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POLSC211: Introduction to International Relations

Unit 8: International Development   In this unit, we will take a look at the topic of international development and the discrepancies between the developed and developing world. The unequal distribution of wealth around the globe has led many impoverished countries to pursue economic development through either self-dependence or reliance on international aid.  We will look at the role of NGO’s in that pursuit, as well as theories of growth, including Structuralism, the Linear-Stages-Growth Model, Neo-Marxism/Dependency Theory, and the market-based Neo-Classical Theory. We will look at the role of natural resources, foreign aid, and external debt when it comes to development. And finally, we will look at the New International Economic Order and the increasing popularity of Sustainable Development.

Unit 8 Time Advisory
Completing this unit will take approximately 10.5 hours.

☐    Subunit 8.1: 6 hours ☐    Introduction: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 8.1.1: 2 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 8.1.2: 2 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 8.1.3: 0.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 8.1.4: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 8.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 8.3: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 8.4: 1 hour
 

Unit8 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - discuss and explain the various analytical and theoretical positions used in the subfield of international relations to explain world politics; - describe the differences between national and transnational actors in the international arena, both public and private; - identify and discuss major issues of the international economy; - identify and discuss major issues related to human rights; - identify and discuss global environmental issues; and - discuss the economic relationship between the North and South.

8.1 Poverty and the Developing World   - Reading: University of Iowa’s Center for International Finance and Development: Ricardo Contreras’ “Competing Theories of Economic Development” Link: University of Iowa’s Center for International Finance and Development: Ricardo Contreras’ “Competing Theories of Economic Development” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Read the text on the webpage or click on the “Download PDF” link for an introduction to four common theories of economic development.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the web page above.

8.1.1 Natural Resources Model for Economic Development   - Reading: University of Connecticut: Thorvaldur Gylfason’s “Natural Resources and Economic Growth: What Is the Connection?” Link: University of Connecticut: Thorvaldur Gylfason’s “Natural Resources and Economic Growth: What Is the Connection?” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read this article.
 
Terms of Use: The article above is in the public domain.  Please respect the copyright and terms of use of this article.

8.1.2 International Aid Model for Economic Development   - Reading: New York University: Professor William Easterly’s “Can Foreign Aid Buy Growth?” and University of North Texas’s Digital Library: CRS Report for Congress: “Foreign Aid: An Introductory Overview of US Programs and Policy” Links: New York University: Professor William Easterly’s “Can Foreign Aid Buy Growth?” (PDF) and University of North Texas’s Digital Library: CRS Report for Congress: “Foreign Aid: An Introductory Overview of U.S. Programs and Policy” (PDF)
 
Instructions: To access William Easterly’s article, scroll down to the middle of the webpage linked above to find the title of the article. Click on it to download the PDF file. Then, read the CRS Report on US Foreign Aid for an understanding of the goals, types of aid, and priorities the US aid has had from a “donors” perspective. There are also several tables/figures which will give you an idea of how US aid compares with other donors. To access the article, click on the image of the first page, and then select “Download.”
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

8.1.3 Dependency Theory   - Reading: Mount Holyoke College: Professor Vincent Ferraro’s “Dependency Theory: An Introduction” Link: Mount Holyoke College: Professor Vincent Ferraro’s “Dependency Theory: An Introduction” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the webpage linked above.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

8.1.4 External Debt   - Reading: International Monetary Fund: Catherine Pattillo’s, Hélèn Poirson’s, and Luca Ricci’s “External Debt and Growth” and International Monetary Fund’s “Debt Relief under Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative” Links: International Monetary Fund: Catherine Pattillo’s, Hélèn Poirson’s, and Luca Ricci’s “External Debt and Growth” (HTML) and International Monetary Fund’s “Debt Relief under Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read these two articles.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above. 

8.2 The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)   - Reading: Harvard University’s Belfer Center: Alexander Cooley and James Ron’s “The NGO Scramble: Organizational Insecurity and the Political Economy of Transnational Action” Link: Harvard University’s Belfer Center: Alexander Cooley and James Ron’s “The NGO Scramble: Organizational Insecurity and the Political Economy of Transnational Action” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Under the “Overview” section, click on the “cooley_ron_v27n1.pdf” link to download the PDF file.  Read the article to understand how NGOs are involved in international relations.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.

8.3 The New International Economic Order (NIEO)   - Reading: United Nations: United Nations Resolution 3201 “Declaration on Establishment of a New International Economic Order” Link: United Nations: United Nations Resolution 3201 “Declaration on Establishment of a New International Economic Order” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the text of the United Nations General Assembly Resolution. Remember from the earlier unit on the United Nations that General Assembly Resolutions are non-binding and have no legal weight. 
 
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8.4 Sustainable Development   - Reading: International Institute for Sustainable Development’s “What Is Sustainable Development?” Link: International Institute for Sustainable Development’s “What Is Sustainable Development?” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Learn about sustainable development from the website linked here. Feel free to browse around, but be sure to look at “Ten Years after Rio: Successes and Failures,”  “The Sustainable Development Timeline,” and (under Archives) “Agenda 21” and the 5 associated Rio Documents.
 
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  • Lecture: YouTube: Professor Elinor Ostrom’s “Sustainable Development and the Tragedy of the Commons” Link: Professor Elinor Ostrom’s Sustainable Development and the Tragedy of the Commons” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch this lecture by Professor Elinor Ostrom, who received the 2009 Nobel Prize in Economics for her work on sustainability. 

    Watching this lecture should take approximately 10 minutes. 
     
    Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.