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POLSC324: Latin American/Caribbean Politics

Unit 2: Political Economy of Development   As you have seen from Unit 1, high levels of poverty and inequality have been persistent features of the entire region of Latin America and the Caribbean throughout its history.  As a result, the most important political challenge the region has faced has been trying to establish a set of economic and social strategies to lessen poverty and inequality and achieve sustainable growth.  The term “political economy” refers to the interaction of politics and economics; on the one hand, the governments of the region use political means to achieve growth, and on the other hand, the economic challenges often lead to (negative) political consequences.  Since the end of the colonial period, the political economy of the region has been characterized by oscillation and experimentation among different economic and political models.  This unit will focus on the major theories that have strongly influenced the governments and policymakers in their struggle to achieve sustained growth.

In this unit, you will examine the current socio-economic status of the region and review the major challenges still facing the region.  You will see that poverty, inequality, inflation, and debt have been major recurring challenges.  The main goal of most leaders has been trying to establish an economic strategy and set of policies that would successfully solve these problems and put their countries on the path of sustainable development. To get a clearer picture of where Latin America is today in terms of economic and social development, you will take a look at some indicators of socio-economic development, from respected publications such as the World Development Report, which has been published annually by the World Bank since 1978, and other publications by the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).  These organizations provide the most authoritative resources for better understanding the status of developing states in the world today and will serve as a starting point for exploring the continued persistence of poverty and inequality across Latin America and the Caribbean. 

The remainder of Unit 2 will review past and current development theories and strategies, as well as examine their results—both positive and negative.  There have been four major theories of economic development that have most influenced policymaking in the region:  structuralism, the linear stages of growth model, dependency, and neo-classicalism (also known neo-liberalism).  Since the late 1980s, neoliberalism has been the dominant model. The key question is “how much has changed?”

Today, the neoliberal model of development has been challenged in some countries by a revival of populist policies that focus on acquiring government control of major resources (for example, oil and minerals) and using governmental power to force the redistribution of wealth.  These governments seek to mobilize support for their policies from the large numbers of poor indigenous groups within their countries (hence, they are called “populist,” meaning they get their support from the population).  The governments of Venezuela, Bolivia, and Ecuador are examples of countries that have rejected the neo-liberal model in favor of a more populist development model.

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 18.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 5 hours ☐    Sub-subunit 2.1.1: 0.5 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 2.1.2: 1.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 2.1.3: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 2.1.4: 1.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 2.1.5: 0.5 hour

☐    Subunit 2.2: 6.5 hours ☐    Sub-subunit 2.2.1: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 2.2.2: 2.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 2.2.3: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 2.2.4: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 2.2.5: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 2.3: 3.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4: 3.5 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Describe the current overall status of socio-economic development in the region. - Identify both the achievements and remaining challenging in overcoming poverty and inequality as major political goals. - Compare and contrast the major strategies of development, including structuralism, linear stages of growth model, dependency, neoclassical, and revolutionary socialism; assess their impact throughout the region. - Describe the populist “post-neoliberal” strategies pursued in some countries such as Venezuela, Bolivia and Ecuador.

2.1 Indicators of Development   2.1.1 Economic Situation in Latin America and the Caribbean   - Reading: United Nations: The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean’s (ECLAC) “Economic Survey of Latin America and the Caribbean, 2010-2011” Link: United Nations: The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean’s (ECLAC) “Economic Survey of Latin America and the Caribbean, 2010-2011” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Open the link above and read the abstract, which provides a summary of current economic conditions (2011).  As you read, take notes and answer the following questions:

 1. Is the growth rate of the region’s economies increasing or
decreasing?  
 2. Is inflation increasing or decreasing?  
 3. What are some major threats the economies will face in the
future?  
    
 This reading and questions should take about 0.5 hour to
complete.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use for the
webpage displayed above. 

