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PSYCH205: Clinical Psychology

Unit 3: Mental Health Treatment   You have now learned about the fundamentals of clinical psychology as well as the concepts of mental health and illness. As you have learned, clinical psychologists often work to treat mental illness and human distress through psychotherapy. In this unit, you will learn more about the factors that contribute to treatment outcomes such as client, treatment, and therapist variables. In addition, you will learn about different types of psychotherapy treatments and begin to think critically about the risks and benefits associated with each. 

Unit 3 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take approximately 11 hours.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 3.2: 10.5 hours

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
- identify the types of available mental health treatments and the important issues that affect mental health care utilization and effectiveness; and - compare and contrast the various approaches/theories associated with mental illness and mental health treatment.

3.1 Introduction to Mental Health Treatment   - Reading: United States Department of Health and Human Services’ MentalHealth: A Report of the Surgeon General (1999): "Chapter 2: The Fundamentals of Mental Health and Mental Illness" Link: United States Department of Health and Human Services’ MentalHealth: A Report of the Surgeon General** (1999): "Chapter 2: The Fundamentals of Mental Health and Mental Illness" (PDF)

 Instructions: Read the section entitled “Overview of Treatment,”
excluding the subsection entitled “Pharmacological Therapies.” You
may choose to read this section, but it is not required for this
course, as it is beyond its scope. Please note that the pages in the
PDF bar at the top of the document do not match the pages in the
table of contents section on the first page.   

 Please note that this reading covers topics included in subunit 3.1
and overlaps with some topics included in subunit 3.2. Specifically,
this reading provides you with an overview of issues in treatment
and briefly introduces you to the topic of psychotherapeutic
interventions.  
    
 Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: The article above is in the public domain.

3.1.1 Introduction to the Range of Treatments   *Mental disorders can be treated using psychosocial and/or pharmacological methods. Review each method and compare/contrast the range of treatments available under each (e.g., psychodynamic, behavior and humanistic therapies under psychodynamic treatment, and mechanisms of action and complementary/alternative treatment under pharmacological therapy).

Refer to the United States Department of Health and Human Services’ Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General (1999): “Chapter 2: The Fundamentals of Mental Health and Mental Illness,” pages 64–70 for additional information. *

3.1.2 Issues in Treatment   *There are many issues surrounding mental health treatment that affect successful implementation of therapies, including placebo response, benefits and risks of clinical trials, gaps between efficacy and effectiveness, and multiple barriers to individuals seeking help. 

Refer to the United States Department of Health and Human Services’ Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General (1999):  “Chapter 2: The Fundamentals of Mental Health and Mental Illness,” pages 70–73 for additional information. *

3.2 Psychotherapeutic Treatments   - Reading: Shippensburg University: Professor George C. Boeree’s History of Psychology: “Part 4: The 1900s” Link: Shippensburg University: Professor George C. Boeree’s History of Psychology: “Part 4: The 1900s” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, select the link to download the PDF file entitled “Part 4: the 1900s,” and read this chapter. Please note that this reading will cover both the history and concepts related to each respective theory within clinical psychology.

 This reading covers the topics outlined for 3.2.1–3.2.7. Please
note that although this reading overlaps with the initial reading,
it will provide you with a more in-depth analysis of the pros/cons
of each psychotherapeutic treatment.  
    
 Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 8
hours.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Activity: Rider University: Professor John Suler’s Teaching Clinical Psychology Homepage: "Which Treatment is Best?" Link: Rider University: Professor John Suler’s Teaching Clinical Psychology Homepage: "Which Treatment is Best?" (HTML) 

    Instructions: Please click on the above link and complete the exercise, which will help you apply your knowledge to real life, hypothetical scenarios.

    Completing this activity should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

  • Activity: Rider University: Professor John Suler’s Teaching Clinical Psychology Homepage: "The Way I Think" Link: Rider University: Professor John Suler’s Teaching Clinical Psychology Homepage: "The Way I Think" (HTML)

    Completing this activity should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Instructions: Please click on the above link and complete this exercise, which will give you some insight into cognitive therapeutic techniques. It will also increase your own level of self-awareness, which is crucial to a clinician’s ability to help his or her clients. Please take the opportunity to learn more about yourself and to look at your written responses in a curious, non-judgmental manner.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

3.2.1 Psychoanalysis   *Before Sigmund Freud was considered the psychoanalytic therapist, several individuals developed the field as a precursor to Freud’s thinking, including Franz Anton Mesmer, Philippe Pinel, and Jean-Martin Charcot. These psychoanalytic predecessors not only influenced Freud (i.e., conscious vs. unconscious mind, including id, ego, and superego), but also influenced the teachings of Carl Jung (i.e., personal and collective unconscious) and Alfred Adler (i.e., striving).

Refer to Professor George Boeree’s History of Psychology: “Part 4: The 1900s” pages 9–32 for additional information.*

3.2.2 Behaviorism   *Behaviorism focuses on what’s observable (i.e., the environment and behavior) rather than what’s available to the individual (i.e., perceptions, thoughts, images, feelings). Several people have contributed to this branch of psychotherapeutic treatments including Ivan Pavlov (i.e., classical conditioning), Edward Thorndike (i.e., “puzzle boxes”), John Watson (i.e., “Little Albert” conditioning experiment), William McDougall (i.e., “anti-Watson” stance), Clark Hull (i.e., operationalization of variables), E.C. Tolman (i.e., cognitive behaviorism), and B.F. Skinner (i.e., operant conditioning).

