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POLSC312: International Organizations

Unit 4: The United Nations   Two focal points form the foundation for our exploration of the United Nations and its role in global governance and government.  The first is the UN’s structure; of importance here is to note the ways in which the six primary organs – the General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, International Court of Justice, Secretariat, and Trusteeship Council  have discrete yet related functions within the organization.  Beyond this, the specific decision-making mechanisms of each organ correspond to and reflect that organ’s purpose.  The second topic within this unit addresses the effectiveness of the UN in the context of global governance and government.  Here, you will study the two pillars of the UN: protecting and promoting human rights and collective security/peacekeeping.  For each, specific case studies are examined to assess the extent to which the UN has been successful, or not, in meeting its goals and mission.  In the end, it is important to understand that the UN, like the European Union and African Union, is still a ‘work in progress;’ that is, it continues to evolve and develop to meet the ever-changing needs of the global community as a whole and its individual members.

Unit 4 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 30.75 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 4.1: 10.25 hours

☐    Introduction: 0.5 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 4.1.1: 1.75 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.1.2: 8 hours

 

☐    Sub-sub-subunit 4.1.2.1: 1 hour

☐    Sub-sub-subunit 4.1.2.2: 1 hour

☐    Sub-sub-subunit 4.1.2.3: 2 hours

☐    Sub-sub-subunit 4.1.2.4: 3 hours

☐    Sub-sub-subunit 4.1.2.5: 1 hour

 

☐    Sub-unit 4.2: 20.5 hours

 

☐    Introduction: 4.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.2.1: 14.25 hours

 

☐    Sub-sub-subunit 4.2.1.1: 6 hours

☐    Sub-sub-subunit 4.2.1.2: 8.25 hours

 

☐    Sub-sub-sub-subunit 4.2.1.2.1: 2 hours

☐    Sub-sub-sub-subunit 4.2.1.2.2: 1 hour

☐    Sub-sub-sub-subunit 4.2.1.2.3: 4.5 hours

 

☐    Sub-subunit 4.2.2: 1.75 hours

Unit4 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Describe and differentiate between the primary organs of the UN, paying particular attention to their structures, purposes and areas of responsibilities. - Compare and contrast the specialized agencies of the UN with respect to their structures, purposes and areas of responsibilities. - Analyze the UN’s activities and effectiveness with respect to human rights. - Analyze the UN’s activities and effectiveness with respect to collective security.

4.1 What Is the Overall Structure of the UN and How Has It Evolved since Its Inception in 1945?   This subunit will provide you with an overview of the United Nations and its associated organizations through reading its founding document: The Charter of the United Nations.  The various chapters of this document will describe the six primary organs’ governing structures and processes (membership, voting, etc.), purposes, and areas of responsibilities.  In addition, you will explore a sampling of the specialized agencies of the UN.  The emphasis here is to compare and contrast them with respect to what they do and how they do it.  Note the range – narrow or broad – of their activities and the geopolitical regions of the world in which they operate.

  • Reading: The United Nations’ “The Charter of the United Nations” Link: The United Nations’ “The Charter of the United Nations” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: The above link takes you to an interactive version of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the four readings, click on the links for “Introductory Note,” “Preamble,” “Chapter I: Purposes and Principles,” and “Chapter II: Membership” under the ‘Index’ heading in the center of the page.  You may read this material in one of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the documents in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
     
    You should spend approximately 30 minutes studying this resource.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.1 Six Primary Organs: Structures, Mandates & Functions   This section focuses on the six primary organs of the United Nations: The General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Secretariat, the International Court of Justice, and the Trusteeship Council.  As you read the materials, pay particular attention to their similarities and differences.  How do they differ and complement each other regarding their purpose or role in the UN?  What are the key areas of responsibility for each?  How does each organ make decisions; what is the voting system (simple majority, supermajority, weighted voting, etc.).  Note the breadth or narrowness of focus and the depth/detail of some of the topics and issues.