2.1.2 Social Indicators in Latin America   - Reading: United Nations: The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean’s (ECLAC) “Social Panorama of Latin America, 2011” Link: United Nations: The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean’s (ECLAC) “Social Panorama of Latin America, 2011” (HTML and PDF)
 
Instructions: Open the link and read the brief two-paragraph summary.  Focusing on the second paragraph, answer the following question:
 
1. What reasons are given to explain the decrease in poverty and inequality?

 Then, for a more comprehensive look at the social panorama of Latin
America, click on “download document” on the right side of the
webpage, and then click on “Paper Brief” to download the PDF.  Read
Chapter 1 “Poverty, Inequality and Perceptions of the World of Work
in Latin America” (pages 11-16).  Take notes and answer the
following questions based on this chapter:  

 1. What is the unemployment rate?  Is this higher or lower than
historical averages?  
 2. What percentage of Latin Americans are still in poverty?  
 3. Which two Latin American countries actually had an *increase* in
poverty?  
 4. Look at Table 1 on page 13: which country has the lowest poverty
rate?  Which country had the highest?  
    
 This reading and the questions should take about 1.5 hours to
complete.  
    
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webpage displayed above. 

2.1.3 Persistence of Poverty   - Reading: Share the World’s Resources’ “Poverty Declines Slightly in Latin America and the Caribbean, in Spite of Global Financial Crisis” Link: Share the World’s Resources’ “Poverty Declines Slightly in Latin America and the Caribbean, in Spite of Global Financial Crisis” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the entire article, which summarizes some trends about poverty in Latin America.  As you read, take notes and answer the following study questions:

 1. Is poverty increasing or decreasing?  
 2. About what percentage of the population is in poverty?  
 3. How many times greater is the income of the top 10<sup>th</sup>
of the population than the bottom 40% of the population?  

 This reading and the questions should take about 0.5 hour to
complete.  
    
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webpage displayed above.
  • Reading: The Economist’s Daily Chart: “Poverty and Progress” Link: The Economist’s Daily Chart: “Poverty and Progress” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the brief text on the webpage, and carefully view the information provided in the chart.  Based on the chart, try to answer the following questions:

 1. Which country has made the most progress against poverty from
1999-2010?  
 2. Which country has made the least progress against poverty from
1999-2010?  
 3. About what percentage of people in the region live in extreme
poverty?  

 This reading and the questions should take about 0.5 hour to
complete.  
    
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webpage displayed above. 

2.1.4 Causes/Consequences of Poverty and Inequality   - Web Media: YouTube: LinkTV’s “Latin Pulse: Status of Poverty in Latin America” Link: YouTube: LinkTV’s “Latin Pulse: Status of Poverty in Latin America” (YouTube)

 Instructions: You saw from the reading assigned in sub-subunit
1.4.1 (Colonialism and Its Legacies) that much of today’s poverty
and inequality is a continuing legacy of colonial patterns hundreds
of years ago.  This video will discuss some more contemporary
causes, such as dependence on commodity exports (mainly to the U.S.)
and will also discuss some of the social and political consequences
of enduring poverty, as well as some ways in which governments and
people of the region have sought to overcome it.  Watch this entire
video (29:30 minutes), take notes, and answer the following
questions:  
    
 1.  What are the “two faces” of poverty shown in the video? (1:12
minutes)  
 2. Although “business is booming” in Latin America, most laborers
find their salaries getting lower.  Why?  
 3. What are some of the consequences of increased poverty?  
 4. What solutions are advocated to end poverty?  
    
 This reading and the questions should take about 1.5 hour to
complete.  
    
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webpage displayed above. 

2.1.5 Ending Inequality   - Web Media: YouTube: CEPAL’s “Time for Equality: Closing Gaps, Opening Trails” Link: YouTube: CEPAL’s “Time for Equality: Closing Gaps, Opening Trails” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Watch this short video (3:16 minutes); the video is in Spanish with English sub-titles.  As you view the video, consider the following study question:

 1. What solution is suggested for lessening inequality?  
    
 This reading and the question should take about 0.5 hour to
complete.  
    
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webpage displayed above.

