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ME402: Design Decisions in Engineering

Unit 2: Methods, Theories, And Tools   There exist a large number of theories and tools that provide support for engineering design.  In this unit, you will be introduced to a variety of tools used for obtaining inputs from stakeholders, for addressing variability, quality, and uncertainty in design process and for generating alternatives for designers.  We will rely on the book, Approaches to Improve Engineering Design, published by National Academy of Engineering, to provide the high-level description of each method and tool.  You also will find more expanded readings and lectures for a selected number of methods and tools. 

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 22 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 1 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2: 7 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 7 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 2.5: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.6: 1 hours

☐    Subunit 2.7: 1 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Explain and implement concurrent engineering. - Identify and explain the use of tools used to obtain inputs from stakeholders, to address variability, quality, and uncertainty in design process, and to generate alternatives for designers. 

2.1 Concurrent Engineering   - Reading: National Academy of Engineering’s book, Approaches to Improve Engineering Design: “Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools” Link: National Academy of Engineering’s Approaches to Improve Engineering Design:Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read pages 17–19 of “Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools.”  Navigate to the next page using the arrow at the bottom of the webpage.  Alternatively, create an account (free) with National Academic Press to download the PDF file of the book (also free).  You will use this book throughout the course.  In this reading, you will be introduced to concurrent engineering, which involves getting the right people together at the right time to resolve design problems.  In concurrent engineering, diverse functional activities are done simultaneously, promoting decisions to be made without complete information, sharing of product requirements, and effective assessment of risks.  This reading will take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
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2.2 Methods and Tools for Obtaining Stakeholder Input   2.2.1 Overview   - Reading: National Academy of Engineering’s book, Approaches to Improve Engineering Design: “Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools” Link: National Academy of Engineering’s book, Approaches to Improve Engineering Design:Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read pages 19–24 of “Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools.”  Navigate to the next page using the arrow at the bottom of the webpage.  Alternatively, create an account (free) with National Academic Press to download the PDF file of the book (also free).  You will use this book throughout the course.  The reading provides high-level descriptions of a number of tools designed for obtaining stakeholder input: the Pugh Method, Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Decision Matrix, and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).  This reading will take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
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2.2.2 Analytic Hierarchy Process   - Reading: University of Pittsburgh: Professor Thomas Saaty’s “Decision Making with Analytic Hierarchy Process” Link: University of Pittsburgh: Professor Thomas Saaty’s “Decision Making with Analytic Hierarchy Process” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above and download the PDF file “saaty_2008.pdf.  This is a paper published in the International Journal of Services Sciences, written by Professor Thomas Saaty, the inventor of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The paper will describe AHP in details together with examples.  This reading will take approximately 4 hours to complete.
 
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  • Web Media: YouTube: Business Performance Management Singapore: “Analytic Hierarchy Process AHP—Business Performance Management” Link: YouTube: Business Performance Management Singapore:  “Analytic Hierarchy Process AHP—Business Performance Management” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: To view this video (9:18 min), click on the link above.  In this video, the lecturer will walk through the application of AHP in helping to make an everyday decision: buying a cell phone.  
     
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  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “On Analytic Hierarchy Process” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “On Analytic Hierarchy Process” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please complete the linked assessment.  When you are done--or if you are stuck!--check your work against The Saylor Foundation’s “Answer Key” (PDF).

2.2.3 Quality Function Deployment (QFD)   - Reading: Creative Industries Research Institute, AUT University, New Zealand: Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Link: Creative Industries Research Institute, AUT University, New Zealand: “Quality Function Deployment” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, which will take you to the Resources page of the Creative Industries Research Institute website.  Download the PDF file for “Quality Function Deployment (QFD),” under the “Brief Development Tools” section.  Read the entire document, which will provide you with the basic information on the foundations and applications of QFD.  This reading will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
 
