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POLSC312: International Organizations

Unit 3: Intergovernmental Organizations - IGOs   Intergovernmental Organizations – IGOs – are one of several types of organizations that make up the institutional or governmental structures of international and global relations.  In this unit, you will examine the differences between global, regional, and subregional organizations.  For example, the United Nations is a global IGO, while the Organization of American States and League of Arab States represent regional IGOs; subregional IGOs include the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Economic Organization of West African States (ECOWAS).  Another distinguishing feature of IGOs is the extent to which they are single or multipurpose.  The former type of IGOs has narrow, highly focused mandates or sets of purposes; this is exemplified by the Interamerican Commission on Human Rights.  Others have mandates that are very broad in scope; such multipurpose IGOs include the United Nations and African Union.  Thus, an IGO can be global, regional, or subregional and simultaneously single or multipurpose in scope.
 
The unit begins with a brief introduction to the United Nations before turning to a consideration of other IGOs.  The UN, because of its significance for international organizations, receives much greater attention in Unit 4.

Unit 3 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 31.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 10.75 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.1.1: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 3.1.2: 8 hours

 

☐    Introduction: 0.5 hour

☐    Sub-sub-subunit 3.1.2.1: 2.5 hours

☐    Sub-sub-subunit 3.1.2.2: 5 hours

 

☐    Sub-subunit 3.1.3: 1.75 hours

 

☐    Subunit 3.2: 9.75 hours

 

☐    Introduction: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 3.2.1: 2 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.2.2: 3.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.2.3: 1.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.2.4: 2 hours

 

☐    Subunit 3.3: 11.5 hours

 

☐    Sub-subunit 3.3.1: 1.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.3.2: 2.75 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.3.3: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 3.3.4: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 3.3.5: 0.25 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 3.3.6: 5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.3.6.1: 3.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.3.6.2: 1.5 hours

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Differentiate between global, regional, and subregional IGOs and between multipurpose and single purpose IGOs. - Characterize, compare, and contrast the various regional IGOs with respect to functions, mandates and impact on international governance. - Discuss, compare, and contrast subregional IGOs within and across regions with respect to their functions, mandates, and impact on international governance. 

3.1 What Are Global IGOs?   This first subunit introduces and differentiates among the various types of IGOs based on membership and the geopolitical scope of their activities.  Global IGOs are those that essentially undertake activities on a world-wide scale, have state membership that is completely inclusive of all states, or nearly so.  The UN is currently the only multipurpose global IGO; single purpose global IGOs are exemplified by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD or World Bank) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

3.1.1 An Overview of the United Nations (UN)   The material here is meant to provide a somewhat cursory introduction to the UN system.  You should gain a general sense of the UN’s role as the premier global international governmental institution.  In addition, after reviewing the UN webpage and some of its links, you should be familiar with the scope and content of its world-wide activities.

3.1.1.1 Successor of the League of Nations   - Reading: The BBC: Charles Townshend’s “The League of Nations and the United Nations” Link: The BBC: Charles Townshend’s “The League of Nations and the United Nations” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the material on the webpage.  You may navigate to various sections of the reading by using the links to the left of the article. 
 
The League of Nations was the precursor – some would say ‘first generation’ – of the United Nations.  As such it constitutes the first truly comprehensive effort by the community of states to engage in international government and governance.  While ultimately a failed attempt, the League provided valuable lessons for subsequent undertakings of both government and governance.  Townshend’s article discusses the political tensions within the League of Nations and contrasts it with the emergent UN.
 
This reading should take approximately 15 minutes to read.
 
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3.1.1.2 The Role of the UN in Global Governance   - Reading: The United Nations’ “UN at a Glance” Link: The United Nations’ “UN at a Glance (HTML)
 
Instructions: The ‘UN at a Glance’ link takes you to the homepage of the UN.  Once there, click on the preferred language link.  Peruse the page noting the various issues (row of buttons just under the banner), topic areas within the UN structure, and resources and services provided by the UN.  After familiarizing yourself with the webpage, go to the ‘Your United Nations’ blue box near the top center of the page; click on the ‘UN at a Glance’ link;  it’s the first one in the box.  Read the material on this page.  Finally, return to the previous page, and explore the various links in the ‘In Focus’ box near the top right of the page.
 
Familiarizing yourself with the UN website should raise your awareness of the extensive scope of activities undertaken by this global IGO.  Specific questions begin to emerge:
 
How have the two pillars of the UN – human rights and collective security – given rise to the myriad of issues currently addressed by the UN?
What is the relationship between the various principal actors of the UN?
What is the source of UN funding, and what other types of resources does it rely on to further its governance activities?
 
