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PRDV203: Introduction to Management

Unit 7: Motivation   Motivation concerns not only business managers, but also coaches and teachers. In this unit, we will learn the meaning of motivation, and that money is not always the best motivator for everyone. In the pursuit of creating employee satisfaction through proper motivation, you will find that motivation is interlocked with morale. When staff members are well motivated, morale increases, as does loyalty. On the other hand, poor understanding of your staff’s motivation can lead to high turnover, poor attitude, absenteeism, and sloppy work, all of which are indicators of low morale.
 
This unit aims to develop a number of motivational tools for your arsenal. First, you will find that proper job design can increase staff members’ interest and enthusiasm in their work. You will look at the job elements and learn to modify them according to your needs and the needs of your team.

Then, you will learn how goal setting plays a part in motivation. In this unit, you will learn the SMART technique to set goals at all levels. Finally, you will study the classic management by objective theory, another well-known, effective, goal-setting technique.

Unit 7 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 2 hours.

☐    Subunit 7.1: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 7.2: 0.25 hours

☐    Subunit 7.3: 0.25 hours

Unit7 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - define motivation and explain its importance in leading and managing others; - identify and explain the conditions through which goal setting can be used to improve job performance; - describe needs-based and process-based need theories, noting what each suggests about improving motivation in organizations; - describe how job design acts as a motivating factor and apply this understanding to your work situation; - identify job design elements in your staff’s positions and apply appropriate changes; and - describe how to set goals using the SMART technique and apply the technique in goal setting for yourself, for a team, and for individual employees.

7.1 Motivational Theories   - Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 14, Introduction,” “Section 1: Need-Based Theories of Motivation,” and “Section 2: Process-Based Theories” Link: Principles of Management (PDF): “Chapter 14, Introduction,” “Section 1: Need-Based Theories of Motivation,” and “Section 2: Process-Based Theories”
 
Instructions: Read Chapter 14, “Motivating Employees,” on pages 531-557. Section 1, “Need-Based Theories of Motivation,” on pages 532-539 will help you become familiar with need-based motivational theories.
 
Section 2, “Process-Based Theories,” on pages 540-557, will give you the background of several theories that examine motivation as influenced by a person’s perception of the working environment (equity theory and expectancy theory). This section also includes a discussion of the well-known psychological concept called reinforcement theory and how it applies to motivating workers.
 
Pages 550-554 briefly describe the history of job design, starting with job specialization and then moving on to discuss job rotation, enlargement, and enrichment. Lastly, the job characteristics model looks at five aspects of jobs that influence motivation.
 
Pages 554-557 focus on goal-setting theory (SMART). Because management sets goals and objectives during the planning process, goal-setting theory fits very easily into management practices. This is perhaps why goal-setting theory is the most widely used of the motivational theories.
 
Reading this chapter should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

7.2 Team Motivation   - Reading: Wikimedia Commons: Dirk Hünniger’s Managing Groups and Teams: “Chapter 5: Motivation” Link: Wikimedia Commons: Dirk Hünniger’s Managing Groups and Teams (PDF): “Chapter 5: Motivation”
 
Instructions: Read pages 41-44 for a discussion of team motivation. Individual and team motivation are not the same; an individual instinctively seeks to fulfill his or her own needs, which may conflict with team needs. Yet individual motivation can exert considerable influence over team success. This section will show you how motivation at the individual and team levels can be brought together to foster team success.
 
Reading this chapter should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Dirk Hünniger, and the original version can be found here.

7.3 Developing Your Personal Motivation Skills   - Reading: Principles of Management: “Chapter 14, Section 3: Developing Your Personal Motivation Skills” Link: Principles of Management (PDF): “Chapter 14, Section 3: Developing Your Personal Motivation Skills”
 
Instructions: Read the “Developing Your Personal Motivation Skills” section on pages 563-565. This section advises you about handling performance feedback as a manager as well as an employee.
 
Reading these pages should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 7 Assessment” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 7 Assessment” (HTML)

    Instructions: Complete this assessment to assess your understanding of the topics covered in this unit. The correct answers will be displayed when you click the “Submit” button.