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POLSC241: Introduction to Public Administration

Unit 4: Public Management   The traditional model of public administration – characterized by Weber’s theory of bureaucracy, Woodrow Wilson’s politics/administration dichotomy, and Taylor’s theory of scientific management – attempted to create a structure of public administration that was free from political interference, value neutral, and structured in a way that would ensure both accountability and efficiency.  The fallacies in the traditional model have been challenged as the field of public administration has progressed.  This unit explores the progression of management thought and practice within the field.

Unit 4 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 22.75 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 4.1: 6.75 hours
 

☐    Sub-subunit 4.1.1: 3.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.1.2: 1.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.1.3: 2.25 hours 

☐    Subunit 4.2: 16 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.2.1: 4 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.2.2: 4.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.2.3: 7.75 hours

Unit4 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Compare and contrast theories of motivation in relation to individual and group behavior. - Examine the development and progression of administrative theory in public administration. - Identify the tensions between New Public Administration and New Public Management.

4.1 Managing People   4.1.1 Classic Theories of Motivation and Organizational Behavior   - Reading: Wikibooks’ Introduction to Sociology: Organizational Behavior Link: Wikibooks’ Introduction to Sociology: Organizational Behavior (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above and scroll down to
section 8 for information on theories of motivation, including
equity theory and expectancy theory.  

 Reading this material should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: IBM Center for the Business of Government: Harry Hatry and Elizabeth Davies’ “A Guide to Data Driven Performance Reviews” Link: IBM Center for the Business of Government: Harry Hatry and Elizabeth Davies’ “A Guide to Data Driven Performance Reviews” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the link for the title “A Guide to Data Driven Performance Reviews,” and read the report in its entirety (48 pages).

    Reading this report should take approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: IBM Center for the Business of Government: John Kamensky’s “Four Methods for Creating Thriving Employees” Link: IBM Center for the Business of Government: John Kamensky’s “Four Methods for Creating Thriving Employees” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please study Kamensky’s model.

    Reading this material should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Bob Behn’s Public Management Report: Robert Behn’s “On Why Public Managers Need to Work at Closing Their: Managerial Perception Gap” Link: Bob Behn’s Public Management Report: Robert Behn’s “On Why Public Managers Need to Work at Closing Their: Managerial Perception Gap” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to the link titled “October 2006: Managerial Perception Gap,” and click on it to download the PDF.  Please read the brief on perception versus reality among public managers.

    Reading this brief should take approximately 10 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.2 Public Service Motive   - Reading: Public Administration Review: James Perry and Lois Wise’s “The Motivational Bases of Public Service” Link: Public Administration Review: James Perry and Lois Wise’s “The Motivational Bases of Public Service” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down the webpage to locate the title “The Motivational Bases of Public Service,” and click on the link to download the PDF.  Read this entire text (7 pages).  This article serves as a catalyst for research on public service motivation.
 
Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Kennesaw State University: Professor Ulf Zimmerman’s version of Lois Wise’s “Public Service Motivation: The Concept of the Public Service Culture” Link: Kennesaw State University: Professor Ulf Zimmerman’s version of Lois Wise’s “Public Service Motivation: The Concept of the Public Service Culture” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and select the link to “Wise, On Public Service Culture” to download the PDF.  Are public employees attracted to the public service for unique reasons?  Are public employees differently motivated than private sector employees?  Read the entire article to find out (13 pages).

    Reading this article should take approximately 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.3 Organizational Culture   - Reading: Knowledge Management Pedia’s “Organizational Culture” Link: Knowledge Management Pedia’s “Organizational Culture” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read the description of organizational culture
and Schein’s three levels.  

 This reading should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Institute of Public Administration: Orla O’Donnell and Richard Boyle’s “Understanding and Managing Organizational Culture” Link: Institute of Public Administration: Orla O’Donnell and Richard Boyle’s “Understanding and Managing Organizational Culture” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and note the webpage with articles listed in alphabetical order.  Scroll down to “Understanding and Managing Organizational Culture,” and click on the title to download the PDF.  This report provides a comprehensive discussion of organizational culture from an international case study perspective.

