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PSYCH202A: Research Methods

Unit 3: Ethical Research   Research in psychology is integral to helping other human beings; it enables us to better understand others and their behaviors. However, researchers must be careful to avoid endangering humans in their experiments. The methods used in all experiments must be appropriate and ethically sound. This unit will investigate the importance of the ethics of the experimenter and the experiment itself and identify certain safeguards that should be in place to protect the rights of the experiment’s participants.

Unit 3 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 13.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 6.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.1.1: 2.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.1.2: 2 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.1.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 3.2: 4.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.2.1: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 3.2.2: 1.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.2.3: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 3.2.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.3: 1.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.3.1: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 3.3.2: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 3.4: 1 hour

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Explain the importance of ethical guidelines for protecting participants in research. - List the five general ethical principles to which psychologists aspire. - List and define the three ethical principles from the Belmont Report. - List the major elements of consent. - List and describe the three rules governing deception in research. - List and define the principles governing the use of nonhuman animals in research.

3.1 The Reason for Ethics   3.1.1 Before Ethical Codes: Miligram’s Obedience Study   - Reading: Wikipedia’s “Milgram Experiment” and Association for Psychological Science: Jerry Burger’s “Replicating Milgram” Link: Wikipedia’s “Milgram Experiment” (PDF) and Association for Psychological Science: Jerry Burger’s “Replicating Milgram” (HTML)

 Instructions: Before we go into the details of the ethical rules
governing psychology research, there is some value in looking at
research conducted before the ethical guidelines were in place. This
will be your chance to think about the challenges we face in
conducting research in psychology. How can we answer important
questions while simultaneously respecting the rights of
participants? Please read through the first sections on Wikipedia’s
“Milgram Experiment” (pages 1–5, through “Ethics”), and Jerry
Burger’s “Replicating Milgram.” Consider the changes Burger made to
Milgram’s original experiment and what your opinions are on the
ethics of the experiments.  

 Reading these webpages should take approximately 2 hours and 30
minutes (about 1 hour and 45 minutes for the first one and 45
minutes for the second one).  

 Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a
[Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML). You can
find the original version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milgram_experiment) (HTML).
Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on Burger’s
“Replicating Milgram.”

3.1.2 Before Ethical Codes: Zimbardo’s Prison Study   - Reading: Dr. Phil Zimbardo’s “Stanford Prison Experiment” Link: Dr. Phil Zimbardo’s “Stanford Prison Experiment” (HTML)

 Instructions: Again, trying to answer some psychology research
questions has the potential to expose participants to risk. This is
another example of a study conducted around the time ethical
guidelines were being developed. Please view the entire slideshow on
this website (42 slides), with special focus on the ethical lapses
involved in the experiment. After working through these two
subunits, you should be able to explain the importance of ethical
guidelines for protecting participants in psychology research.  

 Reviewing this slideshow should take approximately 2 hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.1.3 Minimizing Harm to Participants   - Reading: The American Psychological Association’s “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” and the Office of Human Research Protection’s Institutional Review Board Guidebook: “History of the Human Subjects Protection System” Link: The American Psychological Association’s “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” (HTML) and the Office of Human Research Protection’s Institutional Review Board Guidebook: “History of the Human Subjects Protection System” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read the first three pages of the “Ethical
Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” for an overview of
the general ethical principles to which psychologists aspire, with
special attention on Principle A, which is most relevant to
minimizing harm. Also, please click on “Standard 8: Research and
Publication,” and read through section 8.09. Read the *Institutional
Review Guidebook* introduction: “History of the Human Subjects
Protection System.” At the end of this subunit, you should be able
to identify the main pillars of human participants protection: the
Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki, and the Belmont Report,
and describe the purpose of each. You should also be able to list
the five general ethical principles to which psychologists aspire.  

 Reading these webpages should take approximately 2 hours (about 1
hour each).  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.

