge over time. This unit will focus on cognitive development in childhood (birth to about 11 years), but there is a growing body of literature on cognitive development in adolescence and adulthood, some of which will be addressed in later units. In childhood, cognitive processes are only beginning to take shape; the way they develop can dramatically affect our cognitive abilities as we further mature. Within the subunit on cognitive development, there will be special foci on the development of intelligence and of language. Intelligence, which is typically measured through an IQ (intelligence quotient), is reportedly a stable measure. But since we clearly gain more intelligence over our lifespan, how does the IQ remain stable over time? This is one of the key questions explored herein. Language is also one of the most complex human phenomena that psychologists study. When we talk about language in this unit, we do not just mean the audible aspect of it (though that is certainly a part of it) – we also mean the written word, grammar, sentence construction, and, of course, our ability to communicate meaning with it. Please note that many of the theories and explanations surrounding language development that we will learn in this unit have not been completely substantiated. You should ask yourself the extent to which these theories accurately and fully explain language development, identifying where they seem to fall short.

The last major subunit will concern personality and socio-emotional development. Psychologists find it difficult to accurately and consistently test for personality traits and continue to refine their theories about the key elements and developmental trends of personality. As a result, little in the subfield of personality development is set in stone. Personality development research generally begins with the concept of infant temperament (or the way a baby behaves at an early age). Many psychologists are interested in how well early temperament predicts later personality traits. As you will learn, the relationship of temperament to an adult’s personality is tenuous at best, in part because of the various environmental factors contributing to personality development, from the type of early attachment bonds formed with caregivers to long-term exposure to a particular parenting style. 

Unit 3 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 24.75 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 3.2: 10.75 hours

☐    Subunit 3.3: 12 hours

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: 
- discuss the motor developmental milestones and expectations across the first five (5) years of development; - discuss the major Piagetian concepts in cognitive development; - define and explain Piaget’s stages of cognitive development; - discuss the neo-Piagetian response to Piaget’s theory; - describe Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of cognitive development; - describe the information-processing explanation of cognitive development; - discuss the concept of intelligence, including what it is, how it is measured, the major theoretical concepts, and the modern ideas about multiple intelligences; - identify and describe the major external factors that affect cognitive development; - compare and contrast the nativistic, behavioral/cognitive, functionalist, and learning stage theories of language; - describe the typical course of language development, including timing and specific language behaviors; - describe the differences between cooing and babbling; - compare holophrastic and telegraphic speech; - explain the difference between and importance of morphemes and phonemes; - discuss the possibility of sex difference in language acquisition; - discuss the impact of bilingualism on cognitive development; - discuss temperament, including how it is measured and how it relates to personality; - discuss the influences of culture and heredity on temperament; - describe and explain Freud’s psychodynamic theory of personality development; - explain and critique Erikson’s psychodynamic theory of personality development; - describe and explain object relation theories of personality development; - describe and explain the attachment theories of personality development; - compare and contrast the psychodynamic, object relations, and attachment theories of personality development; - differentiate the four types of parenting styles described by Baumrind in terms of their defining characteristics and effects on children; and - describe the developmental processes associated with play behavior.

3.1 Physical Development: A Focus on Motor Development   3.1.1 Developmental Milestones and Age Expectations   - Reading: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: “Developmental Milestones” Link: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s “Developmental Milestones” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This webpage contains links to important developmental ages and their associated developmental milestones. After clicking on the link above to open the website in your browser, use the links on the left under “Learn the Signs at Home” to review the milestones for the ages of 2 months through 5 years. While this resource focuses on developments in several domains, focus particularly on the milestones of physical development and how they interact with developments in other areas. For instance, how might learning to grasp objects connect to the changes in cognitive and social skills? Subunit 3.2.8 will cover language development in depth, but this resource will introduce you to the changes in language development.

 Studying this resource should take approximately 1 hour.  

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3.1.2 Processes of Motor Development   - Reading: Tufts Open Courseware: Ludwig von Hahn’s “A Look at Motor Development in Children” Link: Tufts Open Courseware: Ludwig von Hahn’s “A Look at Motor Development in Children” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above to access the lecture. Read the entire lecture, which will introduce you to early development of motor skills and will help define and distinguish between gross and fine motor skills. Note that this lecture covers the material you need to know for subunits 2.1 and 2.2.

 Studying this lecture should take approximately 1 hour.  
    
