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MUS101: Introduction to Music

Unit 4: Musical Styles   Style in music is generally the distinctive sound created by an artist, composer, or performing group. This unit explores the continuum of Western musical creativity from the medieval period to the twentieth century, with attention to the social and cultural context for the development of musical styles.  Subunit 4.1 explores the role of chant in medieval monasteries and cathedrals and the development of multipart music (polyphony) in the Renaissance.  Subunit 4.2 focuses on the Baroque era (1600-1750), with a detailed look at the vocal music of Bach and Handel.  The Classical style (1750-1820) is taught in Subunit 4.3.  The next subunit focuses on the development of the Romantic style in the early nineteenth century, from the piano music of Beethoven to songs by Mahler.  You will observe how the genre of symphonic  music changed from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century, as well as the nature of the orchestra itself, listening to excerpts from Tchaikovsky, Dvorak, Wagner, and Mahler.  In this unit, you will also learn about the key musical developments of the twentieth century: musical impressionism, modernism, and postmodernism, focusing on the music of Debussy, Ravel, Stravinsky, Copland, and Cage.  This course concludes with a review of the various styles and time periods of Western music history. 

Unit 4 Time Advisory
This unit should take 65 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 4.1: 12 hours

☐    Subunit 4.1 Introduction: 1.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.1.1: 2 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.1.2: 1.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.1.3: 1.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.1.4: 1.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.1.5: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 4.2: 7 hours

☐    Subunit 4.2 Introduction: 2 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.2.1: 0.5 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 4.2.2: 3 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.2.3: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 4.3: 11 hours

☐    Subunit 4.3 Introduction: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 4.3.1: 3 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.3.2: 4 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.3.3: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 4.4: 10 hours

☐    Subunit 4.4 Introduction: 3.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.4.1: 4.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.4.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 4.5: 9 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.5.1: 4 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.5.2: 1.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.5.3: 2 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.5.4: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 4.6: 2 hours

☐    Assignments: 14 hours

Unit4 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Identify and evaluate certain features of style of musical works from the medieval, Renaissance, baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Modern eras.
  • Identify the hallmarks of great composers such as Mozart and Beethoven
  • Describe the relationship between musical style and social/cultural context.
  • Identify and describe the different techniques that composers use in order to create meaning in music.

  • Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “MUS101 Unit 4 Vocabulary Worksheet” and “MUS101 Unit 4 Learning Journal” Links: The Saylor Foundation’s “MUS101 Unit 4 Vocabulary Worksheet” (PDF) and “MUS101 Unit 4 Learning Journal” (PDF)

    Instructions: Before you read this unit, refer to the MUS101 Unit 4 Vocabulary Worksheet and the MUS101 Unit 4 Learning Journal.  Please fill out both sheets as you complete this unit. 

4.1 Medieval and Renaissance Music   - Lecture: Yale University: Professor Craig Wright’s “Lecture 15: Benedictine Chant and Music in the Sistine Chapel” Link: Yale University: Professor Craig Wright’s “Lecture 15: Benedictine Chant and Music in the Sistine Chapel” (Adobe Flash, QuickTime or Audio mp3)
 
Instructions: Please listen to the lecture (mp3) or watch the video in Quick Time or flash in its entirety (approximately 46 minutes).  Here, Professor Wright discusses chant and its role in the lives of monks and nuns in medieval monasteries, convents, and cathedrals.  He then moves on to briefly discuss polyphony, or music with multiple voices.  The lecture is supplemented by images of cathedrals, monasteries, and medieval illuminations, as well as recordings of monophonic chant by the twelfth-century polymath Hildegard of Bingen, anonymous polyphony, polyphony by the Renaissance composer Giovanni Pierluigi Palestrina, and a recording of the last papal castrato, Alessandro Moreschi.
 
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4.1.1 The Chant Phenomenon   - Web Media: National Public Radio’s Milestones of the Millennium Series: Martin Goldsmith’s and Father J.F. Weber’s “Chant” Link: National Public Radio’s Milestones of the Millennium Series: Martin Goldsmith’s and Father J.F. Weber’s “Chant” (HTML)

Instructions:  Please read through the following document in its
entirety.  Please make sure to click on and listen to the audio
pieces throughout the reading.  
  

