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POLSC301: American Political Thought

Unit 7: Progressivism and The New Deal   In the late 1800s and early 1900s, Americans began to question the wisdom and priorities of those leading the industrial revolution.  Rapid industrialization yielded great wealth and opportunity for some, but was also blamed for the increases in poverty, class divisions, violence, and racism related to immigration.  In this unit, you will study the resultant focus on social and economic issues and the rise of a variety of reform movements.     

Unit 7 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 24 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 7.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 7.1.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.1.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.2: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 7.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.3.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.3.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.4: 5.5 hours

☐    Subunit 7.4.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.4.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.4.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.4.4: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 7.5: 3.5 hours

☐    Subunit 7.5.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.5.2: .5 hours

☐    Subunit 7.5.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.5.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.6: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 7.6.1: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 7.6.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.7: 6 hours

☐    Subunit 7.7.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.7.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.7.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.7.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.7.5: 1 hour

Unit7 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Discuss the roles and writings of the early “muckrakers” in exposing business and political corruption.
  • Analyze the tension between corporate interests and the labor class in the early twentieth century.
  • Describe the major philosophies of third parties in the Gilded Age.
  • Describe the origins and the various social and political reforms of the Progressive movement.
  • Compare and contrast the political ideologies of communism, socialism, and anarchism.
  • Describe the key arguments put forth in support of women’s suffrage.
  • Analyze presidential foreign policy as it relates to early twentieth century American political discourse.
  • Assess Woodrow Wilson’s diplomatic philosophies before, during, and after World War I.
  • Analyze anti-immigrant and anti-communist American sentiment in the 1920s.
  • Compare and contrast the political philosophy of “liberalism” as defined by Herbert Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt.
  • Describe how diplomacy was utilized on the international stage by FDR and Harry Truman. 

7.1 Responses to Industrialism   7.1.1 A Rejection of the “Gilded Age”   - Reading: History Matters version of Lincoln Steffens’s “The Shame of the Cities” (1904) Link: History Matters version of Lincoln Steffens’s “The Shame of the Cities” (1904) (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the short summary and the “Introduction and Some Conclusions” to Steffens’s seminal piece on government corruption in major U.S. cities.
 
Note on the Text: Steffens, one of the most prominent “muckrakers” of the early twentieth century, sought to bring about political reform by appealing to the emotions of Americans and trying to provoke outrage with examples of corrupt governments throughout urban America.
 
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  • Reading: The Our Documents Initiative’s version of “Sherman Anti-Trust Act” (1890) Link:The Our Documents Initiative’s version of “Sherman Anti-Trust Act” (1890) (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please begin by reading the “Document Info” about this landmark legislation.  Then, under the “current document” drop-down menu, click on “document transcript” and read the text of the Act.
     
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7.1.2 Class Conflict and Labor Relations   - Reading: University of Maryland’s version of Samuel Gompers’s “What Does Labor Want?” (1893) Link: University of Maryland’s version of Samuel Gompers’s “What Does Labor Want?” (1893) (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the position paper from Gompers, which was read before the International Labor Congress in Chicago, Illinois. 
 
Note on the Text: Gompers was a labor union leader and the founder of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). As its president nearly continuously between 1886 and 1924, Gompers led the labor movement in achieving solid gains for workers.
 
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7.2 Third Parties in the Gilded Age   - Reading: University of Virginia: The American Studies Department’s “The Fall of Third Parties in the Gilded Age.” Link: University of Virginia: The American Studies Department’s “The Fall of Third Parties in the Gilded Age.” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Begin by clicking on the “Introduction” hyperlink in the middle of the page.  Read the Introduction and then the following four sections: “Background,” “Major Party Incorporations,” “Internal Problems,” and “Aftermath.”  Note that this reading will cover the material you need to know for subunits 7.2.1–7.2.2.
 
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7.2.1 The Greenback Party   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 7.2. The reading “Historical Background” will provide more substantive information about the Greenback Party.

7.2.2 The People’s Party (The Populists)   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 7.2.
The reading “Historical Background” will provide more substantive information about the People’s Party.

7.3 The Progressive Era   7.3.1 Progressivism   - Web Media: University of California College Prep’s US History Course: “Unit 7: Isolationist to World Power, Chapter 17: Reform, Lesson 52—The Progressive Impulse” Presentation Link: University of California College Prep’s US History Course: “Unit 7: Isolationist to World Power, Chapter 17: Reform, Lesson 52—The Progressive Impulse” Presentation (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Please click on “Start Lesson” to launch the video. View the first section (“Origins of Progressivism”) and the second section (“Municipal, State, and National Reforms”)  of the presentation.  Also, read the accompanying text.
 
