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POLSC301: American Political Thought

Unit 9: The Sixties: Rebellion and Backlash   Cultural and political changes converged in the 1960s to create a situation seen by some as a welcome social revolution and by others as an unwanted, unpatriotic departure from established American ideals. In this unit you will learn about the changes in the political and social climate in the United States that would greatly influence American political thought.   As you learn about the various revolutions in thought and their philosophical champions, consider the ways in which these movements affect contemporary political thought.

Unit 9 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 14.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 9.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 9.1.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 9.1.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 9.2: 3.5 hours

☐    Subunit 9.2.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 9.2.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 9.2.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 9.2.4: .5 hours

☐    Subunit 9.3: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 9.3.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 9.3.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 9.3.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 9.4: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 9.4.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 9.4.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 9.4.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 9.5: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 9.5.1: .5 hours

☐    Subunit 9.5.2: .5 hours

☐    Subunit 9.5.3: 1 hour

Unit9 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Describe the philosophical underpinnings of the anti-war, feminist, and civil rights movements.
  • Compare and contrast the political philosophies of Martin Luther King, Jr., and Malcolm X.
  • Discuss the foreign and domestic policy thrust of the Johnson presidency.
  • Analyze the changing nature of conservative and liberal thought in the 1960s.

9.1 Student Radicals and the Age of Campus Protest   9.1.1 The Anti-War Movement   - Reading: University of Illinois: Modern American Poetry on-line digital archive’s version of Mark Barringer’s “The Anti-War Movement in the United States” Link: University of Illinois: Modern American Poetry on-line digital archive’s version of Mark Barringer’s “The Anti-War Movement in the United States” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the text for background information about university student protest in the 1960s.  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 9.1.2-9.1.3.

Terms of use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

9.1.2 Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)   - Reading: Students for a Democratic Society’s (SDS) “Port Huron Statement” (1962) Link: Students for a Democratic Society’s (SDS) “Port Huron Statement” (1962) (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read the text of the Port Huron Statement.
 
Note on the text: The Port Huron Statement was written after a late 1962 gathering of college students near Port Huron, Michigan.  This group originally came together to discuss politics, but their discussions included a number of important topics in American life, including civil rights and foreign policy.  At the end of the four-day retreat, the students drafted this statement to express their overall sentiments on the political and social state of life in America.  This document became the underlying foundation for student protest and the rise of the student “new left” in the 1960s.
 
Terms of use: The material above is available for viewing in the Public Domain

9.1.3 The Counterculture and Sex, Drugs and Rock and Roll   - Reading: Boundless: “Counterculture”  Link: Boundless: “Counterculture” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read the entry above which describes the different settings in which counterculture manifested itself in the 1960s.

 Reading this entry should take approximately 1 hour.  
    
 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/). It is
attributed to Boundless and the original version can be found
[here](https://www.boundless.com/history/sixties-1960-1969/counterculture/).

9.2 Feminism and the Women’s Movement   9.2.1 Waves of Feminism   - Reading: The Chicago Women’s Liberation Union (CWLU)’s online version of Ellen DuBois’ “Feminism Old Wave and New Wave” (1971) Link: The Chicago Women’s Liberation Union (CWLU)’s online version of Ellen DuBois’ “Feminism Old Wave and New Wave” (1971) (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the text of DuBois’ essay from the CWLU’s “Herstory Project: Classic Feminism Writings.”  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 9.2.2-9.2.4.

Terms of use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

9.2.2 National Organization for Women   - Reading: National Organization for Women’s “Statement of Purpose” (1966) Link: National Organization for Women’s “Statement of Purpose” (1966) (HTML)
 
Also available in:

[PDF](http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/108/111235/ch29_a3_d2.pdf)  
    
 Instructions: Please read the statement, written by feminist
activists Betty Friedan and Pauli Murray.  NOW is the largest
feminist organization in the United States.  
    
 Terms of use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

9.2.3 The Equal Rights Amendment   - Reading: The “Equal Rights Amendment” Link: “The Equal Rights Amendment” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read the text of the legislation and the brief introduction of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).  Click the link at the bottom of the page to read the full historical account of the amendment.
 