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  • Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Gregorian Chant” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Gregorian Chant” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above to download the assignment and work through the listening exercises.

4.1.2 The Gothic Revolution   - Web Media: The BBC’s Sacred Music: “The Gothic Revolution” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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4.1.3 Music in the Middle Ages   - Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Secular Music in the Middle Ages” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Secular Music in the Middle Ages” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link to download this three-part assignment.  Part 1 provides a detailed look at the popular fourteenth-century round, “Sumer Is Icumen In,” based on texts by Geoffrey Chaucer, in medieval and contemporary manuscript sources.  You are encouraged to try to sing the round, or just the melody by itself.  Part 2 provides an overview of medieval music instruments, complete with audio clips and a listening quiz.  Part 3 asks you to write your reactions to music on NPR’s program on Palestrina, using terminology you have learned about in this course.

4.1.4 The Renaissance   - Web Media: Ipl.org: Robert Sherrane’s Music History 102: “The Renaissance” Link: Ipl.org: Robert Sherrane’s Music History 102: “The Renaissance” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the link and scroll down the webpage to the section on “The Renaissance.”  Please read this section for an overview of sacred and secular musical styles that developed in the Renaissance and to hear musical examples.
 
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  • Reading: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Rebecca Arkenberg’s “Music in the Renaissance” Link: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Rebecca Arkenberg’s “Music in the Renaissance” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Please read this entire text and click on the thumbnails to view images that demonstrate the development of musical instruments of the Renaissance.  You may also click on the Multimedia buttons at left to play musical examples.
     
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4.1.5 Sacred Music in the Renaissance   - Lecture: National Public Radio’s Milestones of the Millennium: Peter Phillips’s and Tom Kelly’s “Giovanni Pierliugi da Palestrina”  Link: National Public Radio’s Milestones of the Millennium: Peter Phillips’s and Tom Kelly’s “Giovanni Pierliugi da Palestrina” (HTML)

Instructions: Please read the document in its entirety, and please
click on and listen to the audio available.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above. 
  • Web Media: Vatican.va’s “Virtual Tour of the Sistine Chapel” Link: Vatican.va’s “Virtual Tour of the Sistine Chapel” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Please take this virtual tour to view the setting for Palestrina’s choral music and consider some of the parallels between High Renaissance music, architecture, and design.
     
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  • Web Media: The BBC’s Sacred Music: Tallis, Byrd, and the Tudors The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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  • Reading: Washington State University: Paul Brians’ “Renaissance Love Songs” Link: Washington State University: Paul Brians’ “Renaissance Love Songs” (HTML)
     
    Please skim the texts to these poems and songs by Renaissance composers and writers, in order to gain insight into some of the important themes in secular music of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and the important role that music played in the intellectual and cultural movement known as humanism.
     
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  • Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Renaissance Madrigal” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Renaissance Madrigal” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link to download the assignment, and work through the background information and listening exercise for Thomas Weelkes’ madrigal, “As Vesta Was Descending.”

4.2 The Baroque: Definitions and Background   - Reading: Baroquemusic.org: Michael Sartorius’s “Baroque Music Defined” and “Baroque Musicians and Composers” Readings: Baroquemusic.org: Michael Sartorius’s “Baroque Music Defined”(HTML) and “Baroque Musicians and Composers” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read both of these articles for a definition
of Baroque and to get a sense of the historical, geographical, and
cultural influences that created the colossal Baroque musical style
in Europe during the seventeenth century.  

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  • Web Media: San Diego State University: Elaine Thornburgh’s “Baroque Music, Part 1” Links: San Diego State University: Elaine Thornburgh’s “Baroque Music, Part 1” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please read the text for discussions of Baroque musical instruments, genres, and Baroque musical aesthetics.  Click on the links to hear the musical examples featuring the key instruments of the Baroque orchestra and chamber ensemble, and quintessentially Baroque genres, such as the concerto grosso, oratorio, and the cantata.