  • Reading: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter III: Organs” Link: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter III: Organs” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: The above link takes you to the home page of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the reading, click on the link with the same title in the left-hand column on the webpage.  You may read this material in any of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
     
    This reading will take less than 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.1.1 General Assembly (GA)   - Reading: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter IV: The General Assembly” Link: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter IV: The General Assembly” (HTML)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to the home page of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the reading, click on the link with the same title in the left-hand column on the webpage.  You may read this material in any of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
 
This reading will take less than 15 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.1.2 Security Council (SC)   - Reading: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter V: The Security Council” Link: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter V: The Security Council” (HTML)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to the home page of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the reading, click on the link with the same title in the left-hand column on the webpage.  You may read this material in any of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
 
This reading will take you less than 15 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.1.3 Economic & Social Council (ECOSOC)   - Reading: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter X: The Economic and Social Council” Link: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter X: The Economic and Social Council” (HTML)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to the home page of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the reading, click on the link with the same title in the left-hand column on the webpage.  You may read this material in any of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
 
This reading will take less than 15 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.1.4 International Court of Justice (ICJ)   - Reading: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter XIV: The International Court of Justice” Link: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter XIV: The International Court of Justice” (HTML)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to the home page of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the reading, click on the link with the same title in the left-hand column on the webpage.  You may read this material in any of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
 
This reading will take less than 15 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.1.5 Secretariat   - Reading: The United Nations: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter XV: The Secretariat” Link: The United Nations: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter XV: The Secretariat” (HTML)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to the home page of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the reading, click on the link with the same title in the left-hand column on the webpage.  You may read this material in any of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
 
This reading will take less than 15 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.1.6 Trusteeship Council   - Reading: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter XII: International Trusteeship System” and “Chapter XIII: The Trusteeship Council” Link: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter XII: International Trusteeship System” (HTML) and “Chapter XIII: The Trusteeship Council (HTML)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to the home page of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the reading, click on the link with the same title in the left-hand column on the webpage.  You may read this material in any of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
 
This reading will take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.2 Specialized Agencies   This subunit focuses on exemplary cases of specialized agencies and associated organizations of the United Nations.  As you read the materials, pay particular attention to the similarities and differences among the organizations.  For example, how does each organization govern itself in terms of both structure and process, that is, how does it make decisions?  Of equal importance are the mandate or purpose of each organization and the corresponding agenda – set of issues/topics in which it engages.  Note the breadth or narrowness of focus and the depth/detail of some of the topics, issues, and activities.  Also, note the various geopolitical regions of the world in which the organization is active.

4.1.2.1 World Health Organization (WHO)   - Reading: The World Health Organization’s “About WHO” and “Programmes and Projects” Link: The World Health Organization’s “About WHO” (HTML) and “Programmes and Projects” (HTML)
 
Instructions: The first link above takes you to the home page of the World Health Organization (WHO).  You may read this material in any of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.  To access the readings, click the “About WHO” link on the far right of the ribbon at the top of the page.  Read the brief introduction at the top of the page and then click on the links for “History of WHO,” “The Role of WHO in Public Health,” and “The WHO Agenda,” and read all of the material on each page.
 
The second link takes you to an alphabetized list of specific projects of the WHO.  Review the list and notice the incredibly wide range of activities of this specialized agency of the UN.  It becomes clear why the term ‘multipurpose’ organization is so appropriate.
 
This material should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
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4.1.2.2 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)   - Reading: The Food and Agriculture Association’s “About FAO,” “FAO Governance,” and “Topics” Link: The Food and Agriculture Association’s “About FAO, (HTML) “FAO Governance”, (HTML) and “Topics (HTML)
 
Instructions: The above links takes you to the ‘About FAO,’ ‘FAO Governance,’ and ‘Topics’ sections of the Food and Agriculture Association (FAO) webpage.  You may read this material in any of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the ribbon at the top of the page.
 
This material should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.2.3 UN Environmental Programme (UNEP)   - Reading: The UN Environmental Programme’s “About UNEP” and “Six Priorities” Link: The UN Environmental Programme’s “About UNEP (HTML) and “Six Priorities (HTML)
 
Instructions: The first link takes you to the “About UNEP” section of the UN Environmental Programme (UNEP) homepage.  Click on the following link under this heading: ‘UNEP Organigram’ (this document can be resized for clarity).  The second link will take you to the UNEP’s “Six Priorities.”  Under the headings are six icons representing each of the priorities.  They are, in order: Climate Change, Disasters and Conflicts, Ecosystem Management, Environmental Governance, Harmful Substances, and Resource Efficiency.  You may read this material in four of the six official languages of the United Nations: Chinese (Mandarin), English, French or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link to the far right in the ribbon at the top of the page.
 
The significance of this material lies in understanding the complexity of some IGOs that seems to be inconsistent with the apparent ‘single purpose’ nature of their mandate.  However, despite the UNEP ‘only’ being concerned with environmental issues, the ‘Organigram’ reinforces the multiplicity of what constitutes ‘the environment.’
 
This material should take approximately 2 hours to complete.
 
