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POLSC241: Introduction to Public Administration

Unit 3: Public Personnel   This unit will introduce you to the practice of human-resource management in public agencies.  This unit will cover the important personnel topics of employee selection, development, promotion, and retention, and it will address critical issues such as merit versus patronage, representative bureaucracy, pay-for-performance, and the state of collective bargaining.

Unit 3 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 33 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 3.2: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 3.3: 1.75 hours

☐    Subunit 3.4: 9.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.4.1: 8.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.4.2: 0.75 hour

☐    Subunit 3.5: 7.75 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.5.1: 2.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.5.2: 3 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.5.3: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 3.6: 4 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.6.1: 0.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.6.2: 3.75 hours

☐    Subunit 3.7: 5.75 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.7.1: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 3.7.2: 0.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.7.3: 4.5 hours

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of patronage and merit. - Compare and contrast pay-for-performance to traditional pay systems. - Articulate the distinctions among EEO, AA, and Workforce Diversity. - Summarize court interpretations of constitutional rights in the workplace. - Discuss discipline and grievance procedures. - Describe collective-bargaining practices and emergent issues in public-sector bargaining.

3.1 Public Employment   - Reading: Congressional Research Service: Gerald Mayer’s “Selected Characteristics of Private and Public Sector Workers” Link: Congressional Research Service: Gerald Mayer’s “Selected Characteristics of Private and Public Sector Workers” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down the
webpage to the line “Selected Characteristics of Private and Public
Sector Workers, July 1, 2011,” and select the link to download the
PDF.  Please read the entire text (35 pages).  The best way to
understand the similarities and differences between the sectors is
to examine the characteristics of workers in both sectors.  

 Reading this material should take approximately 2 hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: YouTube: University of Richmond School of Law’s “Panel on the Constitutional Framework for Public Employment” YouTube: University of Richmond School of Law’s “Panel on the Constitutional Framework for Public Employment” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Please watch this video in its entirety.

    Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.2 Merit vs. Patronage   3.2.1 Spoils System   - Reading: U.S. Office of Personnel Management: “Jackson and Spoils Patronage” Link: U.S. Office of Personnel Management: “Jackson and Spoils Patronage” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this short section on Jackson’s role in the
spoils system.  The shift in public service from “government by
gentlemen” to “government by the common man” was a novel approach at
the time but is criticized today.  

 Reading this material should take approximately 10 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.2.2 The Pendleton Act   - Reading: U.S. Office of Personnel Management: “Assassination of Garfield: The Death of the Spoils System” Link: U.S. Office of Personnel Management: “Assassination of Garfield: The Death of the Spoils System” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this section to learn about how the
assassination of President Garfield was a catalyst for civil service
reform.  

 Reading this material should take approximately 10 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Wikipedia’s “Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act” Link: Wikipedia’s “Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please read this entry on the Pendleton Act.

    Reading this article should take approximately 10 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.2.3 The Hatch Act   - Reading: U.S. Office of Special Counsel: “Political Activity and the Federal Employee (booklet)” Link: U.S. Office of Special Counsel: “Political Activity and the Federal Employee (booklet)” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the PDF icon for the text titled
“Political Activity and the Federal Employee (booklet)” to download
the PDF.  Read the booklet in its entirety (14 pages).  

 Reading this booklet should take approximately 45 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.3 Classification, Pay, and Benefits   3.3.1 Position Classification at the Federal Level   - Reading: U.S. Office of Personnel Management: “Classification Questions and Answers” Link: U.S. Office of Personnel Management: “Classification Questions and Answers” (HTML)

 Instructions: See the webpage linked above for specific answers to
frequently asked questions on the federal classification system. 
Question 6 on the site also contains links to standards of
classification.  

 This reading should take approximately 45 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.2 Reform Initiatives   - Reading: U.S. Government Accountability Office: “Modern Performance Management Systems Are Needed to Effectively Support Pay for Performance” Link: U.S. Government Accountability Office: “Modern Performance Management Systems Are Needed to Effectively Support Pay for Performance” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, select the “View
Report” link to download the PDF and read the entire text.  Pay
particular attention to the challenges of implementing, sustaining,
and linking performance management techniques to compensation.  

 This reading should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.4 Human Capital Planning   3.4.1 Workforce Planning   - Reading: U.S. Government Accountability Office: “Human Capital: Federal Workforce Challenges in the 21st Century” Link: U.S. Government Accountability Office: “Human Capital: Federal Workforce Challenges in the 21st Century” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, select the “View
Report” link to download the PDF, and read the entire text.  Pay
particular attention to the challenges of leadership; alignment of
strategic and human capital plans; the need for flexibility in
recruitment and development; and the importance of linking
individual performance to organizational performance.  