    Reading this report should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2 Managing Organizations   4.2.1 Classic Theories of Administration   - Reading: University of Pretoria Library Services: Journal of Public Administration, 45, 1(1): C. Thornhill and G. Van Dijk’s “Public Administration Theory: Justification for Conceptualization” Link: University of Pretoria Library Services: Journal of Public Administration, 45, 1(1): C. Thornhill and G. Van Dijk’s “Public Administration Theory: Justification for Conceptualization” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and then select the
“View/Open” link to download the PDF.  Please read the entire
article (16 pages).  Thornhill and Van Dijk address the challenges
of theories relevant to public administration.  

 Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.1.1 Weber’s Bureaucracy   - Reading: University of Mumbai’s “Unit 3: Working of Bureaucracy: Theory of Bureaucracy – Max Weber” Link: University of Mumbai’s “Unit 3: Working of Bureaucracy: Theory of Bureaucracy – Max Weber” (PDF)

 Instructions:  Please scroll down and read pages 23-30.  

 Reading this material should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Rogers University: Frank Elwell’s “Max Weber: Characteristics of Bureaucracy” Link: Rogers University: Frank Elwell’s “Max Weber: Characteristics of Bureaucracy” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above to access an index of articles, and then select the link titled “Weber1921.pdf” to download the document.  Please read the classic synopsis of the ideal characteristics of bureaucracy.

    Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: George Mason University: James P. Pfiffner’s “Traditional Public Administration versus The New Public Management: Accountability versus Efficiency” Link: George Mason University: James P. Pfiffner’s “Traditional Public Administration versus The New Public Management: Accountability versus Efficiency” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above to access an index of articles, and then select the link titled “NewPublicMgt.doc.pdf” to download the document.  Please read the article in its entirety.

    Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.1.2 Wilson’s Politics/Administration Dichotomy   - Reading: TeachingAmericanHistory.org: Woodrow Wilson’s “The Study of Administration” Link: TeachingAmericanHistory.org: Woodrow Wilson’s “The Study of Administration” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please review Wilson’s classic work in public
administration.  

 Reading this review should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.1.3 Taylor’s Scientific Management   - Reading: YouTube: ABC World News’ “Taylorism on ABC World Report” Link: YouTube: ABC World News’ “Taylorism on ABC World Report” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Watch the historical footage of the importance of
Taylorism.  

 Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Public Management Report (June, 2006): 3(10): Robert Behn’s “Frederick Winslow Taylor Lives” Link: Public Management Report (June, 2006): 3(10): Robert Behn’s “Frederick Winslow Taylor Lives” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to “June 2006: Frederick Winslow Taylor Lives” under “Archives,” and click on the link to download the PDF.  Read the article in its entirety.

    Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.1.4 Gulick’s POSDCORB   - Reading: Wikipedia’s “POSDCORB” Link: Wikipedia’s “POSDCORB” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please review the significance of the elements of
POSDCORB in the encyclopedia entry linked above.  

 Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.2 New Public Administration   - Reading: University of Mumbai’s “New Public Administration” Link: University of Mumbai’s “New Public Administration” (PDF)

 Instructions:  Please read Section 2.5 of Unit 2 on pages 19–22 of
the document for material relevant to the sub-subunits 4.2.2.1 and
4.2.2.2.  

 Reading this material should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.2.1 Dwight Waldo and Minnowbrook   - Reading: Maxwell School of Syracuse University: George Lowery’s “Putting the Purpose in P.A.” Link: Maxwell School of Syracuse University: George Lowery’s “Putting the Purpose in P.A.” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire
webpage.  Note the importance of Dwight Waldo in the field of public
administration and his role in moving the field in a new
direction.  

 Reading this material should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Dialogue (1983): 5(2): Richard Stillman III’s “The Romantic Vision in American Administrative Theory: Retrospectives and Prospectives” Link: Dialogue (1983): 5(2): Richard Stillman III’s “The Romantic Vision in American Administrative Theory: Retrospectives and Prospectives” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, select the link to open volume 5, and scroll down to p. 26 of the PDF to read “Toward a New Public Administration: The Minnowbrook Perspective” on pages 26–28 (listed as pp. 7–9 on the document).

    Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Universidad Autonoma del Estrado de Mexico: J. Ramon Gil Garcia’s “Toward a Public Administration: Minnowbrook III. A Reflection and Proposal” Link: Universidad Autonoma del Estrado de Mexico: J. Ramon Gil Garcia’s “Toward a Public Administration: Minnowbrook III. A Reflection and Proposal” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the article on this webpage (8 pages).  This manuscript provides a summary of Minnowbrook and the perennial tensions within the field.

    Reading this article should take approximately 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.2.2 Social Equity   - Reading: Journal of Public Affairs Education: Kristen Norman-Major: “Balancing the Four Es: or Can We Achieve Equity for Social Equity in Public Administration?” Link: Journal of Public Affairs Education: Kristen Norman-Major’s “Balancing the Four Es: or Can We Achieve Equity for Social Equity in Public Administration?” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and then select
“JPAE-Vol.17-No.2-Spring2011.pdf” to download the journal.  Go to
page 233 (the 77th page of the PDF) to find the article.  Please
read the article and pay attention to the pillars of public
administration.  

 Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: American Constitutional Society: Alan Jenkins, Juhu Thukral, Kevin Hsu, Nerissa Kunakemakron, and Megan Haberle’s “Promoting Opportunity through Impact Statements: A Tool of Policymakers to Assess Equity” Link: American Constitutional Society: Alan Jenkins, Juhu Thukral, Kevin Hsu, Nerissa Kunakemakron, and Megan Haberle’s “Promoting Opportunity through Impact Statements: A Tool of Policymakers to Assess Equity” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and then select the link at the bottom of the webpage to download the PDF.  Please read this report in its entirety.

    Reading this report should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.3 New Public Management   - Lecture: YouTube: Professor Valentina Mele’s “Foundations of Public Management and New Public Management” Link: YouTube: Professor Valentina Mele’s “Foundations of Public Management and New Public Management” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch Professor
Mele’s lecture on public management.  

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: International Journal of Human Sciences: Sebahattin Gultekin’s “New Public Management: Is It Really New?” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

  • Reading: Public Administration Review: Richard Box, Gary Marshall, B.J. Reed, and Christine Reed’s “New Public Management and Substantive Democracy” Link: Public Administration Review: Richard Box, Gary Marshall, B.J. Reed, and Christine Reed’s “New Public Management and Substantive Democracy” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down Professor Shulock’s syllabus to Week 2, locate the title of the article, and click on the link to download the PDF.  Read this excellent article on the potential consequences of NPM.

    This reading should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.3.1 Reinventing Government and the National Performance Review   - Web Media: YouTube: “Reinventing Government, Part 1” and “Reinventing Government, Part 2” Link: YouTube: “Reinventing Government, Part 1” (YouTube) and “Reinventing Government, Part 2” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Please watch the two video segments on reinventing
government.  

 Watching these videos and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Report of the National Performance Review: Vice President Al Gore’s “From Red Tape to Results: Creating a Government that Works Better & Costs Less” Link: Report of the National Performance Review: Vice President Al Gore’s “From Red Tape to Results: Creating a Government that Works Better & Costs Less” (TXT)

    Instructions: The reinvention movement dominated the field of public administration for many years.  Read this historic report to learn more.

    Reading this report should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Jesse Alan Gordon’s “A Critique of Reinventing Government” Link: Jesse Alan Gordon’s “A Critique of Reinventing Government” (HTML)

    Instructions: There were just as many critiques on the reinvention movement as there were reform initiatives in the public sector.  This author provides a brief overview of some of the critiques; please read the entire discussion.

    Reading this article should take approximately 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.3.2 Recommendations for Reform   - Reading: U.S. Government Accountability Office: “Opportunities for Improvement and Considerations for Restructuring” Link: U.S. Government Accountability Office: “Opportunities for Improvement and Considerations for Restructuring” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and select the “View
Report” link to download the PDF.  Read the recommendations for
reform in this GAO report.  

 Reading this report should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: You Tube: John Kamensky’s “Performance Management Recommendations for the New Administration” Link: You Tube: John Kamensky’s “Performance Management Recommendations for the New Administration” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Please watch the recommendations for President Obama’s administrative transition.

    Watching this video (several times as needed) and pausing to take notes should take less than 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.