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POLSC313: US Intelligence and National Security

Unit 5: The Processes of Policy Analysis and Policymaking Related to US National Security   The policy triadto the president on issues of national security consists of the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, and the National Security Advisor. The Secretary of State is the president’s principal advisor on diplomacy and foreign affairs as well as supervising the work of ambassadors and State Department personnel. Whereas the military is primarily organized per region, the line and file members of the State Department are organized by specialization and operational function.
 
The National Security Advisor leads the National Security Council (NSC). Members of the National Security Council include the president, the vice president, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. The National Security Council is composed of political appointees, who serve at the pleasure of the president. The relatively small number of persons on the NSC and the use of political appointees as staff are meant to speed up deliberation, particularly in times of crisis, in which difficult decisions involving defense of the nation must be made and implemented quickly.

Unit 5 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 13.5 hours.

☐    Subunit 5.1: 5.25 hours

    ☐    Reading: 3.5 hours

    ☐    Lecture: 1.75 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2: 3.25 hours

☐    Subunit 5.3: 3 hours

☐    Unit 5 Activity: 2 hours

Unit5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
- identify members of the National Security Council (NSC);
  - evaluate the roles of various actors in the national security policymaking process through the use of several models;
  - analyze the power struggles that can arise between the National Security Council and operational departments; and
  - explain the delegation of powers among members of the NSC during diplomatic, combat, peacekeeping, nation-building, and peacetime operations.

5.1 Actors in the National Security Process and Their Respective Roles   - Reading: DTIC Online: Alan G. Whittaker, Frederick C. Smith, and Elizabeth McKune’s “The National Security Policy Process: The National Security Council and Interagency System” Link: DTIC Online: Alan G. Whittaker, Frederick C. Smith, and Elizabeth McKune’s “The National Security Policy Process: The National Security Council and Interagency System” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read this report, which explains how national security policy is made in the US and identifies who participates in the planning and implementation process.
 
Reading this report should take approximately 3 hours.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Strategic Studies Institute: Dr. J. Boone Bartholomees, Jr.’s (ed.) US Army War College Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy, 2nd edition: “Chapter 24” Link: Strategic Studies Institute: Dr. J. Boone Bartholomees, Jr.’s (ed.) US Army War College Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy, 2nd edition: “Chapter 24” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Read Chapter 24 on pages 319 - 327 for information on cognitive factors that affect national security.
     
    Reading this chapter should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: YouTube: US Army War College: Dr. Jim Helis’s “National Security” Link: YouTube: US Army War College: Dr. Jim Helis’s “National Security” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this video lecture on the history and impact of the national security policymaking processes in America.

    Watching this video lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 45 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: YouTube: US Army War College: Dr. Alan Stolberg’s “Making National Security Policy in the 21st Century” Link: YouTube: US Army War College: Dr. Alan Stolberg’s “Making National Security Policy in the 21st Century (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this video lecture on national security policy in the 21st Century.

    Watching this video lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.2 Policy Implementation and Execution through Diplomacy and Economic Development   - Reading: Strategic Studies Institute: Dr. J. Boone Bartholomees, Jr.’s (ed.) US Army War College Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy, 2nd edition: “Chapters 14, 15, 18, and 19” Link: Strategic Studies Institute: Dr. J. Boone Bartholomees, Jr.’s (ed.) US Army War College Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy, 2nd edition: “Chapters 14, 15, 18, and 19” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read Chapter 14 and Chapter 15 on pages 191 - 208 and then read Chapter 18 and Chapter 19 on pages 241 - 260 to learn how the US Department of State uses diplomatic and economic tools to implement and execute the objectives of US national security policies.

 Reading these chapters should take approximately 2 hours.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Lecture: YouTube: US Army War College: Dr. Robin Dorff’s “Integrating Civilian and Military Capabilities” Link: YouTube: US Army War College: Dr. Robin Dorff’s “Integrating Civilian and Military Capabilities” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this video lecture on the coordination of civilian and military capabilities when implementing US national security policies.
     
    Watching this video lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.3 Policy Implementation and Execution by the Military   - Reading: Strategic Studies Institute: Dr. J. Boone Bartholomees, Jr.’s (ed.) US Army War College Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy, 2nd edition: “Chapters 12, 13, 17, and 22” Link: Strategic Studies Institute: Dr. J. Boone Bartholomees, Jr.’s (ed.) US Army War College Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy, 2nd edition: “Chapters 12, 13, 17, and 22” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read Chapter 12 and Chapter 13 on pages 155 - 187. Then read Chapter 17 on pages 217 - 239 and Chapter 22 on pages 303 - 312. These chapters discuss military strategic planning and decisions to authorize the use of military force.
 
Reading these chapters should take approximately 3 hours.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

Unit 5 Activity   - Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “POLSC313 Course Discussion Board” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “POLSC313 Course Discussion Board”
 
Instructions: After you have studied the material in this /unit, consider the following questions. Post your responses to these questions on the course discussion board, and review as well as respond to other students’ posts.
 
1. How is civilian control over the military and security forces implemented in the US executive power structure?

 2. What tensions can arise between the National Security Council
and operational departments?  
    
 Completing this activity should take approximately 2 hours.