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3.2 Cognitive Development: Major Theories of General Development, Intelligence, and Language   3.2.1 Piagetian Concepts in Cognitive Development   - Reading: Tufts Open Courseware: Anne Hurley’s “Cognitive Development: Overview” Link: Tufts Open Courseware: Anne Hurley’s “Cognitive Development: Overview” (HTML)

 Instructions: When learning about Piagetian theory, you will be
introduced to a number of familiar terms that may be used in
unfamiliar ways. In order to acquaint yourself with the terminology,
click on the link above to access the lecture. It will provide an
overview of Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, as well
as key terms used in that theory. Scroll down to section *II.
Various Theorists of Development* and read the entry on Jean Piaget.
Then read section *III. Important Piagetian Concepts* in its
entirety, including subsections A and B. This lecture covers the
material you need to know for subunits 3.2.2.1-3.2.1.9. It will also
be a useful resource to consult while watching the video lectures in
subunit 3.2.1.10, as it introduces the material covered in more
depth in subunits 3.2.1.10-3.2.1.13 and 3.2.2.1-3.2.2.4.  

 Studying this lecture should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Tufts OCW material is licensed under a [Creative
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3.2.1.1 Scheme   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. Focus on the definition of “scheme” in the section entitled, “III. Important Piagetian Concepts.”

3.2.1.2 Assimilation   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. Focus on the definition of “assimilation” in the section entitled, “III. Important Piagetian Concepts.”

3.2.1.3 Accommodation   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. Focus on the definition of accommodation in the section entitled, “III. Important Piagetian Concepts.”

3.2.1.4 Organization   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. Focus on the definition of organization in the section entitled, “III. Important Piagetian Concepts.”

3.2.1.5 Adaptation   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. Focus on the definition of adaptation in the section entitled, “III. Important Piagetian Concepts.”

3.2.1.6 Equilibration   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. Focus on the definition of equilibration in the subsection entitled, “A. Piaget’s Four Factors that Influence Cognitive Behavior.”

3.2.1.7 Object Permanence   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. Focus on the definition of object permanence in the subsection entitled, “1. Sensorimotor Period (0-2 years).”

3.2.1.8 Egocentric/Egocentrism   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. Focus on the definition of egocentric in the subsection entitled, “2. Preoperational Period (0-2 years).”

3.2.1.9 Conservation   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1. The term conservation refers to the understanding that changing the appearance of an object does not necessarily change the physical properties of that object; for example, rolling a ball of clay into a “worm” changes its shape but not its weight. The concept of conservation is introduced in the subsection entitled, “2. Preoperational Period (0-2 years),” and important changes in the ability to conserve are noted in subsection entitled, “3. Concrete Operations Period (7-11 years).”

3.2.1.10 Piagetian and neo-Piagetian Theories   - Lecture: iTunes U: UMBC PSYC 200: Dr. David Schultz’s “Piaget Part 1” and “Piaget Part 2” Links: iTunes U: UMBC PSYC 200: Dr. David Schultz’s “Piaget Part 1”and “Piaget Part 2” (iTunes U)
 
Instructions: Scroll down the webpage to lectures 13 and 14, and select “View in iTunes” to launch the lectures. Watch the above lectures for an explanation of Piaget’s ideas and theories. These lectures will provide a foundation for you to understand more complicated aspects of Piaget’s theories and the theories of the neo-Piagetians that followed. In particular, note the information on constructivism. Note these lectures cover the material you need to know for subunits 3.2.1.10-3.2.1.13 and subunits 3.2.2.1-3.2.2.4. They also elaborate and illustrate many of the concepts introduced in subunits 3.2.1.1-3.2.1.9. 

 Viewing these lectures should take approximately 1 hour.  
    
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3.2.1.11 Seriation   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1.10. In particular, note the information on seriation.

3.2.1.12 Animism   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1.10. In particular, note the information on animism.

3.2.1.13 Centration   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1.10. In particular, note the information on centration.

3.2.2 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development   3.2.2.1 Sensorimotor Stage: Birth to Two Years   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1.10. In particular, note the information on the sensorimotor stage of development.

3.2.2.2 Preoperational Stage: Two to Seven Years   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1.10. Pay particular attention to Piaget’s ideas on the preoperational stage of development.

3.2.2.3 Concrete Operational Stage: Seven to Eleven Years   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1.10. Pay particular attention to Piaget’s ideas on the concrete operational stage of development.

3.2.2.4 Formal Operational Stage: Eleven Years and Older   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.1.10. Pay particular attention to Piaget’s ideas on the formal operational stage of development.