Finally, the significance of the UN ultimately rests in the fact that it is the only organization that has as its members all but one state in the world (the Vatican).  Thus, it is the only truly global organization that undertakes governance to such an extensive breadth and depth.
 
Studying this resource and considering the questions above should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
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  • Reading: The United Nations: Joseph Deiss’ “Global Governance at the Beginning of the 21st Century: What Is the Role of the United Nations?” Link: The United Nations: Joseph Deiss’ “Global Governance at the Beginning of the 21st Century: What Is the Role of the United Nations? (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire speech by the President of the UN General Assembly.  Mr. Joseph Deiss first provides three reasons why it is appropriate for the UN to focus on global governance at this point in history.  He follows this by outlines three specific goals for the UN and its membership to pursue to improve governance as we move further into the 21st century.
     
    This reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
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3.1.2 The Bretton Woods Institutions   - Reading: The Bretton Woods Project’s “What Are the Bretton Woods Institutions?”; “What Is the World Back Group?”; “How Does the World Bank Operate?” and “What Are the Main Concerns and Criticism about the World Bank and IMF?” Link: The Bretton Woods Project’s “What Are the Bretton Woods Institutions? (HTML), “What Is the World Bank Group?” (HTML), “How Does the World Bank Operate?” (HTML) and “What Are the Main Concerns and Criticism about the World Bank and IMF?” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the links above, and read each article in its entirety.
 
This material provides an overview of the Bretton Woods institutions – mechanisms of global government – before we examine each institution itself.  The Bretton Woods conference resulted from a meeting in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, USA in July, 1944.  The agreement gave rise to two institutions that were to further international government and governance in the areas of economic development and financial relationships: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).  As “partner” or “sister” organizations of the UN, the IMF’s and IBRD’s activities also are global in scope; and, like the UN, they have been fraught with controversy over the years.  While the IBRD and IMF clearly have contributed to various countries’ development, both institutions have been the subject of innumerable charges of unethical and detrimental policies, practices and programs.  In general, the criticisms have centered on the dislocation of local communities and environmental degradation in various forms.  In addition, many economists have been critical of the economic conditions or ‘strings’ attached to the various programs and aid packages put forth by the two organizations.
 
This reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
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3.1.2.1 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD): History, Functions, and Policies   - Reading: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development’s “About Us – History & Interactive Timeline” Link: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development’s “About Us – History & Interactive Timeline” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please familiarize yourself with the homepage of the IBRD accessed by the above link.  Next, click on the ‘History’ link in the blue box of links on the left of the page; it is the 5th one on the list.  Read the material on this page.  Next, click on the ‘Interactive Timeline’ link in the box to the right of the text.  Click on the “1944: International Cooperation’ link and read the brief paragraph; click on the ‘more founding history’ link at the bottom to continue reading.  Click on and read the brief paragraph for each of the remaining time periods. 
 
The IBRD is actually one of two financial entities that make up the World Bank.  The material accessed above provides an historical overview of the organization’s creation and activities.  It is important to note the wide range of projects that the IBRD has funded since its inception.  It responds to requests for assistance from various countries around the world.  The IBRD also initiates some programs based on the institution’s perceptions of global issues and problems.
 
This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
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  • Reading: The Institute for Policy Studies: Janet Redman’s “Dirty Is the New Clean” Link: The Institute for Policy Studies: Janet Redman’s “Dirty Is the New Clean” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: The above link takes you to the Institute for Policy Studies’ website and the article entitled “Dirty Is the New Clean.”  To read the entire article, please click on the “Download PDF” link to the right of the article’s title.  You will then have the option to either open or save the article.  Please read the entire article.  (Note: the article itself is about 18 pages; the remaining pages are an executive summary and annex of supporting material.)
     
    Beginning in the 1970s, the IBRD has been increasingly criticized for controversial development projects.  The primary criticism focuses on the questionable short term benefits of various projects in light of medium and long term detrimental consequences for the quality of life of local communities and the environment.  In short, the IBRD has been at or near the center of the development v. sustainable development debate.  Innumerable cases in Asia, Africa, and Latin America provide evidence for the ongoing negative assessment of this IGOs practices.  The reading for this subunit reviews the IBRD’s overall framework for development at its impact on climate change.
     
    This reading should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
     
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3.1.2.2 Reforming the Governance of the World Bank   - Reading: Bank Information Center: Frank Vogl’s “The Urgency of World Bank Reform on the Good Governance Stage” Link: Bank Information Center: Frank Vogl’s “The Urgency of World Bank Reform on the Good Governance Stage” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article, focusing on the arguments regarding World Bank funding to countries with corruption issues.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Frank Vogl.