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4.2.1 The Music of J.S. Bach   - Web Media: Baroquemusic.org: Michael Sartorius’s “Bach’s Life in Pictures and Music” Link: Baroquemusic.org: Michael Sartorius’s “Bach’s Life in Pictures and Music” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read this multimedia biography of Bach, and
view the contemporary illustrations of Bach’s surroundings, in order
to deepen your knowledge of the context for German Baroque music and
Bach’s music in particular.  Click on the red musical notes to play
samples of Bach’s music.  

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4.2.2 Bach’s Sacred Music   - Web Media: The BBC’s Sacred Music: J.S. Bach and the Lutheran Legacy The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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  • Lecture: Yale University: Professor Craig Wright’s “Lecture 16: Baroque Music: The Vocal Music of Johann Sebastian Bach” Link: Yale University: Professor Craig Wright’s “Lecture 16: Baroque Music: The Vocal Music of Johann Sebastian Bach” (Adobe Flash, QuickTime, or Audio mp3)
     
    Instructions: Please listen to the lecture (mp3) or watch the video in Flash or QuickTime in its entirety (approximately 50 minutes).  In this lecture, Professor Wright discusses the Baroque period through a detailed look at the life and music of Johann Sebastian Bach.  He first takes the students through the basics of Bach's life, showing slides of the towns and buildings in which Bach and his family lived.  Professor Wright then discusses Bach's music, and techniques of Baroque music in general, within the context of the composer's life.  The lecture concludes with a discussion of the Advent cantata Bach wrote based on the chorale "Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme."
     
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  • Web Media: San Diego State University: Elaine Thornburgh’s “Baroque Music, Part I: “Sacred Vocal Music” and “Bach and the Baroque Cantata” Link: San Diego State University: Elaine Thornburgh’s “Sacred Vocal Music” and “Bach and the Baroque Cantata” (HTML)

    Instructions:  Please scroll down to read both sections, and click on the links to hear musical examples.  Please note that the video on Handel’s Messiah will be viewed in the next subunit.

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4.2.3 Georg Frederick Handel   - Web Media: Handel’s Messiah The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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  • Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Guided Listening 2: Handel’s Messiah Libretto and Study Guide” and “Elements of Music and Meaning in Handel’s Messiah” Links: The Saylor Foundation’s “Guided Listening 2: Handel’s Messiah Libretto and Study Guide (PDF) and “Elements of Music and Meaning in Handel’s Messiah (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please download the “Guided Listening 2” document to read background information on Handel’s Messiah, Charles Jennens’ libretto, and follow the links to performances of selections from the oratorio.  You may use this listening guide to then help with the assignment.  For the “Elements of Music and Meaning in Handel’s Messiah” assignment, please follow the directions for writing the essay. 

4.3 The Classical Style   - Reading: Ipl.org: Robert Sherrane’s Music History 102: A Guide to Western Composers and Their Music: “The Classical Period” Link: Ipl.org: Robert Sherrane’s Music History 102: A Guide to Western Composers and Their Music:The Classical Period” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this page for an overview of the classical style as it developed in Vienna and beyond and listen to the music examples.  Click on the links for Symphony, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven.
 
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  • Web Media: National Public Radio’s Milestones of the Millennium: Lisa Simeone’s and Nicholas Till’s “The Enlightenment”  Link: National Public Radio’s Milestones of the Millennium: Lisa Simeone’s and Nicholas Till’s “Enlightenment” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the following in its entirety.
     
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4.3.1 The Development of Modern Keyboard Instruments   - Reading: The Metropolitan Museum: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Jayson Kerr Dobney’s “The Piano: Viennese Instruments” Link: The Metropolitan Museum: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Jayson Kerr Dobney’s “The Piano: Viennese Instruments” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the above article and click on the thumbnails showing the evolution of modern keyboard instruments in Europe and their influence on musical trends in the classical and Romantic periods.
 