3.2.3 Neo-Piagetian Theories   3.2.3.1 Case’s Theory   - Reading: Education.com: Nancy Jackson’s “Neo-Piagetian Theories of Development” Link: Education.com: Nancy Jackson’s “Neo-Piagetian Theories of Development” (HTML)
 
Instructions: After clicking on the link above, read the entire webpage. As you are reading, consider the ways in which neo-Piagetian theories differ from Piaget’s theory, with special emphasis on Case’s theory. Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.2.3.1 and 3.2.3.2.

 Reading this webpage should take approximately 1 hour.  
    
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3.2.3.2 Fischer’s Theory   Note: This subunit is also covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.3.

  • Reading: Harvard Graduate School of Education: The Dynamic Development Lab: L. Todd Rose and Kurt Fischer's “Dynamic Systems Theories” Link: Harvard Graduate School of Education: The Dynamic Development Lab: L. Todd Rose and Kurt Fischer’s “Dynamic Systems Theories” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link above, and then select the following link to download the PDF file: Rose, L. Todd, Fischer, Kurt W., (2009) Dynamic Systems Theories. In Shweder, Richard A., (Ed.), The Child: An Encyclopedic Companion. pp 264–265. The University Of Chicago Press. Read the section titled “Dynamic Systems Theories,” which starts on the bottom left side of page 264 and continues until the section called “Psychoanalytic Theories” on the bottom of page 265. As you are reading, consider the ways in which neo-Piagetian theories differ from Piaget’s theory.

    Reading this resource should take approximately 15 minutes.
     
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3.2.4 Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory   3.2.4.1 Biology versus Cultural Factors   - Reading: Muskingum College: Department of Psychology’s “Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky” Link: Muskingum College: Department of Psychology: Christina Gallagher’s “Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky” (HTML)
 
Instructions: After clicking on the link above, read the page in its entirety for a description of Vygotsky and his socio-cultural theory. Pay special attention to the comparison of Vygotsky and Piaget’s theories. Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.2.4.1-3.2.4.4.

 Reading this webpage should take approximately 15 minutes.  
    
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3.2.4.2 The Zone of Proximal Development   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.4.1. Note that Vygotsky’s ideas about the concept of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).

3.2.4.3 What Determines a ZPD (Zone of Proximal Development)   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.4.1. Note that Vygotsky’s ideas about how the ZPD is identified.

3.2.4.4 Scaffolding   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.4.1. Pay special attention to the important concept of scaffolding.

3.2.5 Information Processing Approach   3.2.5.1 Computers versus the Brain   - Reading: Valdosta State University: Educational Psychology Interactive: Stacey T. Lutz and William G. Huitt’s “Information Processing and Memory: Theory and Applications” Link: Valdosta State University: Educational Psychology Interactive: Stacey T. Lutz and William G. Huitt’s “Information Processing and Memory: Theory and Applications” (PDF)
 
Instructions: After clicking on the link above, click on the link titled “more in-depth paper” near the top of the page to access the PDF file. Read the entire paper, but focus especially on the “Development of Memory and Information Processing” section. You will recognize some of the concepts from earlier in this class, such as object permanence. Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.2.5.1-3.2.5.3.

 Studying this resource should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes.   
    
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3.2.5.2 Continuous Processing   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.5.1. Pay particular attention to the section entitled, “Information Processing and Memory,” which starts on page 10.

3.2.5.3 Domain-General Approach versus Domain-Specific Approach   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.5.1. Focus in particular on the section called, “Encoding,” on page 10.

3.2.6 Intelligence   3.2.6.1 What Is Intelligence?   - Lecture: iTunes U: Great Ideas in Psychology: Missouri State University: Todd Daniel’s “Cognition – History of Intelligence Testing” Link: iTunes U: Great Ideas in Psychology: Missouri State University: Todd Daniel’s “Cognition – History of Intelligence Testing” (iTunes U)
 
Instructions: After opening iTunes, scroll down to the lecture titled “Cognition History of Intelligence Testing” (4/4/10), and click on “View in iTunes.” Listen to the above lecture in its entirety for an overview of the origins of intelligence testing. Note that this lecture covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.2.6.1-3.2.6.5.

 Watching this lecture should take approximately 45 minutes.  

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3.2.6.2 Measuring Intelligence: How Do We Measure It and What Are We Actually Measuring?   Note: This subunit is also covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.6.1.

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Great Idea in Psychology: Missouri State University: Todd Daniel’s “Cognition – Race, Genetics, and Intelligence” Link: iTunes U: Great Idea in Psychology: Missouri State University: Todd Daniel’s “Cognition – Race, Genetics, and Intelligence” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: After opening iTunes, scroll down to the lecture titled “Cognition—Race, Genetics, and Intelligence” (10/11/10), and click on “View in iTunes.” Listen to this lecture in its entirety to continue to learn about measuring intelligence and the complications and controversies involved. Note that this lecture covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.2.6.2-3.2.6.5. 