3.1.2.3 The International Monetary Fund (IMF): History, Activities, and Reform   - Reading: The IMF’s “Overview,” “History,” and “Governance” Link: The IMF’s “Overview”, (HTML and Adobe Flash), “History”, (HTML and Adobe Flash) and “Governance” (HTML and Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: The links above take you to the “Overview,” “History,” and “Governance” pages of the IMF website.  Please click on the links under the highlighted heading on the left hand side of the page and read the material presented.  Be sure to click on the videos to access that material.  You are not expected to access the material under the ‘related links’ headings; however, it does provide specific country/case study information if you are interested.
 
These readings and attached video clips provide a concise initial understanding of the structure and functions of the IMF.  Of particular relevance is the extent to which the IMF does, or does not, work with other institutions to promote global governance.  In addition, please pay particular attention to commentaries on the evolution of the IMF – how it has changed since its inception in 1944 as global economic and financial conditions have changed.  Finally, please note the IMFs institutional structure as well as the processes of decision-making.  It is significant to note how the IMF differs from the IBRD with respect to its activities, membership, and scope of governance activities.  The short video clips are particularly useful; they highlight and provide examples and evidence to support the analysis in the text.
 
This reading should take approximately 2 hours to complete.
 
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  • Reading: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Jack Boorman’s (2008) “An Agenda for Reform of the International Monetary Fund” Link: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Jack Boorman’s (2008) “An Agenda for Reform of the International Monetary Fund” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: The above link takes you to the digital library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Friedrich Ebert Foundation).  The articles in the database are listed in chronological order with the most recent first.  Therefore, please note the year of publication included above; it will guide you to the correct reading.  Scroll down the list of articles until you reach the one with the following heading: Boorman, Jack - An agenda for reform of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).  Click on the link provided; this will open a PDF version of the reading.
     
    This reading is from a policy report of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation, based in Germany.  The New York City office of FES “… serves as a liaison between the United Nations, FES field offices and partners in developing countries to strengthen the voice of the Global South.  It contributes to UN debates on economic and social development, and on peace and security issues.  … In addition, it contributes to a dialogue on the work of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in Washington D.C.”  (http://www.fes-globalization.org/new_york/about)
     
    Studying this reading will take approximately 3 hours to complete.
     
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3.1.2.4 The IMF and Global Governance In Periods of International Economic Crisis   - Reading: Global Policy: Ngaire Wood’s “Global Governance after the Financial Crisis: A New Multilateralism or the Last Gasp of the Great Powers” Link: Global Policy: Ngaire Wood’s “Global Governance after the Financial Crisis: A New Multilateralism or the Last Gasp of the Great Powers (PDF)
 
Instructions: Open link and scroll down to the bottom right to access PDF.  Open PDF and read the complete article.  How has the role of IMF changed in relation to global governance in the post 2008 era? 
 
This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
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3.1.3 The World Trade Organization   - Reading: The World Trade Organization’s “What Is the WTO?” Link: The World Trade Organization’s “What Is the WTO?” (HTML)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you directly to the WTO’s webpage entitled “What Is the WTO.”  Please read the short paragraph under that heading.  Then, click on the “Who we are,” “What we do,” and “What we stand for” links, and read all of the material on those pages.
 
The WTO is the most recent manifestation of international governance and government that focuses on trade.  It is a much more highly structured and institutionalization of decision-making, policy formulation, implementation, and enforcement than any of its predecessors.  An international trade organization – the ITO – was actually a part of the 1948 ‘Havana Charter’ that is generally credited with the ‘birth’ of the WTO.  The failure to implement the ITO is typically characterized as the inability to resolve entrenched differences between the ‘North’ and the ‘South.’
 
The reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
 
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3.1.3.1 Structures, Mandate & Functions   - Reading: The World Trade Organization “Understanding the WTO” Link: The World Trade Organization’s “Understanding the WTO (HTML)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you directly to the WTO’s webpage entitled “Understanding the WTO.”  Please read the short introductory paragraph under that heading.  Then, click on the five links under the “Basics” heading, and read the material on each page.  They are: “What Is the World Trade Organization?,” “Principles of the Trading System,” “The Case for Open Trade,” “The GATT Years: From Havana to Marrakesh,” and “The Uruguay Round.”
 
The readings for this subunit provide a more detailed overview of the WTO’s operations and underlying philosophy.
 
The reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
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3.1.3.2 The Role of the WTO in Global Economic Governance   - Reading: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Erfried Adam’s (2004) “The WTO and the Crisis of Multilateralism: A Look at the Present Situation” Link: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Erfried Adam’s (2004) “The WTO and the Crisis of Multilateralism: A Look at the Present Situation” (PDF)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to the digital library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Friedrich Ebert Foundation).  The articles in the database are listed in chronological order with the most recent first.  Therefore, please note the year of publication included above; it will guide you to the correct reading.  Scroll down the list of articles until you reach the one with the following heading: Adam, Erfried - The WTO and the crisis of multilateralism: a look at the present situation.  Click on the link provided; this will open a PDF version of the reading.
 