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  • Web Media: National Public Radio’s Milestones of the Millennium: Martin Goldsmith’s and Charles Rosen’s “The Evolution of the Piano”  Link:  National Public Radio’s Milestones of the Millennium: Martin Goldsmith’s and Charles Rosen’s “The Evolution of the Piano” (HTML)

    Instructions:  Please read the following in its entirety.

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  • Lecture: Yale University: Professor Craig Wright’s “Lecture 18: Piano Music of Mozart and Beethoven” Link: Yale University: Professor Craig Wright’s “Lecture 18: Piano Music of Mozart and Beethoven” (Adobe Flash, QuickTime, or Audio mp3)
     
    Instructions: Please listen to the lecture (mp3) or watch the video in Flash or QuickTime (approximately 50 minutes) for a discussion of the evolution of the modern piano and its music.  This lecture is optional for those students interested in seeing and hearing the different forms of the piano from the early eighteenth through twentieth centuries.  Professor Wright shows how the instrument evolved through a variety of photographs and paintings.  He plays recordings of music played on the pianos owned by such composers as Mozart and Beethoven.  The lecture ends with a guest piano performance by a Yale student.
     
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4.3.2 Mozart and the Enlightenment   - Reading: Project Gutenberg’s version of Letters of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart edited by Frederick Keirst and Henry Krehbiehl in Mozart, the Man and the Artist, as Revealed in his Own Words (Dover, 1965) Link: Project Gutenberg’s version of Letters of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart edited by Frederick Keirst and Henry Krehbiehl in Mozart, the Man and the Artist, as Revealed in his Own Words (HTML) (Dover, 1965)
 
Instructions: Open the document in “text” or “zip” format by clicking on the hyperlink.  Then, scroll down to the excerpts from Mozart’s letters to his father Leopold Mozart grouped under the heading “Concerning the Opera.”  Please read this text to get a sense for the inspirations behind Mozart’s opera and the novel approach to music drama and techniques of setting speech to music that Mozart developed in such works as Don Giovanni and the Marriage of Figaro.  Consider Mozart’s famous dictum from one of these letters, “in opera, poetry must be the obedient daughter of the music.”  How did this represent a shift from Baroque aesthetics?   Also, how do Mozart’s letters detailing his struggles to make a living reflect the shifting role of the composer in the classical period?
 
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  • Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Study Guide for Milos Forman’s Amadeus” and “Music and Society in Eighteenth Century Europe” Links: The Saylor Foundation’s “Study Guide for Milos Forman’s Amadeus” (PDF) and “Music and Society in Eighteenth Century Europe” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please download the “Study Guide” handout and follow the links to the scenes from the Amadeus film.  This study guide will be useful in helping you complete the assignment.  Then, please click on the link to download the assignment itself and follow the instructions to write the essay on the topic of music and society in eighteenth-century Europe.  In this assignment, you will apply what you have learned in this course so far about the changing social, cultural, and political scene and its influence on music and music-making in Europe.  

4.3.3 The Classical Symphony   - Web Media: Oracle ThinkQuest’s “Symphony: An Interactive Guide” Link: Oracle ThinkQuest’s “Symphony: An Interactive Guide”(mp3)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above for an interactive guide that provides an overview of the Classical symphonic form.  Click on and explore each of the sections listed under “The Symphony: An Interactive Guide.”  Pay particular attention to the “Quick Tour” and “Symphonies” section.  You may also wish to review the basics of sonata form by clicking on the red link, “A Beginner’s Guide to Sonata Form,” and listening to examples from Mozart’s Symphony No. 40 in G Minor.  This media is hosted at ThinkQuest, which is an open-access learning resource created by and for students of all ages on a wide range of educational topics.
 
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4.4 Romanticism   - Web Media: San Diego State University: Professor Jeffrey Swann’s “Classical and Romantic Music” Link: San Diego State University: Professor Jeffrey Swann’s “Classical and Romantic Music” (HTML and Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Please read through “Classical and Romantic Music: Parts 1-3.”  You may navigate to each part by clicking on the arrow buttons at the bottom of the webpage.  Each part provides a discussion of the Romantic style as it developed in nineteenth-century Europe.  Note the similarities and differences between the Romantic and classical style, musical instruments, and ensembles.  Please focus on the passages entitled Spirit of Romanticism,” “The Musical Environment of Romanticism,” “Nationalism,” and “Emotion, Imagination, Fantasy and Instinct.”  You will find a helpful Glossary in Part 4.
 