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2.3 Methods and Tools for Addressing Variability, Quality, and Uncertainty   2.3.1 Overview   - Reading: National Academy of Engineering’s book, Approaches to Improve Engineering Design: “Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools” Link: National Academy of Engineering’s book, Approaches to Improve Engineering Design:Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read pages 25–28 of “Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools.”  Navigate to the next page using the arrow at the bottom of the webpage.  Alternatively, create an account (free) with National Academic Press to download the PDF file of the book (also free).  You will use this book throughout the course.  The reading provides high-level descriptions of a number of tools aimed to reduce uncertainty and improve quality: Projected Latent Structure, Taguchi Method, and Six Sigma.  This reading will take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
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2.3.2 Lean Six-Sigma Methods   In the following subunits, you will learn to improve decision making by implementing Lean production concepts, Six-Sigma, Kaizen, and DMAIC.  These are tools that will help you refine the design of a product or process while preserving its long-term viability. 

  • Lecture: MIT: Professor Earll Murman’s “Introduction to Lean Six Sigma Methods”: “Section 1–2: The Start of Your Lean Journey” Link: MIT: Professor Earll Murman’s “Introduction to Lean Six Sigma Methods”: “Section 1–2: The Start of Your Lean Journey” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: To view this video (approximately 1 hour), click on the link above.  Professor Earll Murman discusses the basic principles of Lean Six Sigma principles.
     
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  • Reading: MIT: Professor Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld’s Lecture Notes on “Lean/Six Sigma Systems”: “Lean Thinking” Link: MIT: Professor Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld’s Lecture Notes on “Lean/Six Sigma Systems”: “Lean Thinking” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please download the PDF file for “Lean Thinking” in the materials for Lecture No. 1.  You will learn about “lean design” in this reading.  Think of an example where you see the potential to apply the principles of lean thinking to reduce waste.  This reading will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
     
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  • Reading: MIT: Professor Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld’s Lecture Notes on “Lean/Six Sigma Systems”: “Six Sigma Principles” Link: MIT: Professor Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld’s Lecture Notes on “Lean/Six Sigma Systems”: “Six Sigma Principles” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please download the PDF file for “Six Sigma Principles” in the materials for Lecture No. 2.  This reading gives a brief overview of the basic principles of Six Sigma.  This reading will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
     
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2.3.3 Quality Controls   - Lecture: MIT: Professor Earll Murman’s “Introduction to Lean Six Sigma Methods”: “Lecture 10: Quality Tools—1” Link: MIT: Professor Earll Murman’s “Introduction to Lean Six Sigma Methods”: “Lecture 10: Quality Tools—1” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: To view this video (36:23 min), click on the link above. In this video, you will learn about various methods used to control quality of products.
 
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  • Lecture: MIT: Professor Earll Murman’s “Introduction to Lean Six Sigma Methods”: “Lecture 11: Quality Tools—2” Link: MIT: Professor Earll Murman’s “Introduction to Lean Six Sigma Methods”: “Lecture 11: Quality Tools—2” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: To view this video (38: 40), click on the link above.  This video will continue to provide you with examples of Lean Six Sigma, its advantages and disadvantages in controlling quality of products.
     
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2.4 Methods and Tools for Generating Alternatives   2.4.1 Overview   - Reading: National Academy of Engineering’s book, Approaches to Improve Engineering Design: “Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools” Link: National Academy of Engineering’s book, Approaches to Improve Engineering Design:Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read pages 28–30 of “Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools.” Navigate to the next page using the arrow at the bottom of the webpage.  Alternatively, create an account (free) with National Academic Press to download the PDF file of the book (also free).  You will use this book throughout the course.  The reading provides high-level descriptions of a number of tools aimed to generate alternatives that meet the produce requirements: Design Information Systems, Decision Support Systems, Product Planning Advisor, and Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ).  This reading will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
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2.4.2 Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ)   - Reading: Creative Industries Research Institute, AUT University, New Zealand: "Introduction to Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ)" Link: Creative Industries Research Institute, AUT University, New Zealand: “Introduction to Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ)” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, which will take you to the Resources page of the Creative Industries Research Institute website.  Download the PDF file for “TRIZ, Theory of Inventive Problem Solving,” under the “Creativity Simulation Tools” section. Read the entire document, which will provide you with the basic information on the foundations and applications of TRIZ.  This reading will take approximately 2 hours to complete.
 