The WTO has garnered much attention and criticism since its inception in 1995 at the Uruguay Round negotiations of GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade).  Its annual meetings are routinely the occurrence of world-wide protests — the focal of which is the on-going debate between free trade and fair trade.  This reading, after a brief description of the organization, reviews various substantive areas of WTO activity; for example, agriculture, special or differential treatment, and nonagricultural markets.  The analysis then shifts to considering the tensions between the WTO and multilateral, regional, bilateral, and pluryilateral approaches to governance in this issue area.
 
This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
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3.2 How Do Regional IGOs Contribute to International Governance?   This subunit continues our exploration of IGOs by focusing on those of a regional nature.  Specifically, the Organization of American States (OAS), European Union (EU), African Union (AU), and League of Arab States (Arab League) provide us with case studies of such organizations.  As a set, they provide us with an overview of the historical development and evolution of regional international governmental institutions, as well as the governance processes employed by them.
 
The readings for this subunit are particular to each organization being studied.  As you review the material, it is important to note the similarities and differences among the organizations at each ‘level’ – regional or subregional.  It is equally as important to compare and contrast the organizations from the different geopolitical regions.  Pay particular attention to the scope and purposes, structures, and decision-making processes and issues.  To what extent do the organizations differ because of differences in the regions and sub-regions themselves – culture, key issues, history, etc.?  Finally, Asia does not have a comparable regional organization.  Might this be because of the extreme geographic size, or socio-political and economic diversity of the region?  Or is there some other reason that might explain this lack?

  • Reading: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Louise Fawcett’s (2006) “Regional Governance Architecture and Security Policy” Link: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Louise Fawcett’s (2006) “Regional Governance Architecture and Security Policy” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: The above link takes you to the digital library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Friedrich Ebert Foundation).  The articles in the database are listed in chronological order with the most recent first.  Therefore, please note the year of publication included above; it will guide you to the correct reading.  Scroll down the list of articles until you reach the one with the following heading: Fawcett, Louise - Regional governance architecture and security policy.  Click on the link provided; this will open a PDF version of the reading.
     
    While this reading’s central theme is security, the analysis remains relevant for challenges facing regional IGOs that address other issues.  In essence, the author observes that people the world over express a growing sense of insecurity despite the fact that the number of armed conflicts, coups, et cetera have decreased.  Her explanation for this may be generalized to other issue areas such as human rights, the environment, or economic relations.
     
    This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
     
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3.2.1 The Americas: Organization of American States (OAS)   - Reading: Organization of American States’ “Charter of the Organization of American States – Part 1” Link: Organization of American States’ “Charter of the Organization of American States – Part 1” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This link provides access to the OAS webpage for the Charter.  To access the readings, scroll down and click links for Chapters I – VII.  The key to this reading lies in understanding how states choose to organize themselves in a regional context.  For the Americas one dilemma is the extreme diversity of states in the region with respect to political, economic, and social characteristics; the region contains arguably the ‘most powerful’ and among the ‘least powerful’ states in the world.  How, then, to create an effective institution – in essence a government – for fostering global governance when the member states are at such variance?  The tension between the Idealists’ assertion that all states are equal due to sovereignty (see unit 2) and Realists’ claim that power is the determining characteristic of state behavior plays out in the OAS’s structure, functioning and effectiveness.
 
Members of the OAS: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, The Bahamas, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela
 
This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
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3.2.1.1 History, Structure, and Mandate   - Reading: Organization of American States’ “Charter of the Organization of American States – Part 2” Link: Organization of American States’ “Charter of the Organization of American States – Part 2” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This link provides access to the OAS webpage for the Charter.  To access the reading, scroll down and click on the links for Chapters VIII – XVIII.
 
This reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
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3.2.1.2 Key Issues Relevant for International Governance   - Web Media: YouTube: University of California – San Diego, Institute of the Americas’ “Encuentros: Jose Miguel Insulza and Jeffrey Davidow” Link: YouTube: University of California – San Diego, Institute of the Americas’ “Encuentros: Jose Miguel Insulza and Jeffrey Davidow” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: The video link above takes you directly to an interview with a former Secretary General of the OAS – Jose Miguel Insulza.  He discusses the key issues of democratic institutions, poverty, and the OAS’s interactions with specific countries in Latin America.  Regarding the first, he explores the tensions between regional IGOs intervention and state sovereignty.  Improvements and setbacks in the area of poverty are cast in the light of the Millennium Development Goals.  The Secretary General then continues with a discussion of the OAS’s activities with respect to various states, in particular Cuba and Venezuela.  The issues of crime, drug trafficking and jobs, among others, round out the discussion.
 