Note on the Media: Section 1of this presentation focuses on the origins of the Progressive Movement in the United States and the broad objectives of Progressive reformers.
 
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7.3.2 The Progressive Party of 1912   - Reading: “Progressive Platform of 1912” Link: “Progressive Platform of 1912” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read the text of the Progressive Party’s national platform for the election of 1912.
 
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7.4 Other Political & Reform Movements   7.4.1 Communism and Socialism   - Reading: Google Books: Robert L. Heilbroner’s The Worldly Philosophers: The Lives, Times and Ideas of the Great Economic Thinkers Link: Google Books: Robert L. Heilbroner’s The Worldly Philosophers: The Lives, Times and Ideas of the Great Economic Thinkers (ePub format)
 
Instructions: Please read Chapter 6 of the book, entitled “The Inexorable System of Karl Marx.”
 
Note on the Text: Heilbroner offers an insightful analysis of Marx’s The Communist Manifesto, in which heattempts to explain the goals of Communism, as well as the theory underlying this movement.  Manifestois widely recognized as one of the world’s most influential political manuscripts.
 
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  • Reading: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: Robert Heilbroner’s “Socialism” Link: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: Robert Heilbroner’s “Socialism” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the webpage in its entirety.
     
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  • Reading: Sage American History: Henry J. Sage's “The Socialist Party Platform of 1912” Link: Sage American History: Henry J. Sage's “The Socialist Party Platform of 1912” (HTML) 
     
    Instructions: Please read the text of the Socialist Party’s national platform for the presidential election of 1912.
     
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7.4.2 Anarchism   - Reading: Berkeley Digital Library’s version of Emma Goldman’s “Anarchy: What It Really Stands For” (1917) Link: Berkeley Digital Library’s version of Emma Goldman’s “Anarchy: What It Really Stands For” (1917) (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the essay by Goldman, considered one of the most important figures in the history of anarchism.  Anarchism as a political ideology posited the notion that society should have no government, laws, police, or other authority, and that the violent overthrow of oppressive institutions was sometimes necessary.  Few as they were in number, anarchists were viewed with alarm by the American community when the movement experienced a resurgence in the late nineteenth century. In 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt denounced anarchism as “a crime against the whole human race.”
 
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7.4.3 Muckraking and Social Reform   - Reading: Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle (1906) Link: Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle (1906) (HTML)
 
Also available in:
ePub format on Google Books
 
Note on the Text: Sinclair is known as one of the leading reform-oriented journalists who wrote largely for popular magazines, also known as “muckrakers” in the early twentieth century.  He wrote The Jungle with the intention of portraying the life of the immigrant in the United States, but readers were more concerned with the large portion of the book pertaining to the corruption of the American meatpacking industry, and the book is now often interpreted and taught as a journalist’s exposure of the poor health conditions within the industry at that time.
 
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7.4.4 The Struggle for Women’s Suffrage   - Reading: University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law’s version of Susan B. Anthony’s “Is it a Crime for a Citizen of the United States to Vote?” (1873) Link: University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law’s version of Susan B. Anthony’s “Is it a Crime for a Citizen of the United States to Vote?” (1873) (HTML)
 
Also available in:
PDF
 
Instructions: Please read the text of Anthony’s speech.
 
Note on the Text: Susan B. Anthony was a prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the late nineteenth century women’s suffrage movement. This speech was delivered after she (illegally) voted in the 1872 presidential election. She was indicted in Albany, New York, and tried in the following year. She took her case to the court of public opinion in a direct effort to reach potential jurors and leads her audience through a reasoned set of arguments based on the nation’s founding documents. Anthony died fourteen years before passage of the Nineteenth Amendment giving women the right to vote.

  • Reading: Sage American History: Henry J. Sage's "Jane Addams, 'Utilization of Women in City Government'" Link: Sage American History: Henry J. Sage's "Jane Addams, 'Utilization of Women in City Government'" (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the article in its entirety.
     
