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POLSC313: US Intelligence and National Security

Unit 4: The Role of the Military, Homeland Security, and Intelligence Agencies in US National Security   The military and intelligence agencies are the operational arms of the national security establishment. The military chain of command is led by the president, who serves as commander-in-chief, followed by the Secretary of Defense, who is the civilian leader of the armed forces, and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who is the top leader in the military. Under the 1986 Defense Reorganization Act, military forces are organized into geographic and functional commands. Regular forces fall under geographical commands, and specialized units are grouped under the Joint Forces Command, Special Forces Command, Strategic Command, and Transportation Command.

Following the end of the Cold War, President Clinton began downsizing the components of the military. Troop numbers overall were reduced and many support positions in transportation, logistics, and dining and residential facilities that were previously filled by active duty forces were filled by civilian contractors. After 9/11, the numbers of both active duty forces and civilian contractors increased, but this still was not enough to avoid mass recalls of reservists and National Guardsmen to active duty for operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. 
 
The events of 9/11 revealed gaps in communication and data sharing between intelligence agencies and law enforcement authorities. Several agencies, particularly the FBI and the National Security Agency, had pieces of information concerning planning and implementation of the attacks but were unaware of info possessed by outside agencies that could have led to actionable intelligence. Actionable intelligence is information that is sufficiently reliable upon which to base an imminent decision for executive or military action. The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 sought to remedy these issues by creating a Director of National Intelligence (DNI). The DNI is the chief coordinator of intelligence activities as well as the chief intelligence advisor to the president.
 
There are multiple types of intelligence collection. HUMINT, or Human Intelligence, is the form of intelligence that most people think of when they hear the term intelligence, but it is neither the only, nor the best, form of intelligence. SIGINT, or Signals Intelligence, encompasses the intercept and analysis of communications (COMINT), electronic transmissions (ELINT), and seismic, acoustic, and optical intelligence (MASINT). Access to intelligence tasking, collection platforms, data, analysis, and reporting is controlled by level of security clearance and the need to know. Limited access is in place to safeguard intelligence collection methods as well as the information gathered. 

Unit 4 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 19 hours.

☐    Subunit 4.1: 5.75 hours

    ☐    Reading: 3.5 hours

    ☐    Lecture: 2.25 hours

☐    Subunit 4.2: 8.25 hours

    ☐    Reading: 7.25 hours
 
    ☐    Web Media: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 4.3: 3 hours

☐    Unit 4 Activity: 2 hours

Unit4 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
- identify types of intelligence information and the agencies responsible for collection, analysis, reporting, and dissemination of intelligence;
  - describe the stages of the intelligence cycle;
  - evaluate potential conflicts between the ideals of democracy and the need for intelligence collection and homeland security operations;
  - assess the proper roles of the military in combat, peacekeeping, and peacetime operations; and
  - explain the tensions that may exist between civilian and military leaders in combat, peacekeeping, and peacetime operations.

4.1 The Military as a Tool for Ensuring National Security   - Reading: General Carl von Clausewitz’s On War: “Book VIII, Chapters 1 - 9” Link: General Carl von Clausewitz’s On War: “Book VIII, Chapters 1 - 9” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Select the links to Chapters 1 - 9 for Book VIII, and read them. Clausewitz’s explanation of strategic planning for war is still studied by military officers around the world, and it forms part of the foundation for the current strategic thinking of the American military.

 Reading these chapters should take approximately 2 hours and 30
minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Strategic Studies Institute: Dr. J. Boone Bartholomees, Jr.’s (ed.) US Army War College Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy, 2nd edition: “Chapters 3 and 4” Link: Strategic Studies Institute: Dr. J. Boone Bartholomees, Jr. (ed.)’s US Army War College Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy, 2nd edition: “Chapters 3 and 4” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Read Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 of this text on pages 21 - 41 in order to gain an overview of legal and ethical issues which arise in conjunction with war and military operations.
     
    Reading these chapters should take approximately 1 hour.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: YouTube: US Army War College: Dr. Jim Helis’s “Clausewitz” Link: YouTube: US Army War College: Dr. Jim Helis’s “Clausewitz” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this video lecture on the history and impact of the works of Clausewitz on military strategy during the past two centuries.
     
    Watching this video lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 45 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: YouTube: UC Channel: Dr. Antulio J. Echevarria II’s "Clausewitz and Contemporary War” Link: YouTube: UC Channel: Dr. Antulio J. Echevarria II’s “Clausewitz and Contemporary War” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this video lecture on Clausewitz and contemporary war.

    Watching this video lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2 The US Intelligence Community and Its Role in National Security   - Reading: Intelligence.gov: “About the Intelligence Community” Link: Intelligence.gov: “About the Intelligence Community” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this introduction about the 17 agencies that comprise the US Intelligence Community. Be sure to click the tabs at the top of the webpage to read the following sections: “Protecting America,” “How Intelligence Works,” “Structure,” and “Member Agencies.”