    Listening to this lecture should take approximately 45 minutes. 

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.2.6.3 What is an Intelligence Quotient (IQ): Stanford and Binet   Note: This subunit is covered by the lectures assigned beneath subunits 3.2.6.1 and 3.2.6.2. These lectures should provide you with a good understanding of what IQ actually means and is intended to measure.

3.2.6.4 Influencing Intelligence   Note: This subunit is covered by the lectures assigned beneath subunits 3.2.6.1 and 3.2.6.2. What environmental factors influence performance on intelligence tests? Also, to what extent does it appear that heredity versus the environment influences intelligence, and how might the forces of nature and nurture interact in their influence?

3.2.6.5 Cultural Differences   Note: This subunit is covered by the lectures assigned beneath subunits 3.2.6.1 and 3.2.6.2. Focus in particular on the potential cultural influences on how intelligence is defined and measured.

3.2.6.6 Spearman’s G Factor   - Lecture: iTunes U: Great Ideas in Psychology: Missouri State University: Todd Daniel's “Cognition – Multiple Intelligences and EQ” Link: iTunes U: Great Idea in Psychology: Missouri State University: Todd Daniel’s “Cognition — Multiple Intelligences and EQ” (iTunes U)

 Instructions: Click on the link above to access iTunes U, scroll
down to the lecture titled “Cognition—Multiple Intelligences and EQ”
(10/11/10), and select “View in iTunes” to access the lecture.
Listen to this lecture in its entirety. Consider the different
definitions of intelligence and how they differ from traditional
definitions. Note that this lecture covers the material you need to
know for subunits 3.2.6.6-3.2.6.8.  

 Listening to this lecture should take approximately 25 minutes.   

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3.2.6.7 Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.6.6. Focus in particular on the potential cultural influences on how intelligence is defined and measured.

3.2.6.8 A Case for Emotional Intelligence   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.6.6. What exactly is meant by “emotional intelligence”? Do you believe it is as vital as the traditional concept of intelligence as a cognitive function? Why or why not?

3.2.6.9 Wechsler and the WISC Test   - Reading: Education.com: Timothy Keith's “Weschler Intelligence Test” Link: Education.com: Timothy Keith’s “Weschler Intelligence Test” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the webpage for an overview of the Weschler Intelligence Tests. Pay special attention to the differences between the Weschler and Stanford Binet scales.

 Reading this webpage should take approximately 45 minutes.  
    
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3.2.6.10 The Kaufmann Assessment Battery for Children   - Reading: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Child Trends: “Early Childhood Measures Profiles” Link: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Child Trends: “Early Childhood Measures Profiles” (PDF)
 
Instructions: After following the above link, choose the link titled “Full Report in PDF Format” to download the PDF. Once you have downloaded the PDF, read the sections on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. As you read the descriptions of the measures, consider what you have learned so far about cognitive development and how these tests account for developmental stages. Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.2.6.10-3.2.6.11.

 Reading this resource should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
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3.2.6.11 Bayley Scales of Infant Development   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned for subunit 3.2.6.10. Focus particularly on the potential cultural influences on how intelligence is defined and measured.

3.2.7 Poverty’s Effect on Cognitive Development   - Reading: BioMed Central Public Health: Darci N. Santos, Ana M. O. Assis, Ana C. S. Bastos, Leticia M. Santos, Carlos A. S. T. Santos, Agostino Strina, Matildes S. Prado, Naomar M. Almeida-Filho, Laura C. Rodrigues, and Mauricio L. Barreto’s “Determinants of Cognitive Function in Childhood: A Cohort Study in a Middle Income Context” Link: BioMed Central Public Health: Darci N. Santos, Ana M. O. Assis, Ana C. S. Bastos, Leticia M. Santos, Carlos A. S. T. Santos, Agostino Strina, Matildes S. Prado, Naomar M. Almeida-Filho, Laura C. Rodrigues, and Mauricio L. Barreto’s “Determinants of Cognitive Function in Childhood: A Cohort Study in a Middle Income Context” (HTML or PDF)

 Instructions: Click on the link above to access the article in
HTML. Alternatively, you may view this text as a PDF file by
clicking on “PDF” under “Viewing Options” on the right side of the
page. Read all sections of the article except the “Results” section
(you don’t need to go into the particulars of the statistical
analysis to understand the findings of the study, which are
summarized in the “Discussion”). Notice that the outcome measures
used in the study include the Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale
of Intelligence that you read about earlier.  

