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PSYCH202B: Research Methods Lab

Unit 4: Measurement and Statistics   You have now performed each of the steps necessary to design your experiment, but how will you be able to tell whether your result is significant?  This unit will present different techniques for measuring your result.  The lecture portion of this course introduced the concepts behind these techniques, but we will now learn to determine when and how to use each of them.  While we will discuss statistics in this unit, a sophisticated understanding of the subject is unnecessary.   That being said, a working knowledge of statistics is a valuable asset during all stages of experimentation.   In this unit, you should identify the measurement techniques most applicable to your question and design and be able to explain your selection.

4.1 Sampling Techniques   4.1.1 Simple Random Sampling   - Reading: Cengage Learning: "Probability Sampling Strategies: Simple Random Sampling" Link: Cengage Learning: "Probability Sampling Strategies: Simple Random Sampling" (HTML)

 Instructions: Please review this website for information related to
simple random sampling (pages 8-10).  Please note that you also read
this information in PSYCH202.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.2 Stratified Random Sampling   - Lecture: iTunes University: University of Glamorgan: “Research: Sampling Methods: Stratified Sampling” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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4.1.3 Cluster Sampling   - Reading: Cengage Learning: "Probability Sampling Strategies: Cluster Sampling" Link:  Cengage Learning: "Probability Sampling Strategies: Cluster Sampling" (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read pages 19 and 20 of this unit for a review
of cluster sampling (the link will bring you to page 19).  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.4 Convenience Sampling   - Lecture: iTunes University: East Tennessee State University: Dr. Blake Snider’s "Non-Probability Sampling Lecture” Link: iTunes University: East Tennessee State University: Dr. Blake Snider’s "Non-Probability Sampling Lecture” (iTunes U)

 Instructions: Please listen through minute 7:40 of this lecture,
\#5 on the linked page.  This lecture applies to subunits
4.1.4-4.1.7.  Now that you have learned about different types of
sampling methods, try to think about which populations would be best
for different types of samples, and what would be the best sampling
method for you to use if you carried our your study.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.5 Snowball Sampling   4.1.6 Quota Sampling   4.1.7 Purposive Sampling   4.2 Self-Reporting and Scales   4.2.1 Operationally Defining your Variable   - Reading: The University of Florida: L.K. Curda’s "Operational Definitions of Variables" Link:  The University of Florida: L.K. Curda’s "Operational Definitions of Variables" (HTML)

 Instructions: The above link will bring you to a course Website.
 Please click on “Readings” and then “Operational Definitions of
Variables.”  Read the explanation of operationalizing variables and
answer the questions at the end of the document to test your
knowledge of operationalization.  Once you have completed this
reading, consider your research question and work to define how you
will operationalize each variable.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.2 Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Scales Revisited   - Reading: Wikipedia’s “Level of Measurement” Link: Wikipedia’s "Level of Measurement" (PDF)

 Also available in:  

[iBook](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/PSYCH202B-4.2.2-Level-of-measurement-Author.epub)  

 Instructions: Read above webpage.  Consider the dependent variables
in your research topic and how they would be measured.  

 Terms of Use: The article above is released under a [Creative
Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML).  You
can find the original version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Level_of_measurement) (HTML).

4.2.3 Examining Available Scales   - Web Media: YouTube: PsycINFO Training Video’s “PsychINFO on EBSCOhost: In search of Tests and Measures” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

4.2.4 Do You Need to Create Your Own Scale?   - Reading: Professor William Trochim’s “Constructing the Survey” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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4.2.5 The Problems with Self-Report   - Reading: Dr. Chong-ho Yu’s “Reliability of Self-Report Data” Link: "Reliability of Self-Report Data"(HTML)

 Instructions:  Please read the entirety of the above webpage for an
overview of the problems with self-report data.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.3 Other Data Collection Methods   4.3.1 Physiological States   - Reading: Jeremy Miles’ version of Kav Vedhara, Jeremy Miles, Paul Bennett, Sue Plummer, Deborah Tallon, Emily Brooks, Lone Gale, Katherine Munnoch, Christa Schreiber- Kounine, Clare Fowler, Stafford Lightman, Alistair Sammon, Zenon Rayter, and John Farndon’s “An investigation into the relationship between salivary cortisol, stress, anxiety and depression” Link: Jeremy Miles’ version of Kav Vedhara, Jeremy Miles, Paul Bennett, Sue Plummer, Deborah Tallon, Emily Brooks, Lone Gale, Katherine Munnoch, Christa Schreiber- Kounine, Clare Fowler, Stafford Lightman, Alistair Sammon, Zenon Rayter,  and John Farndon’s “An investigation into the relationship between salivary cortisol, stress, anxiety and depression” (PDF)

 Instructions: Scroll down the page to the heading "Refereed
Journals Articles"; then to sub-heading "2003" to find the PDF link
to the article.  Please read for a description of a study using
physiological data.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.3.2 Qualitative Data and Coding   - Reading: Professor William Trochim’s "Qualitative Data" and Nevada Mathematics and Science Partnership Program: Project PASS (Proficiency and Success in Science): Dr. Kent J. Crippen’s “Analyzing Qualitative Data” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

4.4 Results and Statistics   4.4.1 First look: Central Tendency and the Mean   - Reading: Cengage Learning’s “How Do We Do This Ourselves? Calculate Measures of Central Tendency” Link: Cengage Learning’s "How Do We Do This Ourselves? Calculate Measures of Central Tendency" (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read this webpage for a review of calculating
measures of central tendency. Please note that you also read this
webpage in PSYCH202.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.4.2 Correlation   - Reading: AllPsych Online: “Dr. Christopher L. Heffner’s Chapter 8.6: The Correlation” Link: AllPsych Online: Dr. Christopher L. Heffner’s Chapter 8.6: The Correlation(HTML)

 Instructions: Please review the entirety of this webpage for an
understanding of correlational relationships and the correlation
coefficient.  Please note that you also read this information in
PSYCH202.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.4.3 What Statistical Test is Appropriate?   - Reading: Cengage Learning’s "Choosing the Correct Statistical Test” Link: Cengage Learning’s "Choosing the Correct Statistical Test" (HTML)

 Instructions: Please look through all sections of this workshop to
review the process of selecting statistical tests.  Please note that
you also read this information in PSYCH202.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.