 Reading these sections should take approximately 15 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: George Washington University, The National Security Archive: “Science, Technology, and the CIA” Link: George Washington University, The National Security Archive: “Science, Technology, and the CIA” (HTML)(PDF)
     
    Instructions: Read this briefing for information concerning the history and mission of the Central Intelligence Agency. Make sure to click on the links to the documents for each topic.
     
    Reading this briefing should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: George Washington University, The National Security Archive: “The Pentagon’s Spies” Link: George Washington University, The National Security Archive: “The Pentagon’s Spies” (HTML)(PDF)
     
    Instructions: Read this briefing for information concerning the history and development of human intelligence (HUMINT) collection, analysis, and reporting in the Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Make sure to click on the links to the documents 1 - 21, and skim these primary sources.

    Reading this briefing and reviewing the documents should take approximately 1 hour.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: George Washington University, The National Security Archive: “The CIA’s Family Jewels” Link: George Washington University, The National Security Archive: “The CIA’s Family Jewels” (HTML)(PDF)
     
    Instructions: Read this briefing, starting at Washington, DC, June 21, 2007. This briefing will provide information concerning a recently declassified CIA report of abuses and legal violations committed by the CIA. Make sure to click on the links to documents 1 - 4, and skim these primary sources.
     
    Reading this briefing and reviewing the documents should take approximately 1 hour.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: George Washington University, The National Security Archive: “Out of the Black: The Declassification of the NRO” Link: George Washington University, The National Security Archive: “Out of the Black: The Declassification of the NRO” (HTML and PDF)
     
    Instructions: Read this briefing for information concerning the history and mission of the National Reconnaissance Office. Make sure to click on the links to documents 1 - 32, and skim these primary sources.

    Reading this briefing and reviewing the documents should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: George Washington University, The National Security Archive: “The National Security Agency Declassified” Link: George Washington University, The National Security Archive: “The National Security Agency Declassified” (HTML and PDF)
     
    Instructions: Read this briefing for information concerning the history and mission of the National Security Agency. Make sure to click on the links to documents 1 - 26, and skim these primary sources.
    Reading this briefing and reviewing the documents should take approximately 1 hour.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Strategic Studies Institute: Dr. J. Boone Bartholomees, Jr.’s (ed.) US Army War College Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy, 2nd edition: “Chapter 23” Link: Strategic Studies Institute: Dr. J. Boone Bartholomees, Jr.’s (ed.) US Army War College Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy, 2nd edition: “Chapter 23” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Read Chapter 23 of this text on pages 313 - 318 for an overview of the role that intelligence plays in national security policymaking and implementation.
     
    Reading this chapter should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: US Army War College: Josh Kerbel’s “Lost for Words: The US Intelligence Community’s Struggle to Find Its Voice” Link: US Army War College: Josh Kerbel’s “Lost for Words: The US Intelligence Community’s Struggle to Find Its Voice” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Read this article, which summarizes the post-9/11 conflicts and dilemmas within the US intelligence community.

    Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: YouTube: The Hoover Institution’s “Intelligence and Security with James Woolsey” Link: YouTube: The Hoover Institution’s “Intelligence and Security with James Woolsey” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this interview with former CIA Director James Woolsey.

    Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.3 The Role of the Department of Homeland Security in National Security and Intelligence Operations   - Reading: US Department of Homeland Security: President George W. Bush’s “Proposal to Create the Department of Homeland Security” Link: US Department of Homeland Security: President George W. Bush’s “Proposal to Create the Department of Homeland Security” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read the 2002 proposal for the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). This document explains the reason that such an agency was needed and the anticipated scope of its mission. Focus on the section of the Department of Homeland Security’s actions since 9/11.
 
Reading this proposal should take approximately 1 hour.
 
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  • Reading: US Department of Homeland Security: “Our Mission” and “Department Components” Link: US Department of Homeland Security: “Our Mission” (HTML) and “Department Components” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read these articles for an introduction concerning the mission and components of the US Department of Homeland Security.

    Reading these articles should take approximately 15 minutes.
     
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  • Lecture: YouTube: Uchannel: Peter Verga’s “Homeland Security: A Military or Civilian Responsibility?” Link: YouTube: Uchannel: Peter Verga’s “Homeland Security: A Military or Civilian Responsibility?” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch Peter Verga’s video lecture on homeland security.

    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 45 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

Unit 4 Activity   - Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “POLSC313 Course Discussion Board” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “POLSC313 Course Discussion Board”
 
Instructions: After you have studied the material in this unit, consider the following questions. Post your responses to these questions on the course discussion board, and review as well as respond to other students’ posts.
 
1. What is the role of the military in ensuring US national security?

 2. Why do tensions arise between civilian and military leaders?  
    
 Completing this activity should take approximately 2 hours.