 Spend approximately 1 hour with this resource; you should be able
to describe, in general terms, the design of the study and the key
findings.  
    
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3.2.8 Language Development   3.2.8.1 Theories of Language Development   - Reading: Child Language: Jean Peccei’s “Approaches to Language Acquisition” Link: Child Language: Jean Peccei’s “Approaches to Language Acquisition” (HTML)
 
Instructions: After clicking on the link above, read the entire webpage for information on different theories of language acquisition. This reading also covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.2.8.1.1-3.2.8.1.3.

 Reading this webpage should take approximately 1 hour.  
    
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3.2.8.1.1 Nativistic Approach   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.1. Scroll down to the section titled, “NATIVIST,” and read this brief section for an overview of the nativistic approach to language development.

3.2.8.1.2 Behavioral and Cognitive Models   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.1. Focus in particular on the sections entitled, “Child External” and “Child Internal.”

3.2.8.1.3 Functionalist Theory   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.1. Focus in particular on the section entitled, “EMPIRICIST.”

3.2.8.2 The Nature of Language   - Lecture: Kent State University: Kathy Walker and Linda Pallock’s “Language” Link: iTunes U: Kent State University: Kathy Walker and Linda Pallock’s “Language” (iTunes U)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above to access iTunes U, and then select “View in iTunes” for the lecture titled “Language.” Listen to the above lecture on the nature of language in its entirety. This lecture will also discuss what ages tend to correlate with different stages of language development, which you also read about earlier in this course. Note that this lecture covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.2.8.2.1-3.2.8.2.7.

 Listening to this lecture should take approximately 20 minutes.  
    
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3.2.8.2.1 Language at Birth: Hunger, Anger, Pain, Discomfort   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.2. Focus in particular on the discussion of language at birth.

3.2.8.2.2 Cooing versus Babbling   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.2. Try to understand how cooing and babbling help the infant get his or her needs met.

3.2.8.2.3 Echolalia and Expressive Jargon   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.2. This lecture should help explain the statement, “Monkey hear, monkey say.”

3.2.8.2.4 Holophrastic Speech versus Telegraphic Speech   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.2. If you have ever been around a child less than two years old, you should have a good practical understanding of these two interesting language concepts.

3.2.8.2.5 Morpheme versus Phoneme   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.2. This lecture provides an introduction to how linguists describe the structure of language.

3.2.8.2.6 Stages of Language Development   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.2. This lecture will give you a good idea of how language develops over the first few years of life.

3.2.8.2.7 Naming Explosion   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.2.8.2. This lecture describes the fun time in parents’ lives when their young children are acquiring words for things – nouns.

3.2.8.2.8 Language Acquisition and Sex Differences   - Reading: University of Aarhus, Denmark: Center for Semiotics’ version of Brain and Language: Mikkel Wallentin’s “Putative Sex Differences in Verbal Abilities and Language Cortex: A Critical Review” Link: University of Aarhus, Denmark: Center for Semiotics’ version of Brain and Language: Mikkel Wallentin’s “Putative Sex Differences in Verbal Abilities and Language Cortex: A Critical Review” (PDF)
 
Instructions: After clicking on the link above, click on “putative_sex_differences.pdf” to download the PDF. Read section 2: “Sex Differences in the Normal Population” (pages 2-4) in its entirety for a discussion of the similarities and differences in language acquisition found between the sexes. An important take-home point is that statements on sex differences in language are often made with little data to support them.

 Reading this resource should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
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3.2.8.3 Bilingualism   - Reading: Introduction to Psychology: “Communicating with Others: The Development and Use of Language” Link: Introduction to Psychology: “Communicating with Others: The Development and Use of Language” (HTML)

 Instructions: As more and more children are exposed to multiple
languages from their earliest years, many are asking questions about
how this affects children’s language and overall cognitive
development. After clicking on the link above, scroll down to and
read the section entitled “Bilingualism and Cognitive
Development.”  

 Reading this chapter should take approximately 15 minutes.  

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3.2.8.4 Terms for Reference   - Reading: The Wandering Glitch: Andrew Matthews’ “Child Linguistic Development” Link: The Wandering Glitch: Andrew Mathews’ “Child Linguistic Development” (PDF)
 
Instructions: After clicking on the link above, click on “Child Linguistic Development” to download the PDF of the paper. A variety of unfamiliar terms may come up when studying language and language development, and it will likely be helpful to familiarize yourself with the terminology used since you may encounter these terms in the future. Read sections 6 through 10 of this paper (pages 17-26) as well as the glossary for a review of language stages and definitions of terms often used in the study of language development.