Viewing this video lecture should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
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3.2.2 Europe: European Union (EU)   - Reading: The European Union’s “Basic Information” Link: The European Union’s “Basic Information” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the introductory information on this page.  There are various links within the text that may be of interest; they provide additional information about the key issues and functions of the EU.  Some of these will be explored in subsequent subunits.  Somewhat more extensive readings are provided for this regional IGO, because the EU, arguably, has undergone the most complex evolutionary changes since its inception.  It remains, along with the UN, one of the ‘grandest experiments’ in international governance and government; it requires setting aside state sovereignty and unprecedented levels of cooperation and coordination of policies among a very diverse groups of countries. 
 
Members of the EU (as of December, 2011): Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom
 
Candidate Countries: Croatia, FYR Macedonia, Iceland, Montenegro, Turkey
 
This reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
 
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3.2.2.1 History & Evolution   - Reading: The European Union’s “History” Link: The European Union’s “History” (HTML)
 
Instructions: The link above takes you to a specific section of the EU webpage.  On the ‘History’ page read all of the material under each decade date range (e.g. ‘1945 – 1959’).  You will need to click on the ‘read more about the decade …’ link for the full text of the reading.  The embedded maps provide an effective visual indication of the evolution of the EU’s membership.   Beyond this, the reading’s focal points revolve around the ways in which regional and global events such as oil crises, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001 have shaped the EU’s role in regional and global governance.  Finally, the institutional structures of the EU arguably provide a blueprint for more far reaching governmental institutions.  This is, of course, assuming it survives the financial crisis of the early part of this century.
 
This reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
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3.2.2.2 Structure   - Reading: The EU’s “European Parliament,” “European Council,” “European Commission,” “Court of Justice,” and “European Economic and Social Committee” Link: The EU’s “European Parliament, (HTML) “European Council, (HTML) “European Commission, (HTML) “Court of Justice, (HTML) and “European Economic and Social Committee (HTML)
 
Instructions: Each of the links above provides the reading for that specific institution of the EU.  The key thread that runs through all of these readings is the complexity and extensiveness of this particular regional IGO’s activities.  Among such organizations, the EU has taken the most balanced approach to legislative, judicial, and executive functions, roles, and issues.  Beyond this, the highly integrated nature of the formal institutions – government – and processes – governance – is illustrative of the dynamic interplay of each component being studied in this course.
 
The reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
 
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3.2.2.3 Key Issues Relevant for International Governance   - Reading: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Sven Grimm’s (2006) “EU Development Cooperation: Rebuilding a Tanker at Sea” Link: Friedrich Ebert Foundation: Sven Grimm’s (2006) “EU Development Cooperation: Rebuilding a Tanker at Sea” (PDF)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to the digital library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Friedrich Ebert Foundation).  The articles in the database are listed in chronological order with the most recent first.  Therefore, please note the year of publication included above; it will guide you to the correct reading.  Scroll down the list of articles until you reach the one with the following heading: Sven Grimm, “EU Development Cooperation: Rebuilding a Tanker at Sea.”

 Click on the link provided; this will open a PDF version of the
reading.  Grimm’s analysis of the EU characterizes that
organization’s efforts to create, implement, and manage development
policies in light of dramatically changing global conditions. 
Specifically, he asserts that the EU has taken the lead with respect
to such efforts through its Economic Partnership Agreements with
African, Caribbean, and Asian-Pacific states.  
    
 The reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.  
    
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3.2.2.4 The EU in Crisis   - Web Media: YouTube: Yale University: Jackson Institute for Global Affairs: Ana Palacio’s “What is the EU Crisis About: Just Needing Germans in the South?” Link: YouTube: Yale University: Jackson Institute for Global Affairs: Ana Palacio’s “What is the EU Crisis About: Just Needing Germans in the South?” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Open link and watch the video.  This lecture given in January 2012 outlines what Dr Palacio see as the causes of the current EU crisis.  What does she argue are the root causes of the current crisis?   
           
Viewing this video lecture should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes to complete.
 
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3.2.3 Africa: The African Union (AU)   - Reading: The African Union’s “AU in a Nutshell” Link: The African Union’s “AU in a Nutshell (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read all of the material on the page accessed via the above link.  Be sure to scroll all the way to the bottom of the page.  This is a brief overview of the African Union.  Various aspects of its impact on regional and global governance issues are explored in subsequent readings.
 