Terms of use: The above material is available for viewing in the Public Domain.

9.2.4 Radical Feminism   - Reading: “No More Miss America!” (1968) Link: “No More Miss America!” (1968) (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read the text of this 1968 press release and the “Ten Points We Protest.”
 
Note on the Text: This press release is made available via Redstockings’ on-line archive.  Redstockings is a grassroots activist “think-tank” working on feminist issues in modern society.  This press release is an example of some of the more “radical” thoughts and actions that women have taken.
 
Terms of us: The material above is available for viewing in the Public Domain. 

9.3 From Civil Rights to Black Power   9.3.1 Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC): Sit-ins, Freedom Rides and Freedom Summer   - Reading: SNCC’s “Position Paper: The Basis of Black Power” Link: SNCC’s “Position Paper: The Basis of Black Power” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read the text of SNCC’s position paper on “black power” in the civil rights movement in the 1960s.
 
Note on the text: The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was created in 1960 after the first black college students’ sit-in at the Woolworth’s lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina.   Once SNCC was created, their non-violent protests extended beyond sit-ins in North Carolina and included a number of other forms of protest throughout the country.  Many influential black leaders in American politics today got their political start in the SNCC movement; its actions and philosophy has impacted and continues to impact American political discourse even today.
 
Terms of use: The material above is available for viewing in the Public Domain.

  • Web Media: YouTube: The History Channel’s History Lost and Found: “Woolworth Lunch Counter Sit-in Civil Rights Protest” Link: YouTube: History Channel’s History Lost and Found:“Woolworth Lunch Counter Sit-in Civil Rights Protest” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch the 6:12 minute clip on the Woolworth Lunch Counter Sit-in and pay close attention to the political discourse and racial discrimination that were a part of American politics and culture in the 1960s.
     
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9.3.2 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.: Non-Violent Protest and The March on Washington   - Reading: Ashland University: Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs’ version of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” (April 16, 1963) Link: Ashland University: Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs’ version of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” (April 16, 1963) (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read the text of King’s profound “Letter from a Birmingham City Jail.”
 
Note on the Text: Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote this letter from jail after being arrested for non-violent protest against segregation in Birmingham, Alabama.  King was initially responding to a written statement by white Alabama clergymen who called for peace and asked protestors to “appeal to law and order and common sense” (Statement by Alabama Clergymen: “A Call to Unity,” 1963) by calling off the demonstrations.  King expresses his thoughts on this proposal and his sense of urgency for an end to racial segregation.
 
Terms of use: The material above is available for viewing in the Public Domain.

  • Web Media: American Rhetoric’s version of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have a Dream Speech” (1963) Link: American Rhetoric’s version of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have a Dream Speech” (1963) (HTML)

    Instructions: Listen to the audio or read the transcript of King’s address at the March on Washington, August 28, 1963.
     
    Note on the Text: “The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom” was a non-violent rally of over 200,000 individuals who came together in support of civil rights.  Although many performers and leaders spoke, King’s speech was perhaps the most memorable and influential of the day. 
     
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9.3.3 Malcolm X and Black Nationalism   - Reading: Double Consciousness: “Malcolm X on Black Nationalism and White Privilege” Link: Double Consciousness: “Malcolm X on Black Nationalism and White Privilege” (PDF)  
 
Instructions:  Read this article. 

 Reading this article should take approximately 20 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licesed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 Generic
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/). It is
attributed to Double Consciousness and the original version can be
found
[here](http://2xconsciousness.blogspot.com/2007/01/malcolm-x-on-black-nationalism-and.html).
  • Reading: Oxford African American Studies Center’s “Black Nationalism and Independence Movements” Link: Oxford African American Studies Center’s “Black Nationalism and Independence Movements” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the summary and then click on the hyperlink at the bottom to view the photo essay on the history of black independence movements.
     
    Terms of use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Ashland University: Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs’ version of Malcolm X’s “The Ballot or the Bullet” (April 3, 1964) Link: Ashland University: Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs’ version of Malcolm X’s “The Ballot or the Bullet” (April 3, 1964)  (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Read the text of Malcolm X’s “The Ballot or the Bullet” speech.
     