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7.5 American Relations with the World and the First World War   7.5.1 The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine   - Reading: The Our Documents Initiative’s version of Theodore Roosevelt’s “Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine” (1905) Link:The Our Documents Initiative’s version of Theodore Roosevelt’s “Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine” (1905) (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please begin by reading the “Document Info” about this landmark foreign policy proclamation.  Then, under the “current document” drop-down menu, click on “document transcript” and read the actual text of Roosevelt’s speech.
 
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7.5.2 “Neutrality”   - Reading: PBS’ American Experience’s version of Woodrow Wilson’s “Declaration of Neutrality” (1914) Link: PBS’ American Experience’s version of Woodrow Wilson’s “Declaration of Neutrality” (1914) (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read Wilson’s speech delivered before the U.S. Senate in which he warns citizens not to take sides in World War I for fear of endangering wider U.S. policy.
 
Note on the Text: In the summer of 1914, the nations of Europe took up arms against one another in a war that came to be known as World War I.
The United States maintained neutrality despite increasing pressure placed on Wilson after the Germans torpedoed a passenger liner with Americans on board.  Soon after, Congress formally announced America’s entry into the war.
 
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7.5.3 America in the Great War   - Reading: The Our Document Initiative’s version of Woodrow Wilson’s “Joint Address to Congress Leading to a Declaration of War Against Germany” (1917) Link: The Our Document Initiative’s version of Woodrow Wilson’s “Joint Address to Congress Leading to a Declaration of War Against Germany” (1917) (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please begin by reading the “Document Info,” then, under the “current document” drop-down menu, click on “document transcript” and read the text of Wilson’s speech.
 
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7.5.4 Peace Time: Wilson, the Fourteen Points, and the League of Nations   - Reading: The Our Document Initiative’s version of Woodrow Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” (1918) Link: The Our Document Initiative’s version of Woodrow Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” (1918) (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please begin by reading the “Document Info,” then, under the “current document” drop-down menu, click on “document transcript” and read the text of Wilson’s speech.
 
Also available in:

[HTML](http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/President_Wilson's_Fourteen_Points)  
    
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  • Reading: The First World War.com’s version of Henry Cabot Lodge’s “Speech on the League of Nations” (1919) Link: The First World War.com’s version of Henry Cabot Lodge’s “Speech on the League of Nations” (1919) (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the brief introductory information about Henry Cabot Lodge and then read the text of his August 12, 1919 speech.
     
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7.6 Post-War America, the Great Depression, and New Deal Liberalism   7.6.1 Anti-Immigrant and Anti-Communist Sentiments   - Reading: W.W. Norton and Company’s version of A. Mitchell Palmer’s “The Case Against the Reds” (1920) Link: W.W. Norton and Company’s version of A. Mitchell Palmer’s “The Case Against the Reds” (1920) (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the short introduction and text of Palmer’s essay.
 
Note on the Text: The climate of repression against political dissent that the government established during World War I continued after the war ended: This time, government interest focused on communists, Bolsheviks, and “reds,” generally. With a broad base of support, Palmer intensified his attacks on dissent, although some of his opponents claimed that he devised the “Red Scare” to help him become the Democratic presidential candidate in 1920.
 
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  • Reading: Charles University’s, Institute of International Studies’ version of the “Immigrant Act of 1924” Link: Reading: Charles University’s Institute of International Studies’ version of the “Immigrant Act of 1924” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entire text of the legislation.
     
    Note on the Text: This act was largely a legislative expression of the xenophobia—particularly toward eastern and southern European immigrants—that swept America in the 1920s. “It has become necessary that the United States cease to function as an asylum,” declared Congressman Albert Johnson (the author of the bill), during debate on the measure.  The bill passed by large margins in both the House and Senate. 
     
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7.6.2 Herbert Hoover: American Individualism & “True Liberalism”   - Reading: Herbert Hoover Presidential Library Association’s version of Herbert Hoover’s “American Individualism” (1922) Link: Herbert Hoover Presidential Library Association’s version of Herbert Hoover’s “American Individualism” (1922) (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the excerpt of Hoover’s pamphlet.
 
Note on the Text: Many historians believe that Hoover’s perspective in his writings during this time was greatly influenced by his humanitarian service before and after World War I. What appears to have been his primary focus when writing American Individualism was the means by which lasting peace could be achieved and the ravages of war avoided.

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7.7 The Legacy of Franklin D. Roosevelt   7.7.1 FDR: The Great Depression and New Deal Liberalism   - Reading: National Archives: “Teaching With Documents: FDR’s First Inaugural Address” Link: Reading: National Archives: “Teaching With Documents: FDR’s First Inaugural Address” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the background summary on FDR’s famous speech.
 
