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POLSC211: Introduction to International Relations

Unit 3: Foreign Policy   This unit will introduce you to US foreign policy, beginning with the end of the Cold War. We will look at concepts like “unipolarity,” “unilateralism,” and “isolationism,” which result when a nation decides to go it alone, along with the alternatives, “multipolarity,” “multilateralism,” and “soft balancing,” which result when nations cooperate and act together with other nations. This overview of US foreign policy takes place in a period of hegemonic stability: one nation whose overall power is greater than any other nation. This is a unique situation, and as a result, the foreign policy positions the US takes today are unique. If we were to take a look at Russia’s foreign policy, or China’s foreign policy, their relative positions of power would cause them to take very different positions from the US.

Unit 3 Time Advisory
Completing this unit will take you approximately 35 hours.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.2: 6 hours
☐    Wohlforth Reading: 3 hours

☐    Waltz Reading: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 3.3: 6 hours ☐    Sub-subunit 3.3.1: 3 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.3.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 3.4: 6 hours ☐    Sub-subunit 3.4.1: 3 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.4.2: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 3.4.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 3.5: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.6: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 3.7: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.8: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.9: 8 hours
☐    Princeton University Reading: 6 hours

☐    Stanford University Reading: 2 hours

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
- discuss and explain the various analytical and theoretical positions used in the subfield of international relations to explain world politics; - delineate the historical development of interstate relations and the place of the nation state in that development; - describe specific issues that have relevance to the study of interstate relations, national security, war, economic integration, trade, and so forth; - discuss the role of national power and diplomacy in international relations; - discuss the nature and development of international organizations; and - identify and discuss major issues related to human rights.

3.1 End of Cold War   - Lecture: iTunes U: Stanford University: Professor James Sheehan’s “The End of the Cold War” Lecture Link: iTunes U: Stanford University: Professor James Sheehan’s The End of the Cold War Lecture (iTunes U)

 Instructions: Scroll down and click on “View in iTunes” for item 21
titled “The End of the Cold War.” Listen to Professor James
Sheehan’s lecture on the end of the Cold War and its impact on the
international system.   
    
 Listening to this lecture should take approximately 50 minutes.   

 Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.2 United States and Eastern Europe   - Reading: Harvard University’s Belfer Center: Professor William Wohlforth’s “Stability of a Unipolar World” and Professor Kenneth Waltz’s “Structural Realism after the Cold War” Links: Harvard University’s Belfer Center: Professor William Wohlforth’s Stability of a Unipolar World (PDF) and Professor Kenneth Waltz’s Structural Realism after the Cold War (PDF)
 
Instructions: To access Professor Wohlforth’s article, click on the first link, scroll down to about the middle of the webpage, and select the hyperlink titled “wohlforthvol24no1.pdf” next to the PDF icon. To access Professor Waltz’s article, click on the second link and scroll down to about the middle of the page. His article is available from a link entitled “waltz_kenneth_v25n1.pdf” next to the PDF icon.

 These two articles represent two sides of a debate as to the
stability of unipolarity. Professor William Wohlforth is a
well-known scholar arguing that unipolarity is stable while
Professor Kenneth Waltz, founder of structural realism, argues that
balancing behavior is bound to arise against the unipole, and it is
the source of unipolarity’s inherent instability.  
    
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displayed on the webpages above.

3.3 New Isolationism   3.3.1 Unilateralism in U.S. Foreign Policy   - Reading: Carnegie Council: Shepard Forman, et al.’s “Unilateralism and U.S. Foreign Policy” Link: Carnegie Council: Shepard Forman, et al.’s Unilateralism and U.S. Foreign Policy” (HTML)
  
Instructions: Read the “Introduction,” “Remarks,” and “Questions and Answers” from the book, “Unilateralism and U.S. Foreign Policy.”  
 
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3.3.2 Soft Balancing   - Reading: Harvard University’s Belfer Center: Professor Robert Pape’s “Soft Balancing against the United States” Link: Harvard University’s Belfer Center: Professor Robert Pape’s Soft Balancing against the United States (PDF)
 
Instructions: To access Professor Pape’s article, click on the link above and scroll down to about the middle of the page. His article is available from a link entitled “1019-is-30-1_final_02-pape.pdf” next to the PDF icon. 
 
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3.4 U.S.-Sino Relations   3.4.1 Emerging Multi-polar System   - Reading: The University of Oklahoma’s Institute for US-China Issues: Professor David Shambaugh’s “China Engages Asia: Reshaping the Regional Order” Link: The University of Oklahoma’s Institute for US-China Issues: Professor David Shambaugh’s China Engages Asia: Reshaping the Regional Order (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the link for the title “China Engages Asia: Reshaping the Regional Order” to download the PDF file. 
 