2.2 Theories of Development   2.2.1 What Is Development Economics?   - Reading: The University of Iowa’s Center for International Finance and Development: Ricardo Contreras’s “Part1-III Competing Theories of Economic Development” Link: The University of Iowa’s Center for International Finance and Development: Ricardo Contreras’s “Part1-III Competing Theories of Economic Development” (HTML or PDF)

 Instructions: All of the readings for sub-subunits 2.2.1 through
2.2.5 come from this single resource: Roberto Contreras’s “[Part
I-III Competing Theories of Economic
Development](http://blogs.law.uiowa.edu/ebook/uicifd-ebook/part-1-iii-competing-theories-economic-development).” 
This article provides a very useful comparison of the main theories
and models that have influenced Latin American governments as they
have experimented with different development strategies and policies
in their struggle to achieve sustained development.  As you read
about each of the theories, you should make mental comparisons about
two main points: (1) what does each theory say is the cause of Latin
America’s lack of development, and (2) what solutions does each
theory offer?  
 After you open the link, click on the PDF icon to download the PDF
file, and save the PDF file to your computer for convenience.  You
may view this text in HTML format (linked above) or via the PDF
file.  For this sub-subunit, read Section A: “What Is Development
Economics?” and answer the following questions:  
    
 1.     Compare and contrast classical economics and Marxist
economics.  
 2.     What is the main concern of development economics?  
    
 This reading and the questions should take about 1 hour to
complete.  
    
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webpage displayed above. 

2.2.2 Structuralism (Dependency Theory)   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Introduction to Structuralism” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)
  • Reading: The University of Iowa’s Center for International Finance and Development: Ricardo Contreras’s “Part1-III Competing Theories of Economic Development” Link: The University of Iowa’s Center for International Finance and Development: Ricardo Contreras’s “Part1-III Competing Theories of Economic Development” (HTML or PDF)
     
    Instructions: This article describes the main ideas of the Structuralist school of thought.  Please click on the PDF icon on the University of Iowa’s Center for International Finance and Development’s website to download the PDF file, if you have not already done so.  You may read this text on the webpage (HTML) or via the PDF file.  Read Section B: “The Structuralist School: State-Led Growth Was the Key,” and answer the following questions:
     
    1.     According to structuralists, what was the main cause of underdevelopment in Latin America?
    2.     Why is it not feasible for Latin American countries to develop their economies based on the export of raw materials?
    3.     What solutions did the structuralists advocate to end dependency?
    4.     Unlike classical and neo-classical theorists who promote a free market and minimal government regulation as a path to development, dependency theorists argued that development could only be achieved through strong government intervention in the economy.  Describe some of the policies and roles that are advocated by these theorists.
    5.     Explain why the policies advocated by the structuralists met with limited success.
     
    This reading and these questions should take you approximately 1 hour to complete.
     
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  • Reading: Mount Holyoke College’s Department of International Relations: Vincent Ferrero’s "Dependency Theory: An Introduction” Link: Mount Holyoke College, Department of International Relations, Vincent Ferrero, "Dependency Theory: An Introduction" (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the article in its entirety, paying special attention to the sub-section entitled “The Central Propositions of Dependency Theory.”  As you read the article, take notes and answer the following questions:

 1. According to Raul Prebisch, what was the cause of Latin
America’s underdevelopment?  What solution did he propose?  
 2. What are the three common features of the definitions of
dependency described in the article?  
 3. Compare the concepts of “underdeveloped/underdevelopment” with
“undeveloped/undevelopment”  
 4. Explain Dependency Theory’s criticism of policies that rely on
agricultural exports as a path for development.  
 5. According to Dependency Theory, what are the historical origins
of the situation of dependency and underdevelopment in Latin
America?  
 6. Dependency Theory advocated a policy of “self-reliance” as a
path for Latin American development.  Explain what is meant by
“self-reliance.”  
    
 This reading and these questions should take about 1 hour and 20
minutes to complete.  
    
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webpages displayed above.