 Reading this resource should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes.  
    
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3.3 Personality and Socioemotional Development   3.3.1 Temperament   3.3.1.1 What is Temperament?   - Web Media: Behavioral-Development Initiatives’ “Thomas and Chess on Behavioral Individuality” Link: Behavioral-Development Initiatives’ “Thomas and Chess on Behavioral Individuality” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: After clicking on the link above to open the website in your browser, click on the video, “Thomas and Chess on Behavioral Individuality,” for an introduction to the concept of temperament.

 Watching this video should take approximately 10 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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3.3.1.2 Measuring Temperament   - Reading: Behavioral-Development Initiatives’ “Measuring Temperament” Link: Behavioral-Development Initiatives’ “Measuring Temperament” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above to access the Behavioral – Development Initiatives’ website. Read the webpage in its entirety for an introduction to measuring temperament.

 Studying this resource should take approximately 30 minutes.   
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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3.3.1.3 Thomas and Chess’s Types of Temperament: Easy, Difficult and Slow-To-Warm-Up   - Reading: The American Academy of Pediatrics’ Healthy Children: “How to Understand Your Child’s Temperament” Link: The American Academy of Pediatrics’ Healthy Children: “How to Understand Your Child’s Temperament” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the above webpage for an overview of temperament and a study of how different combinations of nine temperament characteristics often produce three broad categories of temperaments. As you read, consider how differences in temperament might show themselves at different stages of cognitive and social development.

 Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.1.4 Temperament versus Personality   - Reading: Behavioral-Development Initiatives’ “Temperament and Personality” Link: Behavioral-Development Initiatives’ “Temperament and Personality” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this webpage in its entirety for an overview of the relationship between temperament and personality. After you read, consider the ways in which temperament differs from personality and how different personality types might be expressed through different temperaments.

 Reading this webpage should take approximately 15 minutes.  
     
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.1.5 Temperament and Culture   - Reading: Behavioral-Development Initiatives’ “Culture and Temperament” Link: Behavioral-Development Initiatives’ “Culture and Temperament” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the webpage in its entirety to learn about the relationship between temperament and culture.

 Reading this webpage should take approximately 15 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.1.6 The Influence of Heredity on Temperament   - Reading: Behavioral-Development Initiatives’ “Temperament and Behavioral Genetics” Link: Behavioral-Development Initiatives’ “Temperament and Behavioral Genetics” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the webpage in its entirety for a discussion of the influence that heredity has on temperament. To inform your reading, consider what you know about heredity from your readings in Unit 1.

 Reading this webpage should take approximately 15 minutes.   
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.2 Psychodynamic Theories of Personality: Freud   - Lecture: iTunes U: Kent University: Kathy Walker and Linda Pallock’s Child Development – Introduction and Theories: “Psychoanalytic1” Link: iTunes U: Kent University: Kathy Walker and Linda Pallock’s Child Development – Introduction and Theories: “Psychoanalytic1” (iTunes U)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above to access iTunes U, and then select “View in iTunes” for the lecture titled “Psychoanalytic 1.” Listen to this lecture in its entirety for an overview of Freud’s theory of personality development. This lecture covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.3.2.1-3.3.2.9.
 
Listening to this lecture should take approximately 15 minutes.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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3.3.2.1 The Id, Ego, and Superego   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. This overview should give you a good description of Freud’s proposed personality structures and how they compete for “control.”

3.3.2.2 Libido   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. Freud’s theory concentrated on sex and sexual impulses. This is a good overview of how Freud viewed the role of the libido in development.

3.3.2.3 Fixation   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. Freud was more interested in developmental problems than successes. In his theory, fixation is one of the primary causes of developmental issues.

3.3.2.4 Theory of Psychosexual Development   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. As previously stated, Freud’s developmental ideas were based heavily on the role of innate sexual impulses. This lecture provides an overview of his stages of development.

3.3.2.5 Oral Stage   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. For Freud, early development was all about innate biological needs. This lecture discusses the stage characterized by the importance of oral stimulation.

3.3.2.6 Anal Stage   Note: This topic is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. In the Freudian view, control over one’s biological functions was an important developmental issue. This lecture covers the anal stage of psychosexual development.

3.3.2.7 Phallic Stage   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. This phase involves becoming aware of one’s genitals.

3.3.2.8 Latency Stage   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. This lecture discusses the latency stage of Freud’s psychosexual theory, when sexual instincts are relatively low.

3.3.2.9 Genital Stage   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.2. Late in development, Freud thought that the genitals played an important role in the development of “normal” sexual relationships.