 Reading this report should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: YouTube: U.S. Office of Personnel Management’s “Workforce Planning” Link: YouTube: U.S. Office of Personnel Management’s “Workforce Planning” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch this entire video.

    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Govloop: “The Govloop Guide to Workforce Planning” Link: Govloop: “The Govloop Guide to Workforce Planning” (HTML & PDF)

    Instructions: The link allows you the option to either download the PDF or to view the reading online.  Please read the entire guide (25 PDF pages).

    Reading this guide should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: International City/County Management Association: “Preparing the Next Generation: A Guide for Current and Future Local Government Managers” Link: International City/County Management Association: “Preparing the Next Generation: A Guide for Current and Future Local Government Managers” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to the bottom of the webpage, and select the “click here” link after “to download a copy….”  Please read the report in its entirety (72 pages).

    Reading this report should take approximately 4 hours.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.4.2 Human Capital Assessment and Accountability Framework   - Reading: U.S. Office of Personnel Management: “Introduction to the HCAAF Practitioners’ Guide” Link: U.S. Office of Personnel Management: “Introduction to the HCAAF Practitioners’ Guide” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and select the link
to the document under the “Other” heading to download the PDF. 
Please read the entire report (14 pages).  This report provides an
introduction to the five systems of the HCAAF system, including key
definitions and core concepts for planning, implementing, and
evaluating human capital at the federal level.  

 Reading this guide should take approximately 45 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.5 Equal Employment Opportunity, Affirmative Action, and Diversity   3.5.1 Definitions and Distinctions   - Reading: U.S. Department of Labor: Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs: “Facts on Executive Order 11246” Link: U.S. Department of Labor: Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs: “Facts on Executive Order 11246” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read about the origins and purpose of Executive Order 11246.  “You do not take a person who for years has been hobbled by chains and liberate him, bring him up to the starting line of the race and then say ‘you’re free to compete with all the others,’ and still justly believe that you have been completely fair” (President Lyndon Johnson, 1965 commencement address at Howard University).

 This reading should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: “Prohibited Employment Policies/Practices” Link: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: “Prohibited Employment Policies/Practices” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and review the list of prohibited employment practices.

    Reading this material should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: “Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964” Link: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: “Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please read the text of the legislation provided via the link above to understand prohibited employment practices, jurisdiction, investigation, and compliance.

    Reading this legislation should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.5.2 Significant Court Decisions on Discrimination in the Workplace   - Reading: Google Scholar: Griggs v. Duke Power Company, 401 U.S. 424 (1971) Link: Google Scholar: Griggs v. Duke Power Company, 401 U.S. 424 (1971) (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read the majority opinion in this landmark
case on discrimination in the workplace.  

 Reading this case should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Cornell University Law School: United States v. Paradise, 480 U.S. 149 (1987) Link: Cornell University Law School: United States v. Paradise, 480 U.S. 149 (1987) (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the case.  Due to the Alabama Department of Public Safety’s failure to comply with a previous court order to address discrimination in hiring and promotion practices, the U.S. Supreme Court provides justification for the use of affirmative action policies.

    Reading this case should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Google Scholar: Johnson v. Transportation Agency, Santa Clara County, 480 U.S. 616 (1987) Link: Google Scholar: Johnson v. Transportation Agency, Santa Clara County, 480 U.S. 616 (1987) (HTML)

    Instructions: If an affirmative action plan has been adopted by an organization to address underrepresentation, what difference do two points on a test make when both candidates are equally qualified?  Read the case to find out more.

    Reading this case should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Cornell University Law School: City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Co., 488 U.S. 469 (1989) Link: Cornell University Law School: City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Co., 488 U.S. 469 (1989) (HTML)

    Instructions: Should contractors be required to provide a percentage of subcontracts to minority businesses?  Read the case to find out the court’s position.

    Reading this case should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Cornell University Law School: Ricci v. DeStafano (2009) Link: Cornell University Law School: Ricci v. DeStafano (2009) (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read this decision.  Test validity and adverse impact converge in this unique case.  How does this case contrast with Griggs?

    Reading this case should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.5.3 Diversity Management   - Reading: U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Office of Diversity and Inclusion: “Government-Wide Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Plan 2011” Link: U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Office of Diversity and Inclusion: “Government-Wide Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Plan 2011” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and select the link
for the title “Government-Wide Diversity and Inclusion Strategic
Plan 2011” to download the PDF.  Read President Obama’s executive
order and the OPM’s strategic plan.  

