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PSYCH301: Social Psychology

Unit 5: Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination   One of the negative effects of social influence is prejudice, which is an adverse prejudgment or bias of an individual or group seen in almost every society and within most people, at one time or another. Accordingly, it is important to know how prejudiced attitudes develop and why we tend to exhibit them. It is also important to understand the steps one can take to reduce prejudice. This unit will explore the ways in which stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination relate to one another, while explaining their theoretical origins and utility.

Unit 5 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 8 hours.
 
☐    Subunit 5.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2-5.3: 2.25 hours

☐    Subunit 5.4: 3.75 hours

Unit5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - discern the differences between the concepts of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination; - discuss the cognitive and affective theories/components linked to stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination; and - define stereotype threat and describe the real life implications of this phenomenon.

5.1 Introduction to Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination   - Reading: Understanding Prejudice: Scott Plous’s (ed.) “The Psychology of Prejudice: An Overview” Link: Understanding Prejudice: Scott Plous’s (ed.) “The Psychology of Prejudice: An Overview” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Note this article will cover material in subunits 5.1-5.3. Read this article. Use the green arrow at the bottom of the text to navigate from one page to the next. This reading will provide you with a comprehensive overview of the concepts and research related to prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination. 
 
Reading this article should take you approximately 2 hours.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.1.1 Linking Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.1.

5.1.2 Categorical Thinking, Assimilation, and Contrast   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.1.

5.1.3 Ingroup-Outgroup Concept   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.1.

5.1.4 Self-Esteem and Social Identity   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.1.

5.1.5 Subtle Forms of Prejudice   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 5.1.

5.2 Stereotyping   - Lecture: YouTube: University of California, Berkley: Professor Robb Willer’s “Lecture 24: Stereotypes 1” Link: YouTube: University of California, Berkley: Professor Robb Willer’s “Lecture 24: Stereotypes 1” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Note this lecture will cover the topics outlined in subunits 5.2.1-5.2.6. Start the video at the 8-minute mark as the first part of the lecture deals with administrative details of the class. There is also a class break from the 41-minute mark until the 50-minute mark, if you would like to fast-forward through this section.
 
Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take you approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative 3.0 License.  It is attributed to Robb Willer and the University of California, Berkley, and the original version can be found here.

  • Reading: University of Iowa’s Current Research in Social Psychology: Dr. Michaël Dambrun, et al.’s “The Impact of Hierarchy-Enhancing vs. Attenuating Academic Major on Stereotyping: The Mediating Role of Perceived Social Norm” Link: University of Iowa’s Current Research in Social Psychology: Dr. Michaël Dambrun, et al.’s “The Impact of Hierarchy-Enhancing vs. Attenuating Academic Major on Stereotyping: The Mediating Role of Perceived Social Norm” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Note this article will cover subunits 5.2 and 5.3. Read this empirical journal article as advised by the readings presented previously in subunit 1.2 of this course. This article speaks to the impact of social context, including social norms, on stereotyping. Be careful not to generalize these results without appreciating that there are more within group differences (which represent differences between individuals within a single group) than between group differences (which represent differences between groups). In other words, do not use these results to form a stereotype of different majors. 
     
    Reading this article should take you approximately 1 hour.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.2.1 Explicit and Implicit Bias   Note: This topic is covered by the resources assigned below subunit 5.2.

5.2.2 Consequences of Stereotyping   Note: This topic is covered by the resources assigned below subunit 5.2.

5.2.3 Stereotyping in Children and the Media   Note: This topic is covered by the resources assigned below subunit 5.2.

5.2.4 Stereotypes from Direct Experience   Note: This topic is covered by the resources assigned below subunit 5.2.

5.2.5 Self-Perpetuating Stereotypes   Note: This topic is covered by the resources assigned below subunit 5.2.

5.2.6 Reducing Stereotypes   Note: This topic is covered by the resources assigned below subunit 5.2.

5.3 Discrimination   5.3.1 Considering the Target’s Perspective   Note: This topic is covered by the resources assigned below subunit 5.2.

5.3.2 Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination   Note: This topic is covered by the resources assigned below subunit 5.2.

5.3.3 The Contact Hypotheses   Note: This topic is covered by the resources assigned below subunit 5.2.

5.4 Self-Fulfilling Prophecies and Stereotype Threat   5.4.1 An Introduction   - Reading: IntroPsych: Dr. Russ Dewey’s Psychology: An Introduction: “Self-Fulfilling Prophecy in Social Interactions” and “Expectancy” Link: IntroPsych: Dr. Russ Dewey’s Psychology: An Introduction: “Self-Fulfilling Prophecy in Social Interactions” and “Expectancy” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read these webpages to gain an understanding of these important, yet distinct, phenomena. Note that a self-fulfilling prophecy is when someone else’s expectations of an individual are conveyed in subtle ways, leading the individual to confirm the other person’s original expectations.
 
Reading these articles should take you approximately 1 hour.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Stanford University News: Adam Gorlick’s “Stereotype Threat Harms Female, Minority Performance” Link: Stanford University News: Adam Gorlick’s “Stereotype Threat Harms Female, Minority Performance” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this webpage to gain an understanding of these important, yet distinct, phenomena. Stereotype threat, on the other hand, is when a person’s own expectations (and potential anxiety) about confirming a negative stereotype undermine his or her performance levels.
     
    Reading this webpage should take you approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.4.2 Impact on Academic Performance and Automaticity   - Lecture: YouTube: University of California, Berkley: Professor Robb Willer’s “Lecture 25: Stereotypes II” Link: YouTube: University of California, Berkley: Professor Robb Willer’s “Lecture 25: Stereotypes II” (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
iTunes U
 
Instructions: Start the video at 2 minutes as the first part of the lecture deals with administrative details of the class. There is also a class break from 34 minutes until 41 minutes; if you prefer, you may fast-forward through this section.
 
Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take you approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative 3.0 License.  It is attributed to Robb Willer and the University of California, Berkley, and the original version can be found here.

  • Reading: University of Iowa’s Current Research in Social Psychology: Matthew T. Jameson, et al.’s “Stereotype Threat Impacts College Athletes’ Academic Performance” Link: University of Iowa’s Current Research in Social Psychology: Matthew T. Jameson, et al.’s “Stereotype Threat Impacts College Athletes’ Academic Performance” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Scroll down the website linked above and click on the hyperlink for Volume 12, No. 5 entitled Stereotype Threat Impacts College Athletes’ Academic Performance. Read this empirical journal article as advised by the readings presented in subunit 1.2 of this course. This article will help you gain a better understanding of how stereotypes can detrimentally affect individual performance. 
     
    Reading this article should take you approximately 1 hour.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.5 Unit 5 Assessment   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 5 Assessment” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 5 Assessment”

 Instructions: Complete this assessment to check your understanding
of the material covered in this unit. You will see the correct
answers after you hit the “Submit” button.</span>