    Note on the Text: This speech was delivered by Malcolm X at a black-Methodist church in Cleveland, Ohio.  The speech demonstrates the more violent undertones that were emerging in the civil rights movement as individuals tired of non-violent protest.
     
    Terms of use: The material above is available for viewing in the Public Domain.

9.4 The Transformative Presidency of London B. Johnson   9.4.1 Civil Rights and Voting Rights   - Reading: PBS’ American Experience: LBJ: “Domestic Politics” and “Foreign Affairs” Link: PBS’ American Experience: LBJ: “Domestic Politics” (HTML) and “Foreign Affairs” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the above two articles on the public policies of Lyndon B. Johnson’s presidency.  Note that these readings will cover the material you need to know for subunits 9.4.2-9.4.3
 
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  • Web Media: University of Virginia: The Miller Center for Public Affairs’ version of Lyndon B. Johnson’s “Remarks upon Signing the Civil Rights Bill” (July 2, 1964) Link: University of Virginia: The Miller Center for Public Affairs’ version of Lyndon B. Johnson’s “Remarks upon Signing the Civil Rights Bill” (July 2, 1964) (Adobe Flash and HTML)

    Also available in:

    RealMedia

    Quicktime

    MP3
     
    Instructions: Watch this video or read the text of President Johnson’s 1964 speech.
     
    Terms of use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: University of Virginia: The Miller Center for Public Affairs’ version of Lyndon B. Johnson’s “Speech Before Congress on Voting Rights” (March 15, 1965) Link: University of Virginia: The Miller Center for Public Affairs’ version of Lyndon B. Johnson’s “Speech Before Congress on Voting Rights” (March 15, 1965) (Adobe Flash and HTML)
     
    Also available in:

    Quicktime

    RealMedia

    MP3
     
    Instructions: Please watch this video or read the text of President Johnson’s 1965 speech.  After reading the above two speeches, consider why Johnson so aggressively took up the mantle of civil rights. On one hand, Johnson has been credited with being one of the most important figures in the civil rights movement.  However, some critics believe that he was merely an unprincipled politician who used the civil rights issue when he realized the worth of the “Black Vote.” With which view do you agree more? Why?
     
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9.4.2 Social Reforms   - Web Media: University of Virginia: The Miller Center for Public Affairs’ version of Lyndon B. Johnson’s “State of the Union” (January 8, 1964) Link: University of Virginia: The Miller Center for Public Affairs’ version of Lyndon B. Johnson’s “State of the Union” (Adobe Flash and HTML) (January 8, 1964)
 
Instructions: Watch this video or read the text of President Johnson’s 1964 speech.
 
Also available in:

[Quicktime](http://web2.millercenter.org/speeches/video/mov/spe_1964_0108_johnson.mov)  

[RealMedia](http://web2.millercenter.org/speeches/video/rm/spe_1964_0108_johnson.rm)  

[MP3](http://web2.millercenter.org/speeches/audio/spe_1964_0108_johnson.mp3)  
    
 Terms of use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: Web Media: PBS’ American Experience: LBJ’s “War on Poverty” Link: PBS’ American Experience: LBJ’s “War on Poverty” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the two-minute video clip from the documentary.
     
    Terms of use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum’s version of Lyndon B. Johnson’s “Speech on the Great Society” (May 22, 1964) Link: Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum’s version of Lyndon B. Johnson’s “Speech on the Great Society” (May 22, 1964) (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the text of Johnson’s speech given at the University of Michigan.
     
    Terms of use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

9.4.3 Continuing Conflict: The Vietnam War   - Web Media: PBS’ American Experience: LBJ’s “Johnson’s War” Link: PBS’ American Experience: LBJ’s “Johnson’s War” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Please watch the three-minute video clip from the documentary.
 
