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POLSC321: Mideast Politics

Unit 5: Arabism, World War I, and the Mandate System   Many of the contemporary problems and conflicts in the Middle East have their historical origin in Europe’s conquest of the Middle East during World War I.  In this unit, you will identify the effects of the transition from Ottoman to European hegemony in the Middle East during the World War I period and its immediate aftermath. 

Unit 5 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 7.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 5.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 5.3: 1.75 hours

☐    Subunit 5.4: 0.75 hours

Unit5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:
- Define and discuss Arabism. - Compare and contrast the Ottoman and British attitudes and policies toward Arabism in WWI. - Identify the causes and consequences of the Ottoman decision to expel the Anatolian Armenians. - Identify the content of the Husayn-McMahon correspondence and the Sykes-Picot agreement, and summarize the relationship between the two. - Compare and contrast the former political strategies and agendas of Western nations in the Middle East with the political strategies and agendas of Western nations in the Middle East today. - Explain the rationale behind British support of a Jewish homeland in Palestine in 1917. - Summarize the origin and purposes of the mandate system. - Identify the problems associated with state-building in the Middle East after WWI and the origin of these problems. - Identify the strategies France and Britain employed to manage their colonies during the mandate period. - Summarize the process of identity formation in the Middle East during the mandate period, and identify factors external to the region that affected patterns of identity in the newly formed Middle Eastern states.

5.1 The Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire   - Reading: Theo Pavlidis’s A Concise History of the Middle East: “Chapter 20: The End of the Ottoman Empire” Link: Theo Pavlidis’s A Concise History of the Middle East: “Chapter 20: The End of the Ottoman Empire” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Chapter 20, which examines the causes of the decline of the Ottoman Empire.  This reading also covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 5.1.1 through 5.1.3.
 
Studying this resource should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

5.1.1 Territories of the Ottoman Empire   Note: This topic is covered by the resource assigned below subunit 5.1.  Focus on the areas controlled by the Ottomans leading up to WWI.

5.1.2 The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP)   Note: This topic is covered by the resource assigned below subunit 5.1.  Focus on the reforms made by the CUP.

5.1.3 The Expulsion of the Anatolian Armenians   - Reading: Maclean’s: Michael Petrou’s “A Turkish Scholar Discusses the Armenian Genocide” Link: Maclean’s: Michael Petrou’s “A Turkish Scholar Discusses the Armenian Genocide” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Petrou’s interview with Taner Akçam.  As you read, focus on the Ottomans’ rationale for the expulsion of the Armenians.
 
You should spend approximately 30 minutes on this reading.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

5.2 Arabism   - Reading: Sandbox: Martin Kramer’s “Arab Nationalism: Mistaken Identity” Link: Sandbox: Martin Kramer’s “Arab Nationalism: Mistaken Identity” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the article in its entirety.  Focus on the reasons for the rise, decline, and chances of a resurgence of Arabism.  Please note that this reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 5.2.1 through 5.2.3 as well as the 5.3.1 through 5.3.4.
 
Studying this resource should take approximately 3 hours to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above. 

5.2.1 Definition   Note: This topic is covered by the resource assigned below subunit 5.2.  Make sure you understand the origin and meaning of Arabism.

5.2.2 Threat to Ottomans   Note: This topic is covered by the resource assigned below subunit 5.2.  As you review this resource, focus on the reasons for the Ottoman opposition to Arabism and the threat it posed to the Ottoman Empire. 

5.2.3 Role in World War I   Note: This topic is covered by the resource assigned below subunit 5.2.  As you review the resource, please note the rationale for British support of Arabism. 

5.3 World War I   - Web Media: Policy Innovations: “Storm from the East: The Struggle between the Arab World and the Christian West” Link: Policy Innovations: “Storm from the East: The Struggle between the Arab World and the Christian West” (mp3)
 
Instructions: Listen to this hour-long podcast. 
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported license. It is attributed to Policy Innovations.

  • Web Media: NPR: Mike Schuster’s “The Middle East and the West: WWI and Beyond” Link: NPR: Mike Schuster’s “The Middle East and the West: WWI and Beyond” (HTML) (MP3)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, read the brief article on the webpage, and select the icon to listen to the broadcast (approximately 9 minutes).  You may also click on “Transcript” to download the transcript of the podcast.  This resource also covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 5.3.1 through 5.3.3.
     
    Reading the main text and transcript, viewing the podcast, and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

5.3.1 Husayn-McMahon Correspondence   Note: This topic is covered by the resources assigned below subunits 5.2 and 5.3.  Focus on the commitments made by Husayn and the British.

5.3.2 Sykes-Picot Agreement   Note: This topic is covered by the resource assigned below subunits 5.2 and 5.3.  Focus on the substance of the agreement and the effect this agreement had on previous commitments made in the Husayn-McMahon Correspondence.

5.3.3 Outcome   Note: This topic is covered by the resource assigned below subunits 5.2 and 5.3.  Focus on who was in control of the territories of the Middle East after WWI.

5.3.4 Balfour Declaration   - Reading: Middle East Policy Council: Jonathan Schneer’s “The Balfour Declaration: The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict” Link: Middle East Policy Council: Jonathan Schneer’s “The Balfour Declaration: The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire article (4 pages).  Make sure to click on the ‘next’ link at the bottom of each page to move on to subsequent pages.  Focus on the commitments made to Zionists and Arabs and the British rationale for issuing the Balfour Declaration. 

 Studying this resource should take approximately 1 hour to
complete.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the
webpage displayed above.

5.4 Mandate System   - Reading: Yahoo Voices: Patrick Hayes’ “The Mandate System in the Post WWI Era Middle East” Link: Yahoo Voices: Patrick Hayes’ “The Mandate System in the Post WWI Era Middle East” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire article.  Focus on the disjunction between the purported intent of the mandate system and its reality.  This resource also covers the topics outlined for sub-subunits 5.4.1 through 5.4.4.
 
You should spend approximately 30 minutes on this reading.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

  • Reading: Mideast Web’s “The League of Nations’ Mandate System” Link: Mideast Web’s “The League of Nations’ Mandate System” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the introductory text as well as Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, 28 June 1919.  Focus on the official definition of a mandate.  This resource also covers the topics outlined for sub-subunits 5.4.1 through 5.4.4.
     
    You should spend approximately 15 minutes on this resource.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

5.4.1 Definition   Note: This topic is covered by the resources assigned below subunit 5.4.  Focus on how the mandate system was intended to be different from colonialism.

5.4.2 Origin   Note: This topic is covered by the resources assigned below subunit 5.4.  Focus on the reasons for adoption of the mandate system.

5.4.3 Purpose   Note: This topic is covered by the resources assigned below subunit 5.4.  Focus on the ostensible goals of the mandate program and its actual goals.

5.4.4 The Persistence of Colonial Policy   Note: This topic is covered by the resources assigned below subunit 5.4.  Focus on the way the mandate system was used to justify colonial policy.