Members of the AU: All African states including Western Sahara but excluding Morocco.
 
The reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
 
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3.2.3.1 History, Structure and Mandate   - Reading: The African Union’s “AU Organs” Link: The African Union’s “AU Organs” (HTML)
 
Instructions: The link above takes you to the English language version of the AU’s homepage (to access the page in Arabic, French, or Portuguese, click on the appropriate link in the top left corner of the page).  Under the “About Us” heading, a drop-down list will appear when you hold your cursor on the heading.  Please read the material accessed by clicking on the “Vision and Mission” link.  Next, under the “AU Organs” heading, a drop-down list will appear when you hold your cursor on the heading.  Please click on each link, except the last two, and read the short entry (about 1 paragraph each).  As with the European Union, the significance here is the scope and complexity of what the AU is attempting to achieve.  In fact, it is not accidental that the primary organs – institutional structure – and the issues areas reflect those of the EU to significant degree.  However, notable differences are AU issues such as rural economy and agriculture, women, gender, and development and civil society and Diaspora.
 
The reading should take approximately 45 minutes to complete.
 
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3.2.3.2 Key Issues Relevant for International Governance   - Reading: Open Society Institute’s Africa Governance Monitoring & Advocacy Project: Edward R. McMahon’s “The African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance: A Positive Step on a Long Path” Link: Open Society Institute’s Africa Governance Monitoring & Advocacy Project: Edward R. McMahon’s “The African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance: A Positive Step on a Long Path (PDF)
 
Instructions: The link above takes you to a listing of articles published by the Open Society Institute’s Africa Governance Monitoring & Advocacy Project.  Scroll down to May 2007; it is the second article listed.  You can download the paper in French or English.  Please read the entire article. 
 
The democratization efforts of African states and the AU have been adversely affected by complexities of regional and subregional political, economic, and social dynamics (for a full exploration of these see HIS252 and POLSC325).  For the purposes of this course, it is sufficient to note that African Union continues with laudable efforts to improve democratic governance and government on a continent-wide basis.
 
The reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
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3.2.3.3 The AU and the Global Financial Crisis   - Reading: Pambazuka News: Moreblessings Chidaushe’s “What the Economic Crisis Means for Africa” Link: Pambazuka News: Moreblessings Chidaushe’s “What the Economic Crisis Means for Africa” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article.
 
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3.2.4 Middle East and North Africa (MENA): The League of Arab States   3.2.4.1 History, Structure, and Mandate   - Reading: Yale Law School - Lillian Goldman Law Library’s “Pact of the League of Arab States, March 22, 1945” Link: Yale Law School - Lillian Goldman Law Library’s “Pact of the League of Arab States, March 22, 1945” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire document accessed through this link.  Articles 2 through 9 are of particular importance for understanding the basic structure and functions of the Arab League.  Subsequent articles detail the decision-making processes, in particular the Council’s responsibilities and operation.  The first Annex addresses the status of Palestine.
 
Members of the League of Arab States: Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Emirates, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen
 
The reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
 
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3.2.4.2 Key Issues Relevant for International Governance   - Reading: Mideast News: Adel Darwish’s “The Next Major Conflict in the Middle East Water Wars” Link: Mideast News: Adel Darwish’s “The Next Major Conflict in the Middle East Water Wars” (HTML)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to the text of a speech delivered at the Geneva Conference of Environment and Quality of Life, June 1994.  Please read the entire speech.  While oil has seemingly dominated any resource and development discussions about this region, it is, arguably, water that has and will continue to be the basis for the most contentious relationships within the Middle East.  We are all familiar with the ongoing, seemingly endless nature of the Middle East conflict with its most recent manifestation being between Israel and the Palestinian people.  However, what is often not included in the analysis of this region’s tensions is the underlying issue of water scarcity.  This article aptly presents the dynamics of this issue and its significance for governance in the region.
 
The reading should take approximately 45 minutes to complete.
 
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  • Reading: UNESCO-IHP: Munther J. Haddadin’s and Uri Shamir’s “Water Conflict and Cooperation/Jordan River Basin, Part I” Link: UNESCO-IHP: Munther J. Haddadin’s and Uri Shamir’s “Water Conflict and Cooperation/Jordan River Basin, Part I” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire article.  The two readings for this subunit, taken together, capture the focal points of the Arab League’s involvement in the water crisis in the Middle East.  This situation exemplifies the broader dilemmas of resource access and management as a regional governance issue.  While the first one is a bit older, its key points, sadly, remain relevant today.  This fact, alone, underscores the entrenched nature of the situation in the Middle East and the Arab League’s effectiveness.
     