Terms of use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum’s version of Lyndon B. Johnson’s “Peace Without Conquest Speech” (April 7, 1965) Link: Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum’s version of Lyndon B. Johnson’s “Peace Without Conquest Speech” (April 7, 1965) (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the text of Johnson’s speech given at Johns Hopkins University where he reaffirms his commitment for U.S. involvement in Vietnam.  Although his speech failed to bring peace to Southeast Asia, it was successful in temporarily fending off critics enough for the administration to escalate the war.  Many historians believe LBJ’s speech exemplifies the powers and danger of rhetoric.
     
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  • Web Media: University of Virginia: The Miller Center for Public Affairs’ version of Lyndon B. Johnson’s “Remarks on Decision not to Seek Re-Election” (March 31, 1968) Link: University of Virginia: The Miller Center for Public Affairs’ version of Lyndon B. Johnson’s “Remarks on Decision not to Seek Re-Election” (March 31, 1968) (Adobe Flash and HTML)
     
    Also available in:

    Quicktime

    RealMedia

    MP3
     
    Instructions: Watch this video or read the text of President Johnson’s 1968 speech.
     
    Note on the Web Media: President Johnson’s speech was made in the midst of continued protest and anti-war sentiment across the nation.  Opposition to the war continued to grow, especially after the Tet Offensive and due to the barrage of wartime images presented to American citizens on the nightly news.  In this speech, LBJ underscores his desire for peace and an end to partisan conflict and announces his decision not to seek re-election in the 1968 Presidential contest.
     
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9.5 The Political Ideological Divide: Conservatives, Liberals, and Radicals   9.5.1 The Conservative Backlash   - Reading: American Rhetoric’s version of Barry Goldwater’s “Speech Accepting the Republican Presidential Nomination” (1964) Link: American Rhetoric’s version of Barry Goldwater’s “Speech Accepting the Republican Presidential Nomination” (1964) (HTML)

 Also available in:  
 PDF  
 Adobe Flash  

 Instructions: Read or listen to the text of Goldwater’s 1964
acceptance speech at the Republican National Convention.  <span
class="Apple-style-span"
style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: 'Lucida Grande', Verdana, Arial, 'Bitstream Vera Sans', sans-serif; line-height: 16px; ">To
view in PDF or Flash format, please select the appropriate link just
above the transcript of Goldwater's speech.</span>  

 Note on the Text: The Goldwater speech was seen as the beginning of
a more conservative Republican party.  His candidacy marked the
shift from a more northern-elitist Republican party, to a more
southern, conservative tradition.  Although the conservative
revolution would not fully come to fruition until the election of
Ronald Reagan in the 1980s, the Goldwater speech serves as a clear
delineation of the conservative backlash that grew out of the
turmoil in the 1960s and in many ways continues in American politics
today.  

 Terms of use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

9.5.2 Liberalism Continued   - Reading: George McGovern’s “Announcing Candidacy for the 1972 Democratic Presidential Nomination” (January 18, 1971) Link: George McGovern’s “Announcing Candidacy for the 1972 Democratic Presidential Nomination” (January 18, 1971) (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read the text of McGovern’s statement announcing his candidacy for the 1972 presidential election. 
 
Note on the Text: McGovern was seen as the champion of liberal, democratic values.  In his announcement, he outlines many of the liberal political ideas of the day.  McGovern and the liberals, however, were not successful in their bid for a more liberal national political agenda; McGovern lost the 1972 election to Richard Nixon.
 
Terms of use: The material above is available for viewing in the Public Domain.

9.5.3 The Ideology of the New Left   - Reading: Marxists Internet Archive’s version of C. Wright Mills’ New Left Review article, “Letter to the New Left” (1960) Link: Marxists Internet Archive’s version of C. Wright Mills’ New Left Review article, “Letter to the New Left” (1960) (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the text of Mills’s article, “Letter to the New Left.”  The New Left was a term used mainly in the United Kingdom and United States in reference to activists, educators, agitators, and others in the 1960s and 1970s who sought to implement a broad range of reforms, in contrast to earlier leftist or Marxist movements that had focused mostly on labor unionization and questions of social class.  In the United States, the “New Left” was associated with the Hippie movement and college campus protest movements.
 
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