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4.1.2.4 UN Development Programme (UNDP)   - Reading: The UN Development Programme’s “About Us” Link: The UN Development Programme’s “About Us (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the material on the page accessed via the above link.  Also, please click on the embedded ‘Millennium Development Goals’ link, and explore the material related to each of the 8 MDGs.  Finally, click on each of the links to the various issue areas covered by the UNDP (e.g. democratic governance, poverty reduction, environment, & energy), and read the material found on those pages.
 
This material should take approximately 3 hours to complete.
 
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4.1.2.5 International Labor Organization (ILO)   - Reading: The International Labor Organization’s “About the ILO,” “Topics,” and “Programmes and Projects” Link: The International Labor Organization’s “About the ILO, (HTML) “Topics, (HTML) and “Programmes and Projects (HTML)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to various pages on the International Labor Organization’s (ILOs) website.
 
After clicking on the ‘About the ILO’ link, please read the brief paragraph at the top of the page.  Next, read the subsections entitled: “How we work,” “Mission and objectives,” “Origins and History,” and “Key Issues.”  Be sure to click on the small red double arrow to the immediate left of each heading to access the full text material for that link.  On the origins and history page, please be sure to watch the short video clip.
 
To access the “Topics” material, please click on the ‘Topics’ link near the top left corner of the webpage.  Peruse the various topics on this page to gain an understanding of the scope of the ILO’s work.
 
To access the “Programmes and Projects” material, please click on the ‘Programmes and Projects’ link near the top center of the webpage.  Read the material on this page, paying attention to the breadth and depth of the issues and activities.
 
This material should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2 Has the UN Been Effective and How Might It Be Reformed?   - Web Media: National Public Radio’s “Debating the Effectiveness of the United Nations” Link: National Public Radio’s “Debating the Effectiveness of the United Nations” (Flash or HTML)
 
Instructions: The above link takes directly to the resource.  Please read the material on this page.  To listen to the audio recording, click on the ‘Listen’ link in the center of the page.  To read the transcript of the broadcast, scroll down the page to “Transcript.”
 
Studying this resource should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Thomas G. Weiss, Tapio Kanninen and Michael K. Busch’s “Sustainable Global Governance for the 21st Century,” September 2009 Link: Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Thomas G. Weiss, Tapio Kannined and Michael K. Busch’s “Sustainable Global Governance for the 21st Century” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: The above link takes you to a list of publications by the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Friedrich Ebert Foundation).  The reading is the third one on that list.  To access it, click on the link provided.  This reading is one of many ‘Occasional Papers’ of the Dialogue on Globalization project of the FES Foundation.  Its central theme tackles the joint issues of economic and environmental crises that the world faces and the ways in which the UN might successfully address them.
     
    This reading should take approximately 4 hours and 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.1 Human Rights & Humanitarian Activities   Protecting and promoting human rights is one of the two cornerstones of the UN.  As this responsibility is quite broad, it comprises the single largest area of UN activity.  The range of its involvement includes determining operational definitions and legal frameworks for the most severe violations – genocide, torture, etc. – to creating local, regional and global infrastructures that identify and deliver basic human needs – clean water, health care, education, etc.  UN human rights activities have been fraught with tensions and controversies since the inception of the organization despite the seemingly straightforward nature of this work.  The cases profiled below provide insight into the past and ongoing human rights activities of the UN.  Following the cases is a section on key international legal documents that are critical for the UN’s work.  As you review the materials below please consider the extent to which you think the UN has been successful in accomplishing this part of its mandate.  What criteria are you using to assess the UN’s behavior in this context?  Why?

4.2.1.1 Protecting and Promoting Human Rights   - Reading: The United Nations’ “Huran Rights Defenders: Protecting the Right to Defend Human Rights (PDF) Link: The United Nations’ “Human Rights Defenders: Protecting the Right to Defend Human Rights” (HTML) 
 
Instructions: Click the “Download PDF” link and read all of the material on the page.
 
This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.1.1.1 Case: Africa – Apartheid & Genocide   - Reading: The United Nations’ “The United Nations: Partner in the Struggle against Apartheid” Link: The United Nations’ “The United Nations: Partner in the Struggle against Apartheid” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read all of the material on the page accessed via the above link.
 
This reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: FreeDocumentaries: Public Broadcasting Station: Frontline’s “Ghosts of Rwanda” Link: FreeDocumentaries: Public Broadcasting Station: Frontline’s “Ghosts of Rwanda” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: This link takes you to the ‘Ghosts of Rwanda’ page on FreeDocumentaries.  Click on the ‘Watch Film Now’ link to watch the film.  The Rwandan genocide has come to be the most flagrant example of the UN’s failure to take appropriate, timely action to prevent this egregious form of human rights violations.  As you watch the documentary, consider the various points at which decision were or were not made and how the situation could have been resolved in a different manner.  Is the failure of the UN the result of structural/organizational flaws or the lack of political will to make tough decisions on the part of the members?  Does the film underscore the, at times, seemingly indecisive nature of the UN membership (keep in mind that the organization is made up of independent, autonomous states) or of a fundamental weakness in the institutional structure of the UN itself?
     
    Viewing this video and answering the questions above will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.1.1.2 Case: Asia – Self-determination & Sovereignty   - Web Media: TopDocumentaryFilms.com: Maria Florio, Victoria Mudd, Tom Peosay and Sue Peosay’s “Tibet: Cry of the Snow Lion” Link: TopDocumentaryFilms.com: Maria Florio, Victoria Mudd, Tom Peosay and Sue Peosay’s “Tibet: Cry of the Snow Lion (Flash)
 
Instructions: This link takes you to the “Tibet: Cry of the Snow Lion” page on TopDocumentaryFilms.  To watch the documentary, click on the ‘Watch Film’ link under the brief paragraph description. 
 
China’s tumultuous relationship with Tibet is the subject of this documentary.  In essence, the government of China has claimed Tibet as part of its territory and undertaken policies to solidify that claim.  For example, immigration to Tibet by Chinese nationals is strongly encouraged, thus increasing the Chinese population of Tibet.  The decades-long situation highlights the unresolved tensions between state sovereignty, self-determination, and humanitarian intervention.  Each concept is at the core of the UNs mandate and operations; nonetheless, the organization has yet to establish a coherent set of guidelines to balance the claims of sovereignty by governments with people’s cries for self-determination and the protection of basic human rights and needs.  As with the Rwandan situation, how might the UN change its decision-making processes and structures to better facilitate a positive resolution to the situation?
 
This video will take 1 hour and 45 minutes to complete.
 
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4.2.1.1.3 Case: Europe – Yugoslavia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina   - Reading: United Nations’ “United Nations Mission in Bosnia & Herzegovina” Link: United Nations’ “United Nations Mission in Bosnia & Herzegovina” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the complete article.
 
This reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete
 
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  • Reading: United Nations Officer of the High Commissioner for Human Rights’ “Occupied Palestinian Territories” Link: United Nations Officer of the High Commissioner for Human Rights’ “Occupied Palestinian Territories” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Open the link above.  To get a sense of the UN’s role in this region, read through the various ‘Special Procedures’ reports.  
     
    These readings should take approximately 30 minutes to complete
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.1.2 Facilitating International Human Rights   4.2.1.2.1 Benchmark Documents – Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UDHR), Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Convention on Genocide) and the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment   - Reading: The United Nations’ “Universal Declaration of Human Rights” (UDHR) Link: The United Nations’ “Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)” (HTML)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to an interactive webpage for the UDHR.  Please read the entire document.
 
This reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: The United Nations’ “Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide” Link: The United Nations’ “Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entire Convention on Genocide accessed via the above link.
     
    This reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: The United Nations’ “Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment” Link: The United Nations’ “Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entire text on the Convention against Torture accessed via the above link.
     
    This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.1.2.2 Key Covenants – Civil and Political Rights (UNCCPR), Economic, Social & Cultural Rights (UNCESCR)   - Reading: The United Nations’ “Covenant on Civil and Political Rights” (UNCCPR) Link: The United Nations’ “Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (UNCCPR)” (HTML)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to the UNCCPR.  Please read the entire document.
 
This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.

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displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: The United Nations’ “Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” (UNCESCR) Link: The United Nations’ “Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights(UNCESCR)” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: The above link takes you to the UNCESCR.  Please read the entire document.
     
    This reading should take approximately 45 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.1.2.3 Human Rights of Women, Children and Indigenous Peoples   - Reading: The United Nations’ “Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women” (CEDAW) Link: The United Nations’ “Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)” (HTML)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to an interactive webpage for CEDAW.  Please read the commentary under the heading “Text of the Convention.”  After completing this please click on your preferred language version of CEDAW and read the entire document.  This may be done by clicking on the individual links for each article or by scrolling down past the interactive links to the document itself.
 