2.2.3 Linear Stages of Growth Model (Modernization Theory)   - Reading: The University of Iowa Center’s for International Finance and Development: Ricardo Contreras’s “Part1-III Competing Theories of Economic Development” Link: The University of Iowa’s Center for International Finance and Development: Ricardo Contreras’s “Part1-III Competing Theories of Economic Development” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: The Linear Stages of Growth Model (more popularly known as Modernization Theory) has dominated European perspectives for the past several decades.  In America, one of the main proponents of this model was Walt Rostow, who was an influential advisor to President Kennedy.  In fact, Modernization Theory and its assumptions underpinned the Kennedy Administration’s approach to Latin America, especially his Alliance for Progress, with its attendant programs of economic aid and human resource and technology transfer through the creation of the Peace Corps (see Unit 4 below for more details).  In simplest terms, this theory said that all countries went through distinct stages of development, progressing from primitive, agricultural-based societies to more advanced industrial and service-based economies.  An important feature of this model of growth is that developing countries could become more “modern” by trading with more developed countries via the transfer of technology and knowledge. This theory, therefore, directly contradicted Dependency Theory, which says that close ties between developing and developed countries leads to underdevelopment, not modernization.

 If you have not already done so, you may want to click on the PDF
icon on the University of Iowa’s Center for International Finance
and Development’s website to download the PDF file.  You may read
this text on the webpage linked above (HTML) or via the PDF file. 
Please read Section C: “The Linear Stages of Growth Model,” and
answer the following questions:  
    
 1.     According to Walt Rostow, what are the five stages of
modernization and development all countries go through?  
 2.     How did Rostow’s theory differ from the structuralists?  
 3.     Why was Rostow’s theory and its policy prescriptions
ineffective in the Latin American context?  
    
 This reading and these questions should take about 1 hour to
complete.  
    
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webpage displayed above.

2.2.4 Neo-Marxist Theory   - Reading: The University of Iowa’s Center for International Finance and Development: Ricardo Contreras’s “Part1-III Competing Theories of Economic Development” Link: The University of Iowa Center’s for International Finance and Development: Ricardo Contreras’s “Part1-III Competing Theories of Economic Development” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Neo-Marxist theorists take a much more drastic perspective than the structuralists.  They explain Latin America’s lack of development as rooted in the inherently exploitative nature of capitalism.  Not only do Latin American countries face economic exploitation from advanced capitalist countries through declining terms of trade (as the structuralists argued), but also from exploitative labor relations (low wages, discouragement of labor unions, low taxes for big business, etc.), but also exploitative social, political, and military relationships.  Latin American neo-Marxists would point to the numerous instances of American intervention in Latin America (see Unit 4 for more details) as proof of imperialism and exploitation.  Because of the vast power and resources at the hands of the capitalists (big business), which are supported by the U.S. government, many Neo-Marxists believed that the only way to solve the development dilemma was by eliminating the capitalist class within their own countries, seizing their property for redistribution, and cutting all ties with the United States.  Of course, such actions would inevitably provoke violence and class warfare; this is exactly what occurred in several countries of the region, most notably Cuba (see subunit 2.3 for more information). 

 If you have not already done so, you may want to click on the PDF
icon on the University of Iowa’s Center for International Finance
and Development’s website to download the PDF file.  You may read
this text on the webpage (HTML) or via the PDF file.  Please read
Section D: “The Neo-Marxist Approach,” and answer the following
questions:  

 1. How do Neo-Marxists describe the relationship between developing
and advanced countries?  
 2. Compare/contrast traditional Marxism with Neo-Marxist
Approach.  
    
 This reading and these questions should take about 1 hour to
complete.  
    
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these webpages displayed above.

2.2.5 Neo-Classical   - Reading: The University of Iowa’s Center for International Finance and Development: Ricardo Contreras’s “Part1-III Competing Theories of Economic Development” Link: The University of Iowa’s Center for International Finance and Development: Ricardo Contreras’s “Part1-III Competing Theories of Economic Development” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: The Neo-Classical (more popularly known as “neo-liberal”) approach to development is based on traditional theories of free market economics.  The main assumption is that government intervention in the economy creates inefficiencies and hinders development.  Neo-liberals advocate creation of free-trade agreements, diversification of exports, and transfer of technology and knowledge as keys to development.  The effectiveness of these policies will be explored below in subunit 2.4 “How Much Has Changed?”

 If you have not already done so, you may want to click on the PDF
icon on the University of Iowa’s Center for International Finance
and Development’s website to download the PDF file.  You may read
this text on the webpage (HTML) or via the PDF file.  Please read
Section E: “The Neo-Classical Revival,” and answer the following
questions:  

 1. According to the neo-classical view, what was the cause of
economic stagnation in the region?  
 2. What were the main solutions offered by the neo-classical
view?  
    
