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POLSC321: Mideast Politics

Unit 7: Independence, Authoritarianism, and the Struggle to Constitute New Identities   After World War II, many states of the Middle East became independent from direct European control for the first time.  The leaders of these states were faced with the challenge of constituting national identities and legitimizing their power.  In an attempt to accomplish these goals, they generally employed an authoritarian strategy of governance.  In this section, you will investigate authoritarianism, as practiced in the Middle East since the end of European colonialism.  In addition to the constitution of national identities and the legitimation of new governments, issues include control of domestic populations, the influence of foreign powers, economic growth, and civil and regional conflict. 

Unit 7 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 12.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 7.1: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 7.2: 4.25 hours
☐    Sub-subunit 7.2.1: 0.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 7.2.2: 2 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 7.2.5: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.3: 4.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 7.3.1: 4 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 7.3.2: 0.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 7.3.3: 0.25 hours

☐    Subunit 7.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.5: 2.25 hours

Unit7 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:
- Identify the problems Arab regimes faced in the early days of independence, and summarize how they responded to these challenges. - Summarize how authoritarian rulers have maintained their power in the Middle East. - Identify the rationale for the French decision to create a separate mandate in Lebanon, and summarize the rationale for the incorporation of both Muslim and Christian areas into the new state of Lebanon. - Define confessional politics, and identify its advantages and disadvantages. - Identify the causes and consequences of the Lebanese Civil War. - Identify how Hafiz Asad came to power in Syria and how he preserved his power. - Identify how Saddam Hussein came to power in Iraq and how he preserved his power. - Identify the causes and consequences of the Iran-Iraq War.

7.1 Arabism   - Reading: “United Arab Republic” Link: “United Arab Republic” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above to download the PDF file.  Please read the entire text (8 pages).  Focus on the reasons for the formation and disintegration of the United Arab Republic.
 
Studying this resource should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is accessible under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license and the original version can be found here 

7.2 Lebanon   7.2.1 Ethnic Groups   - Web Media: New York Times’ “Lebanon’s Religious Mosaic” Link: New York Times’ “Lebanon’s Religious Mosaic” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and then select “Take a Closer Look” to access the map.  This map reflects participation in Lebanon’s elections of 2005.  Examine the participation of each ethnic group in each phase of the election.
 
You should spend approximately 15 minutes on this resource.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.2.2 French Policy   - Reading: Universite Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth’s Centre Interculturel Euro-Libanais: Marie-Joëlle Zahar’s “Power Sharing in Lebanon” Link: Universite Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth’s Centre Interculturel Euro-Libanais: Marie-Joëlle Zahar’s “Power Sharing in Lebanon” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to the bottom of the webpage, and click on “Power Sharing in Lebanon (Marie-Joëlle Zahar)” to download the PDF.  Please read the entire text (27 pages).  This resource also covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 7.2.3 and 7.2.4. 
 
Reading and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.2.3 Confessional Politics   Note: This topic is covered by the resource assigned below subunit 7.2.2.  Consider the advantages and disadvantages of confessional politics.  Focus on the rationale for adopting a confessional system.

7.2.4 Civil War   Note: This topic is covered by the resource assigned below subunit 7.2.2.  Focus on the causes of the civil war, the terms of the Ta’if Accord, and the rationale and consequences of Israel’s intervention.

7.2.5 Hizballa   - Reading: Middle East Research and Information Project: Lara Deeb’s “Hizballa: A Primer” Link: Middle East Research and Information Project: Lara Deeb’s “Hizballa: A Primer” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire article.  Focus on the role of Hizballa in the various stages of Lebanon’s recent history.
 
Studying this resource should take approximately 2 hours to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.3 Egypt   7.3.1 Nasserism   - Reading: Middle East Policy Council: Ahmed S. Hashim’s “The Egyptian Military, Part One: From the Ottomans through Sadat” and “The Egyptian Military, Part Two: From Mubarak Onward” Link: Middle East Policy Council: Ahmed S. Hashim’s “The Egyptian Military, Part One: From the Ottomans through Sadat” (HTML) and “The Egyptian Military, Part Two: From Mubarak Onward” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the links above, and read each article in its entirety.  For the second article, “The Egyptian Military Part Two,” make sure to click on the “next” link at the bottom of each page to read all 10 pages of the article.  Focus on the ideology and policy agenda of Nasserism and the ways in which that ideology and policy agenda evolved under Nasser, Sadat, and Mubarak.  Consider especially the role played by external factors.
 
Studying these resources should take approximately 4 hours to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

7.3.2 Al-infitah   - Reading: Photius Coutsoukis’ “Egypt: The Politics of Economic Strategy” Link: Photius Coutsoukis’ “Egypt: The Politics of Economic Strategy” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire text to learn about the rationale for and consequences of al-infitah.
 
You should spend approximately 15 minutes on this resource.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

7.3.3 The Camp David Accords   - Reading: PBS News Hour’s Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: “Peace Efforts” Link: PBS News Hour’s Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: “Peace Efforts” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire article, which discusses the reasons for entering into the negotiations and the provisions of the agreement.
 
This reading should take less than 15 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

7.4 Syria   - Web Media: PBS Frontline’s “Syria Undercover: The Regime” Link: PBS Frontline’s “Syria Undercover: The Regime” (Flash)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch Part II “The Regime.”  Please note that this resource also covers the topic outlined in sub-subunit 7.4.2.
 
Viewing this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

7.4.1 Ba’ath Party   - Reading: Countries Quest’s “History, Baath Party Rule” Link: Countries Quest’s “History, Baath Party Rule” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire article to learn about the ideology of the Ba’ath Party.  This resource also covers the topic outlined in sub-subunit 7.4.2.
 
You should spend approximately 30 minutes on this resource.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

7.4.2 Hafez Asad   Note: This topic is covered by the resources assigned below subunit 7.4 and 7.4.1.  Focus on Asad’s strategies for preserving power and his government’s policy toward Israel.

7.5 Iraq   7.5.1 Saddam Hussein   - Reading: BBC News: Gerald Butt’s “Saddam Hussein: His Rise to Power” Link: BBC News: Gerald Butt’s “Saddam Hussein: His Rise to Power” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire article to discover how Saddam came to power and how he had maintained power.
 
You should spend approximately 15 minutes on this reading.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

7.5.2 Iran-Iraq War   - Reading: Global Security: John Pike’s “Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988” Link: Global Security: John Pike’s “Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire text for a better understanding of the causes of the war and its consequences.
 
Studying this resource should take approximately 2 hours to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.