Refer to Professor George Boeree’s History of Psychology: “Part 4: The 1900s” pages 33–54 for additional information. *

3.2.3 Gestalt Psychology   *Gestalt psychology was founded by Max Wertheimer, whereby the focus was on psychology as a “unified or meaningful whole.” Wertheimer’s protégés, Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Koffka, continued the Gestalt phenomenon that includes several laws (i.e., pragnanz, closure, similarity) and additional principles (i.e., figure-ground, insight learning, productive thinking, isomorphism) describing the theoretical concepts behind the psychology. Kurt Lewin’s topological theory and Kurt Goldstein’s holistic view of brain function further contributed to the Gestalt notion.

Refer to Professor George Boeree’s History of Psychology: “Part 4: The 1900s” pages 55–70 for additional information.*

3.2.4 Phenomenological Existentialism   *Phenomenological existentialism is a psychology that emphasizes our creative processes more so than our adherence to laws. Franz Brentano expounded on this notion using “intentionality or immanent objectivity.” Other notable phenomenological existentialists include Carl Stumpf, who focused on the psychology of music, Edmund Husserl, who investigating the nature of the experience itself, Martin Heidegger, who discussed the meaning of existence, and Jean-Paul Sartre who said “existence precedes essence.”

Refer to Professor George Boeree’s History of Psychology: “Part 4: The 1900s” pages 71–81 and Dr. Edward Sheridan’s Lectures 3A–3C for additional information.*

  • Lecture: University of Houston: Professor Edward Sheridan’s Lecture Series, Clinical Psychology: “Lecture 3A–3C” Link: University of Houston: Professor Edward Sheridan’s Lecture Series, Clinical Psychology: “Lecture 3A–3C”
     
    Instructions: First, please click on the webpage linked here entitled “Lecture 3A.” Please start the video at 41 minutes and 25 seconds, and watch to the end. Next, click on the webpage entitled “Lecture 3B” and watch it. Follow the same instructions for Lecture 3C but end the video at 48 minutes and 50 seconds. These lectures also cover the topic outlined for subunit 3.2.4. 
     
    Watching these lectures and pausing to take notes should take approximately 2 hours.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.2.5 Modern Medicine and Physiology   *Modern medicine and physiology focuses on numerous aspects of progression related to the psychology field including technology and the brain (e.g., CT scan, EEG, PET scan), pharmacological discoveries that target individual neurotransmitters, genetics and genetic influences on the human genome, and historical implications of lobotomies on behavior.

Refer to Professor George Boeree’s History of Psychology: “Part 4: The 1900s” pages 82–88 for additional information. *

3.2.6 The Cognitive Movement   *The cognitive movement came about in the latter half of the 20th century, influenced by the advent of the computer. This movement had several advocates, such as Norbert Wiener, whose focus was on cybernetics (i.e., “self-steering”), Alan Turing, who invented the “Turing Machine” (or the first description of the modern computer and its comparison to the workings of the human mind), Ludwig von Bertalanffy, who created the “open system” (or a holistic epistemology that allowed systems theory to be applied to multiple contexts), Noam Chomsky, who specialized in linguistics and generative grammar, Jean Piaget, who focused on the development of cognition/cognitive psychology, Donald Hebb, who created a new version of “connectionism” related to neurological theory and behavior, George Miller, who invented “information chunks,” and Ulric Neisser, who vocally criticized the cognitive psychology movement.

Refer to Professor George Boeree’s History of Psychology: “Part 4: The 1900s” pages 89–98 for additional information.*

3.2.7 Future Directions in Clinical Psychological Theory   *Future directions in clinical psychology theory are progressing from logical positivism (i.e., all knowledge is based on empirical observation assisted by the use of logic and mathematics) to postmodernism (i.e., there is no objective reality or ultimate truth we have direct access to, rather truth is a matter of perspective or point-of-view).

Refer to Professor George Boeree’s History of Psychology: “Part 4:  The 1900s” pages 110–115, Dr. Ksenija Kolundzija’s “Core Constructs of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change,”
Professor John Suler's Teaching Clinical Psychology Homepage: “Which Treatment is Best?,” and Professor John Suler’s Teaching Clinical Psychology Homepage: “The Way I Think” for additional information.*

  • Reading: Directory of Open Access Journals: Dr. Ksenija Kolundzija’s (2011) "Core Constructs of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change" Link: Directory of Open Access Journals: Dr. Ksenija Kolundzija’s (2011) "Core Constructs of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change"

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and then click on the full text link, which will download the PDF version of this article. Please read this article, which will provide an example of one newer theory in clinical psychology.
     
    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 3 Assessment”   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 3 Assessment” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 3 Assessment”

 Instructions: For each question, pick the best possible answer. The
correct answers will be displayed when you click the "Submit"
button.  

 You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in
order to access this quiz.  If you do not yet have an account, you
will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the
link.  

 Completing this assessment should take approximately 15 minutes.