3.3.3 Psychodynamic Theories of Personality: Erikson   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Erik Erikson” and “Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development” Link: Wikipedia: “Erik Erikson” and “Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development” (PDF)

 Instructions: First, for an introduction to this key theorist,
click on the “Erik Erikson” link above, and read all sections of the
webpage except “Erikson’s Theory of Personality.” Then, under that
heading, click on “Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development,”
which more fully explicates Erikson’s theory and critiques of it. To
help organize this information, you may wish to read this webpage
and then leave it open as you listen to the lecture below. For now,
focus on the first four stages of Erikson’s theory and the sections
concerning the value and criticisms of the theory; the remaining
stages will be a central focus in the units on adolescence and
adulthood. Note that this reading covers the material you need to
know for subunits 3.3.3.1-3.3.3.5.  

 Reading these resources should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: The article above is released under a [Creative
Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML). You can
find the original Wikipedia version of these articles
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_Erikson) and
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erikson%27s_stages_of_psychosocial_development)
(HTML).
  • Lecture: iTunes U: Kent University: Kathy Walker and Linda Pallock’s Child Development – Introduction and Theories: “Psychoanalytic2” Link: iTunes U: Kent University: Kathy Walker and Linda Pallock’s Child Development – Introduction and Theories: “Psychoanalytic2” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link above to access iTunes U, and then select “View in iTunes” for the lecture titled “Psychoanalytic 2.” Listen to this lecture in its entirety for an overview of Erikson’s theory of personality development in childhood. As you listen to the lecture, consider the ways in which Erikson’s theory differs from Freud’s theory. Note that this lecture covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.3.3.1-3.3.3.7.

    Watching this lecture should take approximately 15 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.3.1 Lifespan Approach to Development   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading and the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.3. Erikson was the first major theorist to consider childhood development as simply the early part of a developmental process that spanned out entire lifetimes.

3.3.3.2 Basic Trust versus Mistrust Stage   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading and the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.3. Infants are 100% dependent on their caregivers. They must learn very early in life to trust that their needs will be met, or their subsequent psychosocial will be affected negatively.

3.3.3.3 Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt Stage   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading and the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.3. This stage is about developing a basic concept of self-control.

3.3.3.4 Initiative versus Guilt Stage   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading and the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.3. Children start asserting their power and influence over their external world.

3.3.3.5 Industry versus Inferiority Stage   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading and the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.3. This is about developing a sense of one’s true self. Children at this stage are developing their self-esteem.

3.3.3.6 Psychosocial Crises and Themes   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading and the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.3. These resources help describe how Erikson viewed the challenges of each psychosocial stage.

3.3.3.7 The Importance of Social Context   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading and the lecture assigned beneath subunit 3.3.3. Erikson believed that development takes place within a social context and not in a vacuum.

3.3.4 Object Relations Theory   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Object Relations Theory” Link: Wikipedia: “Object Relations Theory” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read the entire webpage for an overview of the theory. Note that this reading also covers the material you need to know for subunit 3.3.4.1.

 Reading this resource should take approximately 45 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: The article above is released under a [Creative
Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML). You can
find the original Wikipedia version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object_relations) (HTML).

3.3.4.1 Melanie Klein   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.4. In particular, review the section about Melanie Klein for an overview of a prominent object relations theorist and the basic ideas in her theory.

3.3.4.2 Margaret Mahler   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Margaret Mahler” Link: Wikipedia: “Margaret Mahler” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read this webpage in its entirety for a description
of another prominent object relations theorist and her theory of
personality development.  

 Reading this resource should take approximately 30 minutes.   

 Terms of Use: The article above is released under a [Creative
Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML). You can
find the original Wikipedia version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Mahler) (HTML).

3.3.5 Attachment Theory   3.3.5.1 John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth   - Reading: Everett Waters, Judith Crowell, Harriet Waters, and colleagues at SUNY Stony Brook and the New York Attachment Consortium: Library of On-Line Attachment Articles’ version of Robert Karen’s “Becoming Attached” Link: Everett Waters, Judith Crowell, Harriet Waters, and colleagues at SUNY Stony Brook and the New York Attachment Consortium: Library of On-Line Attachment Articles’ version of Robert Karen’s “Becoming Attached” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above to access the resource. Read the entire PDF document (18 pages) for an introduction to John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth and an overview of their theory of attachment. Pay special attention to the ways in which attachment theory is similar to and different from object relations theory. Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.3.5.1-3.3.5.6.

 Studying this resource should take approximately 3 hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.5.2 Ainsworth’s “Strange” Situation   Note: This subunit is also covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.1.