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4.4.1 The Symphony in the Nineteenth Century   - Lecture: Yale University: Professor Craig Wright’s “Lecture 20: The Colossal Symphony: Beethoven, Berlioz, Mahler, and Shostakovich” Link: Yale University: Professor Craig Wright’s “Lecture 20: The Colossal Symphony: Beethoven, Berlioz, Mahler, and Shostakovich” (Adobe Flash, QuickTime or Audio mp3)
 
Instructions: Please listen to the lecture (mp3) or watch the video in Flash or QuickTime in its entirety (approximately 50 minutes).  In this discussion of the history and development of the symphony, Professor Wright leads the students from Mozart to Mahler, discussing the ways in which the genre of symphonic music changed throughout the nineteenth century, as well as the ways in which the make-up of the symphony orchestra itself evolved during this period.  The changes in the nature of orchestral music are contextualized within the broader historical changes taking place in Europe in the nineteenth century.  The lecture is supplemented with musical excerpts drawn from Mozart, Tchaikovsky, Dvorak, Wagner, and Mahler.
 
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  • Web Media: The Hector Berlioz Website: Michel Austin’s (transl.) version of Hector Berlioz’s Extracts from the Treatise on Orchestration and Instrumentation (1843/44) Link:  The Hector Berlioz Website: Michel Austin’s (transl.) version of Hector Berlioz’s Extracts from the Treatise on Orchestration and Instrumentation (HTML)
     
    Instructions: The nineteenth century witnessed landmark developments in instrumentation and orchestration.  Please read both introductions, by the translator and the composer himself, to explore how Berlioz attempted to redefine the expressive possibilities of each instrument of the orchestra, and consider how this project influenced composers of the nineteenth and twentieth century.  If you wish to deepen your knowledge of the orchestra, you may click on the names of individual instruments and read about innovations in their sound and performance techniques.
     
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  • Web Media: National Public Radio’s Milestones of the Millennium: Martin Goldsmith’s and Michael Tilson Thomas’s “Symphony Fantastique”  Link: National Public Radio’s Milestones of the Millennium: Martin Goldsmith’s and Michael Tilson Thomas’s “Symphony Fantastique” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please read the following in its entirety.

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  • Web Media: The San Francisco Symphony’s Keeping Score: “Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique” Link: The San Francisco Symphony’s Keeping Score: “Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: From the homepage, choose the “Listen” and “Watch Video” links for examples of Berlioz’s music.  Then proceed to the section titled “The Score” for a more in depth look at the symphony.  Apply your knowledge of melody and motifs in music to hear the idée fixe, a unifying theme in music, and its transformation throughout the symphony.  Draw on your knowledge of instrumentation in order to deepen your understanding of Berlioz’s extended orchestral palette.
     
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4.4.2 Impressionism and Exoticism   - Reading: San Diego State University: Professor Jeffrey Swann’s “Debussy’s Liberation” Link: San Diego State University: Professor Jeffrey Swann’s “Debussy’s Liberation” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the above introduction to Debussy’s musical aesthetics.
 
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  • Lecture: Yale University: Professor Craig Wright’s “Lecture 21: Musical Impressionism and Exoticism: Debussy, Ravel, and Monet” Link: Yale University: Professor Craig Wright’s “Lecture 21: Musical Impressionism and Exoticism: Debussy, Ravel, and Monet” (Adobe Flash, QuickTime, or Audio mp3)
     
    Instructions: Please listen to the lecture (mp3) or watch the video in QuickTime or Flash in its entirety (approximately 52 minutes).  In this lecture, students learn about musical Impressionism. While his discussion focuses on the music of Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel, he nonetheless draws examples from other composers, as well as painters and poets who worked with a similar aesthetic style during the same time period.  The class concludes with a performance of Ravel's "Ondine" by a guest pianist.
     