 Reading this material should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: National Academy of Public Administration: “Recruiting and Retaining a Diverse High-Performing Workforce” Link: National Academy of Public Administration: “Recruiting and Retaining a Diverse High-Performing Workforce” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, select “View Full Report” to download the PDF, and read chapters 5, 6, and 7 (pp. 67–105) of the report on diversity at the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Reading this report should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.6 Sexual Harassment   3.6.1 Quid Pro Quo and Hostile Work Environment   - Reading: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: “Facts about Sexual Harassment” Link: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: “Facts about Sexual Harassment” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please review the webpage above for a definition of,
and information about, sexual harassment.  

 Reading this material should take approximately 10 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.6.2 Significant Court Decisions   - Reading: Google Scholar: Meritor Savings Bank, FSB v. Vinson et al., 477 U.S. 57 (1986) Link: Google Scholar: Meritor Savings Bank, FSB v. Vinson et al., 477 U.S. 57 (1986) (HTML)

 Instructions: The concept of a hostile work environment is
considered in this landmark decision.  Please visit the link above
for the majority opinion.  

 Reading this case should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Google Scholar: Harris v. Forklift Systems, Inc., 510 U.S. 17 (1993) Link: Google Scholar: Harris v. Forklift Systems, Inc., 510 U.S. 17 (1993) (HTML)

    Instructions: Please read the decision linked above.  Conflicting court decisions around the country lead the Supreme Court to clarify “hostile work environment” via the reasonable person standard and factors considered in the analysis of a hostile work environment.

    Reading this decision should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Cornell University Law School: Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc., 523 U.S. 75 (1988) Link: Cornell University Law School: Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc., 523 U.S. 75 (1988) (HTML)

    Instructions: Can a person claim sexual harassment by a member of the same sex?  Find out by reading this important decision.

    Reading this decision should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Google Scholar: Burlington Industries, Inc. v. Ellerth, 524 U.S. 742 (1998) Link: Google Scholar: Burlington Industries, Inc. v. Ellerth, 524 U.S. 742 (1998) (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read this case.  In this case, pay particular attention to vicarious liability, tangible employment action, and affirmative defenses.

    Reading this case should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Google Scholar: Faragher v. City of Boca Raton, 524 U.S. 775 (1998) Link: Google Scholar: Faragher v. City of Boca Raton, 524 U.S. 775 (1998) (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read this case.  This is another case in which you should pay particular attention to vicarious liability, tangible employment action, and affirmative defenses.

    This reading should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.7 Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector   3.7.1 History of Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector   - Reading: American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees: “AFSCME: 75 Years of History” Link: American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees: “AFSCME: 75 Years of History” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire
webpage.  AFSCME represents thousands of public-sector employees and
provides a brief history of collective bargaining in the public
sector.  

 Reading this material should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Joseph Adler’s “Collective Bargaining in the United States” Link: Joseph Adler’s “Collective Bargaining in the United States” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and select the article’s title to download the PDF.  This is an excellent overview of the history of collective bargaining.  Please read the entire document.

    Reading this material should take approximately 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.7.2 Distinctions between Public and Private Sector Bargaining   - Web Media: YouTube: “Public Sector Collective Bargaining: An Introduction” Link: YouTube: “Public Sector Collective Bargaining: An Introduction” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch the lecture
on collective bargaining in the public sector.  

 Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.7.3 Recent Trends   - Reading: American Constitution Society: Joseph E. Slater’s “The Assault on Public Sector Collective Bargaining: Real Harms and Imaginary Benefits” Link: American Constitution Society: Joseph E. Slater’s “The Assault on Public Sector Collective Bargaining: Real Harms and Imaginary Benefits” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and select the
“Slater Collective Bargaining” link at the end of the webpage to
download the PDF.  Please read this timely report on retrenchment in
collective bargaining.  

 Reading this report should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Lecture: YouTube: University of Richmond School of Law’s “Panel on Collective Bargaining, Existing Frameworks and Recent Changes” Link: YouTube: University of Richmond School of Law’s “Panel on Collective Bargaining, Existing Frameworks and Recent Changes” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch this video in its entirety.

    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 45 minute.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: YouTube: The Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston’s “Collective Bargains: Rebuilding and Repairing Public Sector Labor Relations in Difficult Times” Link: YouTube: The Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston’s “Collective Bargains: Rebuilding and Repairing Public Sector Labor Relations in Difficult Times” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Watch the presentation on collective bargaining in the public sector during fiscal retrenchment.

    Watching this presentation and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.