  • Web Media: YouTube: “The Strange Situation – Mary Ainsworth” Link: YouTube: “The Strange Situation – Mary Ainsworth” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link above, and watch the video for an overview of the presentation of secure, insecure-resistant, and insecure-avoidant attachment styles in the Strange Situation procedure. Note that this web media covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.3.5.2-3.3.5.5.

    Watching this video should take approximately 5 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage.

3.3.5.3 Secure Attachment   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.1 and also the web media assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.2. Pay close attention to what secure attachment “looks like” in this video clip.

3.3.5.4 Insecure-Resistant Attachment   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.1 and also the web media assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.2. Notice how distressed the child becomes when the parent leaves.

3.3.5.5 Insecure-Avoidant Attachment   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.1 and also the web media assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.2. In the most extreme attachment situation, children decline attachment to parents or other caregivers.

3.3.5.6 Disorganized Attachment   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.1 and also the web media assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.2. Also sometimes referred to as disoriented attachment, children who exhibit this style of attachment produce mixed behaviors when parents reappear, such as approaching them with no emotion.

3.3.5.7 Soothing and Tactile Stimulation   - Reading: Pacific Lutheran Theological Seminary: Robert W. Hatfield’s “Touch and Human Sexuality” Link: Pacific Lutheran Theological Seminary: Robert W. Hatfield’s “Touch and Human Sexuality” (HTML)
 
Instructions: After clicking on the link above, read the section titled “Touch and Childhood Development” for an overview of the importance of touch for parent-child attachment.

 Reading this resource should take approximately 1 hour.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.5.8 Attachment and Separation   - Reading: Everett Waters, Judith Crowell, Harriet Waters, and Colleagues at SUNY Stony Brook and the New York Attachment Consortium: Library of On-Line Attachment Articles’ version of John Bowlby’s “Can I Leave My Baby?” Link: Everett Waters, Judith Crowell, Harriet Waters, and Colleagues at SUNY Stony Brook and the New York Attachment Consortium: Library of On-Line Attachment Articles’ version of John Bowlby’s “Can I Leave My Baby?” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read this 7 page article to learn about the stages of separation from an attachment figure. You will again notice the influence of object relations theory in this reading.

 Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.5.9 Protest Stage   - Reading: Ezine Articles: Carol Lozier's “Attachment Disorder’s Early Pioneers: Bowlby and Robertson” Link: Ezine Articles: Carol Lozier’s “Attachment Disorder’s Early Pioneers: Bowlby and Robertson” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above, and read this webpage for a description of the protest stage of separation. Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.3.5.9-3.3.5.11.

 Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.5.10 Despair Stage   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.10. Read this webpage for a description of the despair stage of separation.

3.3.5.11 Detachment Stage   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.5.10. Read this webpage for a description of the detachment stage of separation.

3.3.6 Parental Approaches: Implications for Children’s Social and Emotional Functioning   3.3.6.1 Baumrind's Parenting Styles   - Reading: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Clearinghouse on Early Education and Parenting: Nancy Darling’s “Parenting Style and Its Correlates” Link: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Clearinghouse on Early Education and Parenting: Nancy Darling’s “Parenting Style and Its Correlates” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Read this webpage in its entirety for an overview of different parenting styles. An especially important point is made in the first paragraph, which states that these parenting styles refer to normal variations in parenting and are not descriptive of abusive or neglectful situations. Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 3.3.6.1-3.3.6.5.

 Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.6.2 Authoritarian   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.6.1. It is widely understood that authoritarian parents tend to be very demanding. Be sure you understand their other important traits.

3.3.6.3 Permissive   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.6.1. Perhaps all children would prefer permissive parents. What are the “costs” of this parenting style?

3.3.6.4 Authoritative   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.6.1. Be sure you understand the differences between authoritarian and authoritative parents.

3.3.6.5 Uninvolved   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 3.3.6.1. Is being an uninvolved parent necessarily a “bad” thing? Is it “abnormal?”

3.3.7 Types and Stages of Play   - Reading: Early Childhood News: Dr. Jill Englebright Fox’s “Back to Basics: Play in Early Childhood” Link: Early Childhood News: Dr. Jill Englebright Fox’s “Back to Basics: Play in Early Childhood” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the webpage in its entirety for an overview of
play in early childhood. This topic will help you integrate what you
have learned about physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional
development. As you read this article, consider how progression
through Erikson’s psychosexual stages of childhood interacts with
the types of play and about how personal temperament and exposure to
different parenting styles may impact children’s play.  

 Reading this resource should take approximately 1 hour.   
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.