    The reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
     
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3.3 How Do Sub Regional IGOs Facilitate Governance and Government?   The purpose of this subunit is to further detail the roles of IGOs with respect to international government and governance.  Sub-regional IGOs are key players because they are the ‘locals’ on the scene in global governance terms.  Quite often they can better identify problems and facilitate appropriate solutions because of their proximity to the situation.  The converse also has been argued; sub-regional IGOs are too entrenched in ‘local’ political and economic dynamics to remain effectively impartial.  This potentially is the most problematic with respect to conflicts in general and armed conflicts in particular.  Therefore, unlike the previous sections of this unit, the focus herein is on the activities of certain subregional IGOs rather than their organizational structures and internal operational procedures.  As you review the various materials below, think in comparative terms about the issues or problems faced by each organization and the choices made to address them.  Finally, please keep in mind that the organizations herein are merely a sample; each region has a plethora of subregional organizations.  Some are quite narrow in scope and activity, while others are rather broad and inclusive regarding the issues being tackled.

3.3.1 Africa: ECOWAS & SADC – The Economic-Conflict Nexus   The readings on African sub-regional IGOs underscore the nexus of armed conflict and economic activity for the states of that continent.  While popular culture films such as Blood Diamond and Lord of War dramatize some of these dynamics, the realities for the African people are far more real and horrific.  The question remains: can African subregional IGOs build on past successes – however few they may be – and continue to have a positive impact on conflict resolution and sustainable economic development in Africa?

3.3.1.1 Economic Community of West African States – ECOWAS   - Reading: Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Titilope Ajayi’s (2008) “The UN, the AU and ECOWAS – A Triangle for Peace and Security in West Africa?” Link: Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Titilope Ajayi’s (2008) “The UN, the AU and ECOWAS – A Triangle for Peace and Security in West Africa?” (PDF)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to the digital library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Friedrich Ebert Foundation).  The articles in the database are listed in chronological order with the most recent first.  Therefore, please note the year of publication included above; it will guide you to the correct reading.  Scroll down the list of articles until you reach the one with the following heading: Ajayi, Titilope - The UN, the AU and ECOWAS: a triangle for peace and security in West Africa?  Click on the link provided; this will open a PDF version of the reading.
 
ECOWAS, originally conceived to focus on economic development and trade issues, has become an integral participant in resolving non-economic disputes and conflicts in western Africa.  Examples include the civil wars in Liberia and Cote d’Ivoire.
 
Members of ECOWAS: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinee, Guinee Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal Sierra Leone, Togolese
 
The reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
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3.3.1.2 Southern Africa Development Community – SADC   - Reading: Southern Africa Development Community’s “Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan – Executive Summary” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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3.3.2 Asia: ASEAN & APEC – Economic Development . . . Sustainability Challenges   The Asian region, arguably even more so than Africa, is exceptionally diverse with respect to geographic, sociopolitical, and cultural characteristics.  Therefore, numerous sub-regional IGOs have developed in Asia.  It is also worth remembering at this juncture that there is no regional IGO in Asia comparable to the OAS, AU, or EU.  The two subregional IGOs profiled herein exemplify key governance issues and problems that beset the region and the institutional – government – attempts to address them.

3.3.2.1 Association of South East Asian Nations – ASEAN   - Reading: Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Hans J. Gießmann’s (2007) “‘ChIndia’ and ASEAN: About National Interests, Regional Legitimacy, and Global Challenges” Link: Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Hans J. Gießmann’s (2007) “‘ChIndia’ and ASEAN: About National Interests, Regional Legitimacy, and Global Challenges” (PDF)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to the digital library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Friedrich Ebert Foundation).  The articles in the database are listed in chronological order with the most recent first.  Therefore, please note the year of publication included above; it will guide you to the correct reading.  Scroll down the list of articles until you reach the one with the following heading: Gießmann, Hans-Joachim - “ChIndia” and ASEAN: about national interests, regional legitimacy, and global challenges.  Click on the link provided; this will open a PDF version of the reading.
 
The reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
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  • Reading: International Council on Social Welfare’s “Trafficking and Related Labor Exploitation in the ASEAN Region” Link: International Council on Social Welfare’s “Trafficking and Related Labor Exploitation in the ASEAN Region (PDF)
     
    Instructions: The above link takes you to the South East Asia and the Pacific regional page of the International Council on Social Welfare.  Please scroll down to the “Publications” list (it is arranged in chronological order); continue to scroll to 2007.  The reading is the only one listed for that year.  Please click on the PDF link, and read the executive summary found on pages 7-17 of the report.
     