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2.4.3 Mind Mapping   - Reading: Creative Industries Research Institute, AUT University, New Zealand: “Mind Mapping Link: Creative Industries Research Institute, AUT University, New Zealand: “Mind Mapping” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, which will take you to the Resources page of the Creative Industries Research Institute website.  Download the PDF file for “Mind Mapping,” under the “Creativity Simulation Tools” section.  Read the entire document, which will provide you with an overview of mind mapping techniques that you can use to generate new design ideas.  This reading will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
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2.5 Methods and Tools for Representing Design Issues   - Reading: National Academy of Engineering’s book, Approaches to Improve Engineering Design: “Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools” Link: National Academy of Engineering’s book, Approaches to Improve Engineering Design:Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read pages 30–34 of “Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools.” Navigate to the next page using the arrow at the bottom of the webpage.  Alternatively, create an account (free) with National Academic Press to download the PDF file of the book (also free). You will use this book throughout the course.  The reading provides high-level descriptions of a number of tools aimed to represent design problems: Suh’s Axiomatic Design, Yoshikawa’s General Design Theory, the Expected Utility Theorem, and the Substitution Theorem.  This reading will take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
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2.5.1 Axiomatic Design   - Reading: Hong Kong University of Science and Technology: Professor Ajaj Joneja’s IEEM 513 Manufacturing Systems Design: “Axiomatic Design and Manufacturing Systems Design” Link: Hong Kong University of Science and Technology: Professor Ajaj Joneja’s IEEM 513 Manufacturing Systems Design: “Axiomatic Design and Manufacturing Systems Design” (HTML)  

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, which will take you
to a webpage describing Suh’s Axiomatic Design.  Read the entire
webpage, which will discuss the design axioms: the independence
axiom and the information content axiom and their applications.
 This reading will take approximately 1 hour to complete.  
    
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2.6 Decision Tools used in Economics and Management Science   - Reading: National Academy of Engineering’s book, Approaches to Improve Engineering Design: “Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools” Link: National Academy of Engineering’s book, Approaches to Improve Engineering Design:Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools” (HTML or PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read pages 34–36 of “Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools” Navigate to the next page using the arrow at the bottom of the webpage.  Alternatively, create an account (free) with National Academic Press to download the PDF file of the book (also free).  You will use this book thorough the course.  The reading provides high-level descriptions of a number of tools developed for applications in economics and management science that can be used to support decision making in engineering design: constrained optimization and game theory.  You will learn more about constrained optimization in Unit 4.  This reading will take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
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2.7 Combination of Tools and Methods   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s "Unit 2 Discussion Questions" Link: The Saylor Foundation’s "Unit 2 Discussion Questions" (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please complete "Unit 2 Discussion Questions." When you are done--or if you are stuck!--check your work against the Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 2 Discussion Questions Answer Key.” (PDF)

  • Reading: National Academy of Engineering’s book, Approaches to Improve Engineering Design: “Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools” Link: National Academy of Engineering’s book, Approaches to Improve Engineering Design:Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools” (HTML or PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please read pages 36–38 of “Chapter 4: Methods, Theories, and Tools” Navigate to the next page using the arrow at the bottom of the webpage.  Alternatively, create an account (free) with National Academic Press to download the PDF file of the book (also free).  You will use this book throughout the course.  The reading will provide a summary of tools that can be used to support decision making in engineering design. Table 4–2 rates different tools on several attributes, including ease-of-use, current utilization, and concept development.  The reading also discusses the potential pitfalls of using the tools and methods discussed in this unit.  This reading will take approximately 1 hour to complete.
     
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