 This reading and these questions should take about 1 hour to
complete.  
    
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webpage displayed above.

2.3 Revolutionary Change   - Web Media: CIA Archives: “The Cuban Revolution CIA Archives Documentary History (1960)” Link: CIA Archives: “The Cuban Revolution CIA Archives Documentary History (1960)” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Watch this video (51 minutes) for an overview of the
Cuban revolutions.  As you watch the video, take notes and answer
the following study questions:  

 1. How did Fidel’s relatively small army succeed in overthrowing
the dictatorial regime of Batista?  
 2. What were some of the causes of the revolution?  
 3. Why was the American government so worried about the communist
influence?  
 4. What were some of the goals of the Cuban revolution?  
    
 This video and these questions should take about 1 hour and 20
minutes to complete.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use for the
webpage displayed above.

2.3.1 Revolution and the Cold War: Guatemala and Cuba   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Introduction to Revolutions in Latin America and the Caribbean” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Introduction to Revolutions in Latin America and the Caribbean” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this brief overview of preliminary revolutions in Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as the influence of the Cold War during the period of revolution.  This resource should take approximately 10 minutes to complete.

2.3.2 Revolutionary Cuba: Castro and Beyond   - Web Media: YouTube: LinkTV’s “Latin Pulse: Cuba and Fidel” Link: YouTube: LinkTV’s “Latin Pulse: Cuba and Fidel” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Watch this video (28 minutes) about communist Cuba,
under the leader, Fidel Castro, who led his country in a social and
political revolution in 1959.  The Cuban revolution and “Fidel” has
inspired numerous other efforts throughout the hemisphere and long
served as a model of socialist revolution that could provide an
alternative to the perceived capitalist domination of the U.S.  As
you watch the video, please take notes to answer the following
questions:  

 1. What were the main achievements of Castro’s socialist
revolution?  
 2. What are some continuing challenges faced by Cuban people
economically and socially?  
 3. What are some changes that will likely take place in Cuban
society now that Fidel has handed over power to his brother?  
    
 This video and the questions should take about 1 hour to
complete.  
    
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webpage displayed above

2.3.3 Nicaragua: Unfinished Revolution   - Web Media: YouTube: AlJazeeraEnglish’s “Nicaragua: Unfinished Revolution:” “Part 1” and “Part 2” Link: YouTube: AlJazeeraEnglish’s “Nicaragua: Unfinished Revolution:” “Part 1” (YouTube) and “Part 2” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: This video will explore the achievements of the 1979 socialist revolution in Nicaragua.  The Sandinistas (FSLN), a Marxist revolutionary mass movement, succeeded in overthrowing a corrupt dictatorship of the Somoza family that had been in power since the 1930s and was long supported by the U.S. government and corporations.  Using the Cuban revolution as a model, they sought to reconstruct Nicaragua’s economy and society into a more egalitarian society and to reduce their economic dependence on the U.S. 

 Watch this two-part video (10:14 and11:52 minutes, respectively) to
learn more about the achievements and short-comings of the 30 years
since the Nicaraguan revolution took place.  As you watch the video,
take notes and answer the following questions:  

 1. Who is Daniel Ortega?  
 2. What is the name of the dictator whom the U.S. supported in
Nicaragua for 40 years?  
 3. What were the most important achievements of the Nicaraguan
Revolution of 1979?  
 4. Is Nicaragua a democratic country today?  
    
 This 2-part video and these questions should take about 1 hour to
complete.  
    
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webpage displayed above. 

2.4 Latin America Today: Two Decades of Neo-Liberalism--How Much Has Changed?   2.4.1 The Success of Neo-Liberalism   - Web Media: YouTube: OECD Development Center: “Business is Booming in Latin America” Link: YouTube:  OECD Development Center:  “Business is Booming in Latin America” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: In sub-subunits 2.4.1 through 2.4.3, you will explore the results of neo-liberal economic policies that have dominated the region since the 1980s.  Only a few countries with strong leftist populist governments (Cuba, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Ecuador) have rejected the neo-liberal model, while all the other governments of the region have adopted it (to varying degrees).  The key question is: has neo-liberalism succeeded in spurring economic and social development, especially the lessening of poverty and inequality?  While some see success (sub-subunit 2.4.1), others see failure and the need to move on (sub-subunits 2.4.2 and 2.4.3).  As you watch and listen to these different perspectives, you are encouraged to think critically and formulate your own judgments.