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3.4.2 US-China Relations   - Web Media: University of Southern California: Ambassador J. Stapleton Roy’s “The Future of U.S.-China Relations” Keynote Speech Link: University of Southern California: Ambassador J. Stapleton Roy’s “The Future of U.S.-China Relations” Keynote Speech (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Watch the video, starting from about 8:00 minutes until the end of the speech at about 58:33 minutes. You may skip the Q&A session that follows the speech.
 
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3.4.3 US-Taiwan Relations   - Reading: The Heritage Foundation: John Tkacik, Jr.’s “Taiwan’s ‘Unsettled’ International Status: Preserving U.S. Options in the Pacific” Link: The Heritage Foundation: John Tkacik, Jr.’s Taiwan’s ‘Unsettled’ International Status: Preserving U.S. Options in the Pacific (HTML)
 
Also available in:
PDF (Select “Download PDF” from box beside article)
 
Instructions: Read John Tkacik’s article, in which he discusses Taiwan’s status in international relations and how the U.S. has historically managed the delicate relationships with Taiwan and China. 
 
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3.5 U.S.-Russia Relations   - Reading: The White House: Office of Press Secretary’s “U.S.-Russia Relations: ‘Reset’ Fact Sheet” Link: The White House: Office of Press Secretary’s U.S.-Russia Relations: ‘Reset’ Fact Sheet (PDF)
 
Instructions: Learn more about the “reset” on U.S.-Russia relations by clicking on the link above. The press release from The White House covers many different aspects of the U.S.-Russia relationship.
 
Terms of Use: The material above is in the public domain. You can find the original version of this article here (HTML). 

3.6 U.S.-Northeast Asia Relations   - Web Media: Center for Strategic & International Studies: “Korea-US Alliance and Northeast Asian Security” Link: Center for Strategic & International Studies: Korea-US Alliance and Northeast Asian Security (Adobe Flash)   
 
Instructions: Listen to the Center for Strategic & International Studies’ conference on Korea and Northeast Asian Security. This conference panel contains many honorable guests, including Professor Victor Cha, who served on the National Security Council under President Bush and is considered a leading expert on Korea and Northeast Asia. 

 Watching this video will take approximately 2 hours.   
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.7 U.S.-Middle East Relations   - Lecture: iTunes U: Stanford University: Professor Asher Susser’s “The Middle East Peace Process: European-US-Greater Middle East Efforts for Progress” Speech Link: iTunes U: Stanford University: Professor Asher Susser’s The Middle East Peace Process: European-US-Greater Middle East Efforts for Progress (iTunes U)

 Instructions: Scroll down to track 51, and select “View in iTunes”
to launch the podcast by Tel-Aviv University Professor Asher Susser.
Professor Asher Susser provides a good review of the region before
discussing the specific relationships with the U.S. and Europe.  

 Listening to this podcast will take approximately 1 hour.   
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.8 US-African Relations   - Reading: Council on Foreign Relations: Princeton N. Lyman’s “An Overview of U.S. Policy in Africa” Testimony Link: Council on Foreign Relations: Princeton N. Lyman’s An Overview of U.S. Policy in Africa Testimony (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on “Lyman testimony” to open the PDF file and read this excellent review of issues in Africa and U.S. interests in Africa.
 
Princeton N. Lyman is the Adjunct Senior Fellow for Africa Policy Studies for the Council on Foreign Relations. His testimony here was given before the House of Representative’s Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health.
 
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3.9 “War on Terror” and the Effects of September 11th   - Reading: Princeton University: Professor Robert Keohane’s and Professor Peter J. Katzenstein’s (eds.) “Anti-Americanisms in World Politics” Link: Princeton University: Professor Robert Keohane’s and Professor Peter J. Katzenstein’s (eds.) Anti-Americanisms in World Politics (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read the “Introduction”, “Chapter 1”, and “Conclusion” from the reading assignment. There are separate links to each of the reading sections. Click on each link to download the PDF file. 
 
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  • Reading: Stanford University: Professor Melvyn Leffler’s “9/11 and American Foreign Policy” Lecture Transcript Link: Stanford University: Professor Melvyn Leffler’s 9/11 and American Foreign Policy (PDF) Lecture Transcript
     
    Instructions: To download Professor Melvyn Leffler’s lecture, click on the link “Transcript” located next the PDF icon. The author of the first lecture, Melvyn Leffler, is the Edward R. Stettinius Professor of History at the University of Virginia. 
     
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  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's “Unit 3 Assessment” Link: The Saylor Foundation's “Unit 3 Assessment” (HTML) 
     
    Instructions: Complete the “Unit 3 Assessment.” Now that you have had practice taking notes, this unit will test how that note-taking translates into success on an assessment. These are the kinds of questions you will find on the Final Exam at the end of this course, so keep in mind the kinds of material this assessment identifies as important, big ideas.
    The correct answers will be displayed after you click “Submit”.