3.2 Protection for Experimental Participants   3.2.1 The Belmont Report: Official Guidelines for Ethical Treatment of Experimental Subjects   - Reading: The Office of Human Research Protection’s Institutional Review Board Guidebook: “The Belmont Report” Link: The Office of Human Research Protection’s Institutional Review Board Guidebook: “The Belmont Report” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please read section B of this webpage to learn about
the history of the Belmont Report. At the end of this subunit, you
should be able to list and define the three basic ethical principles
from the Belmont Report.  

 Reading this webpage should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.

3.2.2 Informed Consent   - Assessment: The University of Minnesota’s Web-Based Instruction on Informed Consent for Social and Behavioral Sciences: “Informed Consent Overview” and “Informed Consent Process” Link: The University of Minnesota’s Web-Based Instruction on Informed Consent for Social and Behavioral Sciences: “Informed Consent Overview” (HTML) and “Informed Consent Process” (HTML)

 Instructions: Informed consent is the foundation of research
ethics. Participants should never be tricked into participating in a
research study, and there should be no surprises during the study.
Please proceed through each of these modules and complete the
exercises and quizzes in each section. Please note that although the
module refers to the University of Minnesota’s informed consent
requirements, most universities have the same or similar
requirements. At the end of this subunit, you should be able to list
the major elements of consent.  

 Reading these webpages should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes (about 45 minutes each).  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.

3.2.3 Deception: When Is It Acceptable to Deceive a Participant?/Alternatives to Deception   - Reading: The American Psychological Association: Dr. Stephen Behnke’s “Reading the Ethics Code More Deeply” Link: The American Psychological Association: Dr. Stephen Behnke’s “Reading the Ethics Code More Deeply” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read Dr. Behnke’s article for an in-depth
explanation of the most recent updates to the Ethics Code’s stance
on deception in research. Note that Dr. Burger’s research, discussed
in subunit 3.1.1, used deception; you might review that now. At the
end of this subunit, you should be able to list and describe the
three rules governing the use of deception in research. Why are
these rules important? How do they apply to Dr. Burger’s research?  

 Reading this webpage should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.2.4 The Importance of Debriefing   - Reading: Cengage Learning’s Research Workshop: “Effective Debriefing” Link: Cengage Learning’s Research Workshop: “Effective Debriefing” (HTML)

 Instructions: At the end of a research study, participants are
debriefed. At a minimum, the purpose should be explained and any
confusion should be cleared up. Please complete all slides of this
workshop and take the quiz at the end in order to understand the
purpose and process of debriefing. Note that you will not need to
e-mail the results of your quiz to anyone. When you complete this
subunit, you should be able to develop a debriefing script for a
study. For example, what would be included in a debriefing script
from Dr. Burger’s study (sub-subunit 3.1.1)?  

 Completing this workshop should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.3 Ethics and Animal Research   3.3.1 The Case for Care in Animal Research   - Reading: The Committee on Animal Research Ethics: “Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals” Link: The Committee on Animal Research Ethics: “Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read this webpage for an understanding of the
requirements of animal research. This reading will cover topics such
as proper training, supervision and procedures, the risk versus
benefit system in animal research, and the importance of humane
conditions, including life termination.  

 Reading this webpage should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.2 APA Guidelines for Animal Research   - Reading: The American Psychological Association’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct with the 2010 Amendments: “Standard 8: Research and Publication” Link: The American Psychological Association’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct with the 2010 Amendments: “Standard 8: Research and Publication” (HTML)

 Instructions: When you click on the link, you will be brought to
the table of contents. Please click on “Standard 8: Research and
Publication,” and read section 8.09 from this webpage to learn of
the APA’s standards for work with animals in research. At the end of
this subunit, you should be able to list and define the principles
governing the use of nonhuman animals in research.  

 Reading this webpage should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.4 Assessment: Ethical Research   - Assessment: McGraw-Hill: Paul C. Cozby’s “Multiple-Choice Test on Ethical Research” Link: McGraw-Hill: Paul C. Cozby’s “Multiple-Choice Test on Ethical Research” (HTML)

 Instructions: After you have completed Unit 3, please take the
above assessment to test your knowledge. Note that some of the items
may refer to specific material that was not covered in this section.
You may use those items to determine how well your knowledge will
generalize to other aspects of ethical decision making.  

 Completing this assessment should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.