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  • Reading: Project Gutenberg’s version of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “First Inaugural Address” (1933) Link: Project Gutenberg’s version of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “First Inaugural Address” (1933) (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the short introduction in addition to the text of Roosevelt’s speech.
     
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  • Reading: The New School: “The Keynesian Impact on Public Policy” Link: The New School: “The Keynesian Impact on Public Policy” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the on-line overview of Keynesian Economics.
     
    Note on the text: This reading provides an important historical perspective on Keynesian economics worldwide.  It is important, however, to pay particular attention to the definition of Keynesianism and its impact on American public policy.  Try to connect the theories proposed by Keynes to the actions taken by FDR during the New Deal.
     
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7.7.2 Reactions to the Rise of “Big Government”   - Reading: Hoover Association’s version of Herbert Hoover’s “This Challenge to Liberty” Speech (1936) Link: Herbert Hoover Presidential Library Association’s version of Herbert Hoover’s This Challenge to Liberty Speech (1936) (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read the text of former president Herbert Hoover’s speech on the eve of the 1936 presidential election.

 Note on the Text: After losing the presidential election in 1932 to
FDR, Herbert Hoover went into political exile, watching the
development of the New Deal from the sidelines.  Hoover believed
that the New Deal’s unprecedented expansion of federal power to be a
serious threat to America’s heritage of liberty, and he made a
series of speeches attacking the policy.  
    
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7.7.3 FDR and International Relations Leading To American Involvement in WWII   - Reading: Mount Holyoke College’s version of the U.S. Congress’s “Neutrality Act of 1935” (HTML) Link: Mount Holyoke College’s version of the U.S. Congress’s “Neutrality Act of 1935” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the text of the law passed by Congress and signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt.
 
Note on the Text: Between 1935 and 1939, Congress passed four neutrality acts to limit America’s involvement in foreign conflicts in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II. They were spurred by the growth in isolationism and noninterventionism in the United States following its costly involvement in World War I and sought to ensure that the United States would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts.
 
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  • Reading: Mount Holyoke College’s version of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “Arsenal of Democracy Address” (1940) Link: Mount Holyoke College’s version of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “Arsenal of Democracy Address” (1940)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entire text of FDR’s radio address.
     
    Note on the Text: The Lend-Lease Act, approved by Congress in 1941, gave President Roosevelt virtually unlimited authority to direct military supplies to help Great Britain fight against Nazi Germany without violating America’s official position of neutrality.  Like other New Deal programs, Lend-Lease proposed a vastly expanded role for the U.S. government,particularly the President, and “Arsenal of Democracy” became a popular propaganda slogan.
     
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7.7.4 FDR and America at War   - Reading: The Our Document Initiative’s version of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “Annual Message (Four Freedoms) to Congress” (1941) Link: The Our Document Initiative’s version of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “Annual Message (Four Freedoms) to Congress” (1941) (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please begin by reading the “Document Info,” then, under the “current document” drop-down menu, click on “document transcript” and read the text of FDR’s speech.
 
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  • Reading: The Our Document Initiative’s version of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “Joint Address to Congress Leading to a Declaration of War Against Japan” (1941) Link: The Our Document Initiative’s version of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “Joint Address to Congress Leading to a Declaration of War Against Japan” (1941) (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please begin by reading the “Document Info,” then, under the “current document” drop-down menu, click on “document transcript” and read the text of FDR’s speech.

7.7.5 WWII: Victory and Aftermath   - Reading: The Our Document Initiative’s version of Harry S. Truman’s “Truman Doctrine” (1941) Link: The Our Document Initiative’s version of Harry S. Truman’s “Truman Doctrine” (1947)
 
Instructions: Please begin by reading the “Document Info,” then, under the “current document” drop-down menu, click on “document transcript” and read the text of FDR’s address before a joint session of Congress.
 
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  • Reading: The Our Document Initiative’s version of George C. Marshall’s “Marshall Plan Speech” (1947) Link: The Our Document Initiative’s version of George C. Marshall’s “Marshall Plan Speech” (1947) (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please begin by reading the “Document Info,” then, under the “current document” drop-down menu, click on “document transcript” and read the text by U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall’s speech given at Harvard University on June 5, 1947.
     
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