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POLSC211: Introduction to International Relations

Unit 9: The European Union   In this unit, we will look at the evolution of the European Union (EU), an example of “transnational community formation” according to Professor Haas, the father of neo-functionalism. This newly formed community transcends the nation-state, and provides a model for areas of the world where nation-states are failing. This unit will also introduce the theories of Functionalism and Neo-Functionalism as they relate to the formation of the EU, and explain the EU’s institutional structure. Lastly, we will analyze the EU’s influence on international security and defense policy.

Unit 9 Time Advisory
Completing this unit will take approximately 12.5 hours.

☐    Subunit 9.1: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 9.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 9.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 9.4: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 9.5: 0.5 hours

Unit9 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
- discuss and explain the various analytical and theoretical positions used in the subfield of international relations to explain world politics; - delineate the historical development of interstate relations and the place of the nation state in that development; - describe specific issues that have relevance to the study of interstate relations, national security, war, economic integration, trade, and so forth; - discuss the role of national power and diplomacy in international relations; - discuss the nature and development of international organizations; and - identify and discuss major issues of the international economy.

9.1 History of the European Union   - Reading: Europa’s “The History of the European Union” Link: Europa’s “The History of the European Union” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the link hosted by the European Union and explore the EU’s history by clicking the “Read more” link under each decade. Be sure to click on the “year” links at the top of each decade page and the interactive maps as the EU enlarges. This reading will also cover the topics outlined in sub-subunits 9.1.1-9.1.3.
 
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9.1.1 The European Coal and Steel Community   Note: This sub-subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 8.2.

9.1.2 The Treaty of Rome   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 8.2.

9.1.3 Enlargement   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 8.2.

9.2 Neo-Functionalism   - Web Media: YouTube: UC Berkeley’s “Conversations with History: Ernst Haas” Link: YouTube: UC Berkeley’s “Conversations with History: Ernst Haas” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Watch the interview with Ernst Haas, the key founder of neo-functionalism, starting from about 21:00 minutes until the end.
 
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  • Reading: Princeton University: Professor Andrew Moravcsik’s “The European Constitutional Compromise and the Neofunctionalist Legacy” Link: Princeton University: Professor Andrew Moravcsik’s “The European Constitutional Compromise and the Neofunctionalist Legacy” (PDF)

    Instructions: To access Professor Andrew Moravcsik’s article, scroll down the webpage to the section entitled “Academic Articles, Book Chapters, and Working Papers.” Look for a link with the article title to download the file. Note that the list is chronological from most recent to oldest and that the article was published in April

    1.  
       
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9.3 Institutional Structure and Major Components   - Reading: Europa: “EU Institutions and Other Bodies” Link: Europa: “EU Institutions and Other Bodies” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the webpage linked above. The EU has 3+1 institutions, with very similar names. The European Council is an advisory body made up of all of the leaders of the EU member states; they set general direction and policy priorities. The European Parliament is elected by, and represents, the citizens of each EU member state; they pass laws, oversee the Commission, and monitor spending. The Council of the European Union is made up of ministers from each EU member state, and the council represents the states; they too pass laws, approve the budget, sign agreements with other countries, and coordinate the economic, foreign and defense policies, and judicial functions of EU member states. And finally, the European Commission, which is divided into departments, runs the day-to-day bureaucracy of the EU. Keep in mind that these are not all of the EU institutions; if you want to learn more, please view the left hand column for additional institutions.
 
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9.3.1 European Council   - Reading: Europa: “European Council” and EUobserver.com: Honor Mahony’s “European Council Seen as a Winner under the Lisbon Treaty” Links: Europa: “European Council” (HTML) and EUobserver.com: Honor Mahony’s “European Council Seen as a Winner under the Lisbon Treaty” (HTML)
 
Instructions: First read about the European Council, and then read Mahony’s news article on how it is evolving.  Note: If you want to learn more about the Council, you can go to the bottom of the first page where there is a link to the Council’s website. The European Council only recently became an official institution of the European Union though its history dates back to 1974. 
 
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9.3.2 The European Parliament   - Reading: Europa: “European Parliament” Link: Europa: “European Parliament” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this webpage. If you want to learn more, scroll
to the bottom of the page, where you will find a link to the
European Parliament’s website.  
    
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displayed on the webpage above.  

9.3.3 Council of the European Union   - Reading: Europa: “Council of the European Union” Link: Europa: “Council of the European Union” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the webpage linked above.
 
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9.3.4 The European Commission   - Reading: Europa: “European Commission” and Guardian News: Richard Wray’s “IBM Faces Two Competition Inquiries” Links: Europa: “European Commission” (HTML) and Guardian News: Richard Wray’s “IBM Faces Two Competition Inquiries” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the “European Commission” webpage; if you want to learn more, scroll to the bottom of the page where you will find a link to the European Commission’s website. Then, read about how the Commission’s work affects industry and other real-world issues in the newspaper article from the U.K.’s The Guardian.
 
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9.3.5 The Court of Justice of the European Union   - Reading: Europa: “Court of Justice of the European Union” Link: Europa: “The Court of Justice of the European Union” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this webpage. If you want to learn more, scroll down to the bottom of the page, where you will find a link to the Court of Justice of the European Union’s website.
 
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9.3.6 The Court of Auditors   - Reading: Europa: “EU Court of Auditors” Link: Europa: “EU Court of Auditors” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this webpage. If you want to learn more, scroll down to the bottom of the page, where you will find a link to the EU Court of Auditor’s website.
 
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9.3.7 The European Central Bank   - Reading: Europa: “European Central Bank” Link: Europa: “European Central Bank” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this webpage. If you want to learn more, scroll down to the bottom of the page, where you will find a link to the European Central Bank’s website.  
 
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9.4 The Democratic Deficit   - Reading: Princeton University: Professor Andrew Moravcsik’s “The Myth of Europe’s ‘Democratic Deficit” and The London School of Economics: Professor Andreas Follesdal’s and Professor Simon Hix’s “Why There Is a Democratic Deficit in the EU: A Response to Majone and Moravcsik” Links: Princeton University: Professor Andrew Moravcsik’s “The Myth of Europe’s ‘Democratic Deficit’” (PDF) and The London School of Economics: Professor Andreas Follesdal’s and Professor Simon Hix’s “Why There Is a Democratic Deficit in the EU: A Response to Majone and Moravcsik” (PDF)
 
Instructions: To access Professor Andrew Moravcsik’s article, scroll down the webpage linked here to the section entitled “Academic Articles, Book Chapters, and Working Papers.” Look for the article title, and click the link to download the PDF file. To access Professor Simon Hix’s article, open the webpage and click on the “Get PDF” link. 
 
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9.5 Security and Defense Policy   - Web Media: YouTube: European Defense Agency’s “Introductory Video” Link: YouTube: European Defense Agency’s “Introductory Video” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Watch this video, produced by the European Defense Agency, which explains its purpose and mission. 

 Watching this video should take approximately 10 minutes.   
    
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