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  • Web Media: National Public Radio’s Milestones of the Millennium: Jan Swafford’s “Claude Debussy”  Link: National Public Radio’s Milestones of the Millennium: Jan Swafford’s “Claude Debussy” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please read the following article in its entirety.

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4.5 Twentieth Century Modernism   4.5.1 Modernism: Mahler and Stravinksy   - Web Media: National Public Radio’s Milestones of the Millennium: Philip Glass’s and Robert Craft’s “Igor Stravinsky”

Link: National Public Radio’s Milestones of the Millennium: Philip
Glass’s and Robert Craft’s “[Igor
Stravinsky](http://www.npr.org/programs/specials/milestones/990416.motm.stravinsky.html)”
(HTML)  
  

Instructions: Please read the following article in its entirety.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: The San Francisco Symphony’s Keeping Score: “Igor Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring” Link: The San Francisco Symphony’s Keeping Score: “Igor Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Click on the arrow buttons and links to turn pages in the interactive musical score.
     
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  • Lecture: Yale University: Professor Craig Wright’s “Lecture 22: Modernism and Mahler” Link: Yale University: Professor Craig Wright’s “Lecture 22: Modernism and Mahler” (Adobe Flash, QuickTime, or Audio mp3)
     
    Instructions:  Please listen to the lecture (mp3) or watch the video in QuickTime or Flash in its entirety (approximately 50 minutes).  The topic here is twentieth-century modernism, focusing on Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring.  Professor Wright explores several musical reasons why The Rite of Spring caused a riot at its 1913 Paris premiere.  Professor Wright then goes on to share with the class one of his favorite pieces, by Gustav Mahler, the orchestral Lied "Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen."  Part of that work is available here. The German lyrics to this song, along with translations, are available here at recmusic.org. 
     
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  • Reading: The Hilton Head Symphony: Alan M. Rothenberg’s “Program Notes for Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

  • Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Music and Modernism in the 20th Century: Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring” Links: The Saylor Foundation’s “Music and Modernism in the 20th Century: Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: After you have reviewed Alan M. Rothenberg’s Program Notes for Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring above, please click on the link above to download the “Music and Modernism in the 20th Century” assignment.  Please listen to the complete work of Stravinsky, and follow the instructions to write the essay.  In this assignment, you will apply what you have learned in this course so far about the changing social, cultural, and political scene and debates about music and aesthetics in the twentieth century.

4.5.2 The Second Viennese School   - Reading: San Diego State University: Professor Jack Logan’s “Twentieth Century Music: Part One” Link: San Diego State University: Professor Jack Logan’s “Twentieth Century Music: Part One” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read the sections entitled “Individuality and
the Modern World,” and “Arnold Schoenberg: The Composer as God’s
Messenger on Earth.”  For those students interested in further
explorations of the movement toward atonality in Europe and beyond,
the section on two of Schoenberg’s most famous pupils entitled
“Webern and Berg” is recommended.   
    
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  • Reading: Scena.org: John Winiarz’s “Schoenberg - Pierrot Lunaire: An Atonal Landmark” Link: Scena.org: John Winiarz’s “Schoenberg - Pierrot Lunaire: An Atonal Landmark” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this article for background information on Schoenberg’s atonal masterpiece.  Scroll down for recommended recordings of Pierrot.  Please note that you will have the opportunity to listen to excerpts from the piece in the next assignment.  This website, www.scena.org, is an online classical music magazine published in English and French.
     
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  • Web Media: YouTube: Arnold Schoenberg’s “Moonstruck” from Pierrot Lunaire Link: YouTube: Arnold Schoenberg’s “Moonstruck” from Pierrot Lunaire (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: This video features soprano Patricia Rideout and pianist Glenn Gould performing “Moonstruck” and other excerpts from Pierrot Lunaire.  As you view this brief video in its entirety (about 6 minutes), please follow the music with the German lyrics and English translations, which appear in the Comments section.  As you listen, consider the meaning of this work in the context of the social, political and cultural upheavals taking place at the time Schoenberg wrote Pierrot in 1912.  Pierrot himself is a stock comic character from the Italian commedia dell’arte tradition.  As you view this video, also consider the following questions:
     
    How does Schoenberg make use of this character to convey meaning in the work?   What are the emotional and psychological effects of the Sprechstimme (“speech-voice,” the style of singing called for throughout the piece)?  Schoenberg was sympathetic to the aims of expressionism, an artistic movement of the time that sought to give voice to the subconscious, and to reveal the dark side of human emotion.  In what way is Pierrot successful as a work of expressionist art?
     