This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
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  • Reading: The United Nations’ “Convention on the Rights of the Child” (CRC) The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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  • Reading: The United Nations’ “Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples” (UNDRIP) Link: The United Nations’ “Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP)” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: The above link takes you to the homepage of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues.  Please read the short paragraph under the primary heading.  Then, to access and read the UNDRIP, please click on the link for the ‘Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples’ link in the blue box of links on the left-hand side of the page.  Scroll down and select your preferred language version of the document.  These are found just after the introductory paragraphs. 
     
    This reading should take approximately 2 hours to complete.
     
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4.2.1.2.4 Human Trafficking   - Reading: The United Nation’s “Re-thinking Trafficking Prevention: A Guide to Applying Behaviour Theory” Link: The United Nation’s “Re-thinking Trafficking Prevention: A Guide to Applying Behaviour Theory” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Open the link and scroll down to the link to “Download a copy of ‘Rethinking Trafficking Prevention.”  Open the PDF and read the complete article. 
 
This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
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4.2.2 Collective Security   Collective security is the second of the two cornerstones of the United Nations.  As with protecting and promoting human rights, the focus of this area of UN activity emerged out of WWII.  Chief among the UN’s organs for addressing collective security is, clearly, the Security Council.  The materials below provide an overview of the scope of the UN’s mandate in this area.

4.2.2.1 Conflict Resolution & Cooperation   4.2.2.1.1 Brief Background on History of Conflict Resolution Mechanisms   - Reading: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter VI: Pacific Settlement of Disputes” Link: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter VI: Pacific Settlement of Disputes” (HTML)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to the home page of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the reading, click on the link with the same title in the left-hand column on the webpage.  You may read this material in one of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
 
This reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.2.1.2 Exemplary Cases of UN Effectiveness and ‘Tactical Diplomacy’   - Web Media: YouTube: Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs’ “Theory and Practice of Diplomacy and Crisis Diplomacy with Leanne Smith” Link: YouTube: Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs’ “Theory and Practice of Diplomacy and Crisis Diplomacy with Leanne Smith” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please watch the video accessed via the above link.  It briefly reviews the UN’s attempts to gain access to the Gaza Strip and investigate Israeli attack on that territory.  Leanne Smith presents and analysis of ‘tactical diplomacy’ by the UN.  In essence she explores the options for conflict resolution when the situation is ‘not ripe for resolution.’  In doing so she reviews several cases around the world as exemplary cases of UN effectiveness or lack thereof.
 
This video should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
 
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4.2.2.2 Peacekeeping   4.2.2.2.1 Brief Background on History of UN Peacekeeping   - Reading: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter VII: Action with Respect to Threats to the Peace, Breaches of the Peace and Acts of Aggression” Link: The United Nations’ The Charter of the United Nations: “Chapter VII: Action with Respect to Threats to the Peace, Breaches of the Peace and Acts of Aggression” (HTML)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to the home page of the Charter of the United Nations.  To access the reading, click on the link with the same title in the left-hand column on the webpage.  You may read this material in one of the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Russian or Spanish.  To access the document in the preferred language, click on the appropriate link in the right side of the ribbon at the top of the page.
 
This reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
 
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4.2.2.2.2 Exemplary Cases   - Reading: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Richard Gowan’s (2009) “The Future of Peacekeeping Operations: Fighting Political Fatigue and Overstretch” Link: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Richard Gowan’s (2009) “The Future of Peacekeeping Operations: Fighting Political Fatigue and Overstretch” (PDF)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to the digital library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Friedrich Ebert Foundation).  The articles in the database are listed in chronological order with the most recent first.  Therefore, please note the year of publication included above; it will guide you to the correct reading.  Scroll down the list of articles until you reach the one with the following heading: Gowan, Richard, “The Future of Peacekeeping Operations: Fighting Political Fatigue and Overstretch.”  Click on the link provided; this will open a PDF version of the reading.
 
This reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
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  • Reading: Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Severine M. Rugumamu’s (2009) “Does the UN Peacebuilding Commission Change the Mode of Peacebuilding in Africa?” Link: Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Seveerine M. Rugumamu’s  (2009) “Does the UN Peacebuilding Commission Change the Mode of Peacebuilding in Africa?” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: The above link takes you to the digital library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Friedrich Ebert Foundation).  The articles in the database are listed in chronological order with the most recent first.  Therefore, please note the year of publication included above; it will guide you to the correct reading.  Scroll down the list of articles until you reach the one with the following heading: Rugumamu, Severine M. “Does the UN Peacebuilding Commission Change the Mode of Peacebuilding in Africa?”  Click on the link provided; this will open a PDF version of the reading.
     
    This reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.