 This video (2 minutes in length) is a product of the OECD’s
Development Center.  The OECD is a global organization of (mainly)
advanced capitalist countries, and it is one of the major proponents
of the neo-liberal model of development. Watch this video for a
short summary of the progress Latin America has recently experienced
under the neo-liberal model, as well as some persistent roadblocks
that have yet to be overcome.  Then, answer the following
questions:  
    
 1.  What are the main areas of progress Latin America has recently
made in its development?  
 2.  What are continuing obstacles?  
    
 This video and these questions should take about 0.5 hour to
complete.  
    
 Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use for
the webpage displayed above.  
  

2.4.2 The Failure of Neo-Liberalism   - Web Media: YouTube: The Real News’ “The Crisis of Neoliberalism:” “Part 1” and “Part 2” Link: YouTube: The Real News’ “The Crisis of Neoliberalism:” “Part 1” (YouTube) and “Part 2” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: In contrast to the preceding video, this 2-part video (8:57 and 9:32 minutes, respectively) has a much more pessimistic assessment of neo-liberalism and free-market capitalism.  Note how Dr. Gerard Dumenil, Professor of Economics at the University of Paris, makes a connection between the continuing poverty and inequality in Latin America one the one hand, with the 1998 financial crisis (precipitated by “big financial capitalists of Wall Street) and anti-Wall Street protests throughout the U.S. during 2011.  As you watch the video, take notes and answer the following questions:

 1.     (Part 1) How is neo-liberalism defined?  
 2.     (Part 1) How does he define globalization?  How did
globalization facilitate the strengthening of neo-liberalism?  
 3.     (Part 1) According to Professor Dumenil, what is the primary
objective of neo-liberal policymakers, especially in the U.S.?  
 4.     (Part 1) How did neo-liberal policies contribute to the 2008
global financial crash?  
 5.     (Part 2) How did neo-liberalism provoke popular resistance? 
Give country-specific examples from the video.  
 6.     (Part 2) What demands should citizens make on their
governments in order to ameliorate the negative effects of
neo-liberal policies (for example, the reduction of workers’
purchasing power, loss of jobs, tightening credit, and slimming down
of employee benefits)?  
    
 This 2-part video and these questions should take about 1.5 hours
to complete.  
    
 Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use for
the webpages displayed above.

2.4.3 Post-Neoliberalism: The Left’s Alternative   - Reading: Share the World’s Resources’ “Post-Neoliberalism in Latin America” Link: Share the World’s Resources’ “Post-Neoliberalism in Latin America” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire article, which looks at the emergence of new alternatives to the neoliberal (called “neo-classical above) development model that has been favored by the U.S. Several Leftist Latin American leaders in countries of Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Bolivia; has sought to moderate the ill effects of reduced government regulation; and has instituted more social programs aimed at helping the poor.  As you read the article, take notes and answer the following questions:

 1. How is post-neoliberalism defined?  
 2. Which countries/governments are examples of
post-neoliberalism?  
 3.  What kinds of policies are associated with
“post-neoliberalism”?  
    
 This video and these questions should take about 1 hour to
complete.  
    
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webpage displayed above. 

2.4.4 Future of Latin American Development   - Reading: The Economist: Michael Reid’s “So Near, Yet so Far” Link: The Economist: Michael Reid’s “So Near, Yet so Far” (HTML)
 
Instructions: We will finish this subunit with a more balanced assessment from The Economist magazine. Read this entire article.  Take notes and answer the following questions:

 1. What macro-economic measures is Latin America improving?  
 2. How much progress is being made against poverty?  
 3. What yet remains to be done?  
    
 This reading and the questions should take about 0.5 hour to
complete.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use for the
webpage displayed above.