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4.5.3 Two American Originals: Copland and Ives   - Web Media: National Public Radio’s Milestones of the Millennium: Robert Kapilow’s and John Adams’s “Appalachian Spring by Aaron Copland”  Link: National Public Radio’s Milestones of the Millennium: Robert Kapilow’s and John Adams’s “Appalachian Spring by Aaron Copland” (HTML)

Instructions: Please read the following in its entirety.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and the terms of use
displayed on the webpage above. 
  • Web Media: The San Francisco Symphony’s Keeping Score: “Copland: In Search of the American Sound” Link: The San Francisco Symphony’s Keeping Score: “Copland: In Search of the American Sound” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Click on the arrow buttons and links to turn pages in the interactive musical score.  The introduction and audio are narrated by Michael Tilson Thomas, Music Director of the San Francisco Symphony.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

  • Reading: San Diego State University: Professor Jack Logan’s “20th Century Music, Part 2”: “Charles Ives” Link: San Diego State University: Professor Jack Logan’s “20th Century Music, Part 2”: “Charles Ives: the Liberation of the Human Spirit in America” (HTML and Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Please scroll down to read all three sections detailing the life and music of this most original and radical of American art music composers: “Charles Ives and the Liberation of the Human Spirit in America,” “Passion for Liberty,” and “Insurance Man.”  Click on the video icon to hear an historic recording of Ives himself playing the third movement of his Concord Sonata.
     
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4.5.4 Musical Postmodernism   - Reading: Larry J. Solomon’s “Sounds of Silence: John Cage’s 4’ 33” Link:  Larry J. Solomon’s “Sounds of Silence: John Cage’s4’ 33” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this entire article on John Cage, which examines
the radical aesthetic behind Cage's "silent" composition.  John Cage
was an American avant-garde composer, poet, and music theorist, who
was considered to be one of the greatest and most influential
American artists of the twentieth century.  You will become more
acquainted with a major work by John Cage in the guided listening
assignment in this unit.  
    
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  • Web Media: YouTube: pezziz’s “Performance of John Cage’s 4’ 33” Link: YouTube: pezziz’s “Performance of John Cage’s 4’ 33 (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the entire video.  As you watch the video, consider what you learned from Solomon’s essay “Sounds of Silence: John Cage’s 4’33.’’
     
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  • Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Guided Listening 4: John Cage and Postmodern Musical Aesthetics” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Guided Listening 4: John Cage and Postmodern Musical Aesthetics” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link to download the assignment page, and then follow the instructions. 

4.6 Review of Musical Styles   - Lecture: Yale University: Professor Craig Wright’s “Lecture 23: Review of Musical Styles” Link: Yale University: Professor Craig Wright’s “Lecture 23: Review of Musical Styles” (Adobe Flash, QuickTime or Audio mp3)
 
Instructions: Please listen to the lecture (mp3) or watch the video in QuickTime or Flash in its entirety (approximately 47 minutes).  This review session focuses on strategies for identifying the various time periods of Western music history, through careful listening and close attention to the musical-stylistic characteristics of a given piece.  Professor Wright plays several musical examples culled from different historical periods and then guides the students in identifying a variety of musical features that can be used to figure out approximately when the music was written.  This lecture can be used to help you prepare for the Saylor Foundation’s Final Exam for this course.
 
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  • Assignment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Final Course Reflections Essay” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Final Course Reflections Essay” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: This assignment will give you the opportunity to write two essays discussing various aspects of the Western classical music tradition from a critical and analytical perspective.