    Membership of ASEAN: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
     
    This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
     
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3.3.2.2 South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation - SAARC   - Reading: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation’s “Declaration on Climate Change Presented by His Excellency Maumoon Abdul Gayoom” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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  • Web Media: YouTube: Powertalk with Santosh Shah’s “Interview with the Secretary General of SAARC” – Part I, Part II & Part III (2010) Link: YouTube: Powertalk with Santosh Shah’s “Interview with the Secretary General of SAARC” – Part I (YouTube), Part II (YouTube) & Part III (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the interview (Parts I through III), accessed via the above links.  In it, the then Secretary General of SAARC reviews how that sub-regional IGO has identified and responded to the following issues, among others: Part I - terrorism, membership expansion, population growth; Part II – Nuclear power and development, shaping of the SAARC agenda, women’s empowerment; Part III – Afghanistan, role and participation of observers, closer economic integration.
     
    Members of SAARC: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka
     
    Viewing the three parts of the video and pausing to take notes will take a total of approximately 30 minutes to complete.
     
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3.3.3 Europe: NATO, European Commission of Human Rights & European Court of Human Rights   3.3.3.1 NATO – Security and EU Expansion; Operations outside Europe   - Reading: Council on Foreign Relations: Lionel Beehner’s “NATO Looks to Expand Mission and Membership” Link: Council on Foreign Relations: Lionel Beehner’s “NATO Looks to Expand Mission and Membership” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the material on the page accessed via the above link.  Be sure to scroll down to see all of the text.  This review of NATO’s recent efforts to re-identify itself in the wake of significant regional and global changes reinforces the dynamic nature of governance and the need for institutions to remain flexible and adaptive.
 
Members of NATO: Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal , Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States
 
The reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
 
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3.3.3.2 European Court of Human Rights – Migration   - Reading: The BBC’s “Profile: European Court of Human Rights” Link: The BBC’s “Profile: European Court of Human Rights” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the brief overview the ECHR found on the BBC pages accessed via the above link.
 
The reading should take less than 15 minutes to complete.
 
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  • Web Media: YouTube: The Record Europe’s “Investigating the European Court of Human Rights” – Part I & Part II Link: YouTube: The Record Europe’s “Investigating the European Court of Human Rights” – Part I (YouTube) & Part II (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch both parts of this video presentation.  Part I reviews the current debate over the Court’s effectiveness, a brief history of its creation, and the implications of its unconventional mandate that includes access to the Court by any individual living in any member state.  Part II continues the discussion by exploring the issues of case appeals and specific states’ reactions to the Court.
     
    Members of the European Court of Human Rights: 47 states of Europe
     
    Viewing the two parts of the video will take a total of approximately 30 minutes to complete.
     
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3.3.4 Middle East: OAPEC, Not OPEC – Oil Reserve Imbalances   There is often a bit of confusion between two distinct yet related organizations: the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries – OPEC and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries – OAPEC.  In general, OAPEC is a separate organization whose membership overlaps somewhat with that of OPEC.  It is OAPEC that is the focus of this particular section on sub-regional IGOs.

3.3.5 North America: NAFTA – Labor, Migration and Trade   - Reading: The National Forum: Sidney Weintraub’s “NAFTA and Migration” Link: The National Forum: Sidney Weintraub’s “NAFTA and Migration” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire article entitled, “NAFTA and Migration,” found by accessing the above link.
 
The reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
 
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3.3.6 South America: MERCOSUR & Interamerican Commission and Court of Human Rights   3.3.6.1 MERCOSUR – Regional Cooperation and Integration   - Reading: South Centre’s “Mercosur’s Experience and Progress towards True Regional Integration” Link: South Centre’s “Mercosur’s Experience and Progress towards True Regional Integration” (PDF)
 
Instructions: The above link takes you to a brief summary of the article.  Please click on the ‘click here to download’ link that appears in orange under the summary.  Please read the entire article.
 
The reading should take approximately 3 hours and 30 minutes to complete.
 
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3.3.6.2 Interamerican Commission and Court of Human Rights – Indigenous Peoples   - Reading: Untrecht Journal of International and European Law: Diana Contreras-Garduño and Sebastian Rombouts’ “Collective Reparations for Indigenous Communities before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights” Link: Untrecht Journal of International and European Law: Diana Contreras-Garduño and Sebastian Rombouts’ “Collective Reparations for Indigenous Communities before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and select the “PDF” link on the webpage to download the file.  Read the entire article (14 pages).  The authors provide a detailed analysis of the Inter-American Court for Human Rights with respect to a specific area of international law – the rights of indigenous peoples.  The core argument pertains to the apparent increasing willingness of courts to grant reparations for past damages sustained by indigenous peoples and individuals.  Thus, the article provides a glimpse into courts and law as instruments of global and regional governance.
 
The reading should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
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