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POLSC312: International Organizations

Unit 6: Transnational Organizations   Transnational organizations are, as the name implies, organizations that work across countries’ boundaries.  But, beyond this, they are entities that are not defined in relationship to states.  Hypothetically, if you eliminate all the states of the world, transnational organizations could, and arguably would, still exist.  Thus, this unit will survey such entities as professional associations, cultural and religious entities, business/economic organizations, and terrorist organizations.  Key dynamics herein are the extent to which transnational organizations help or hinder other aspects of the global governance and government.  Do such entities provide a useful supplement to or undermine IGOs’ and INGOs’ activities as they address global issues?  In what ways have other global participants reacted or responded to transnational organizations?

Unit 6 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 9 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 6.1: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 6.2: 4.5 hours

 

☐    Sub-subunit 6.2.1: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 6.2.2: 3.5 hours

☐    Subunit 6.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 6.4: 2 hours

Unit6 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Differentiate between transnational and other types of international organizations. - Analyze the potential challenges that transnational organizations pose for international governance.

6.1 What Roles Do Professionals’ Associations Play in International Governance?   6.1.1 Science/Technology Sharing   - Reading: George Mason University: Connie McNeely and Laurie Schintler’s “Exploring Epistemic Communities: A Gendered Perspective on Scientific Collaboration” Link: George Mason University: Connie McNeely and Laurie Schintler’s “Exploring Epistemic Communities: A Gendered Perspective on Scientific Collaboration” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down the webpage, and click on “Download This Paper” to access the PDF file.  Read the entire text (14 pages).  Make sure you are clear on what is meant by the term “epistemic community.” 
 
Studying this resource should take approximately 1 hour to complete
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.1.2 Human Rights Advocacy – American Association for the Advancement of Science – History of Human Rights Advocacy   - Reading: American Association for the Advancement of Science: Amy Crumpton’s “AAAS Scientific Responsibility, Human Rights and Law Program: History of the Program” Link: American Association for the Advancement of Science: Amy Crumpton’s “AAAS Scientific Responsibility, Human Rights and Law Program: History of the Program” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire article found by accessing the above link.  It provides an overview of the history of AAAS’ human rights work since its inception.
 
The reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.2 Do Transnational NGOs Enhance or Hinder Governance Efforts?   6.2.1 Facilitating Conflict Resolution   - Reading: Council for Research in Values and Philosophy: Maryann Cusimano Love’s “Globalization, Religion, and Culture: Beyond Conflict, Beyond Sovereignty” Link: Council for Research in Values and Philosophy: Maryann Cusimano Love’s “Globalization, Religion, and Culture: Beyond Conflict, Beyond Sovereignty” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire article.  As you read, consider the following questions: how do religious organizations, including the Catholic Church, support and also undermine the role of states and prominent IGOs in addressing issues of violence?
 
This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.2.2 Promoting and Protecting Human Rights   - Reading: Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law: George E. Edwards’ “Assessing the Effectiveness of Human Rights Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) from the Birth of the United Nations to the 21st Century: Ten Attributes of Highly Successful Human Rights NGOs” Link: Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law: George E. Edwards’ “Assessing the Effectiveness of Human Rights Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) from the Birth of the United Nations to the 21st Century: Ten Attributes of Highly Successful Human Rights NGOs” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, read the abstract, select “Download this paper,” and read the entire article (64 pages).  Make sure that you become familiar with the ten attributes of successful Human Rights NGOs that Edwards discusses.  
 
Studying this reading should take approximately 3 hours and 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.3 In What Ways Do Transnational NGOs Impact Business Practices in a Globalizing Economy?   In an international system defined in many ways by the forces and interests of globalizing capital, we have witnessed an upswing of transnational NGO activity that targets various labor issues.  These include: wages, working conditions, the right to organize unions and collectively bargain, and sexual harassment.  Assess if these issues would be addressed if transnational NGOs were not in the picture.  As outlined in sub-subunit 6.3.2, there are also attempts by transnational NGOs to promote alternative business models focused on “Fair Trade.”

6.3.1 Wages and Working Conditions   - Reading: International Labor Rights Forum’s “Creating a Sweat Free World” Link: International Labor Rights Forum’s “Creating a Sweat Free World” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire article.
 
This reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.3.2 Fair Trade vs. Free Trade Debate   - Reading: Fair Trade Canada: John Kay’s “Fair Trade: The Paradox of Global Social Change” Link: Fair Trade Canada: John Kay’s “Fair Trade: The Paradox of Global Social Change” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the brief article. 
 
Studying this resource should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.4 How Has International Governance and Government Responded to and/or Been Shaped by the Activities of Terrorist Organizations?   6.4.1 Defining and Characterizing Transnational Terrorist Organizations   - Reading: Journal of World Systems Research: University of Notre Dame: Omar Lizardo’s “Defining and Theorizing Terrorism: A Global Actor-Centered Approach” Link: Journal of World Systems Research: University of Notre Dame: Omar Lizardo’s “Defining and Theorizing Terrorism: A Global Actor-Centered Approach” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, select the title “Lizardo-vol14n2.pdf” to download the PDF file, and read the entire article (28 pages).
 
Studying this resource should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.4.2 IGO Responses to Terrorist Organizations’ Activities   - Reading: United Nations’ ”UN Action to Counter Terrorism” Link: United Nations’ “UN Action to Counter Terrorism” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire webpage.
 
This reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.