# ME303: Thermal-Fluid Systems

Unit 3: Equipment for Moving Fluids   Pumps, blowers, fans, and compressors are available in many varieties for pressurizing and moving gases and liquids.  In this section, you will learn about the common types of such machines, their performance characteristics, and the types of situations to which they are best suited.

This unit should take you 12 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 3.2: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 3.3: 4 hours

☐    End of Unit Self-Assessment: 1 hour

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

• Describe the physical principles of operation of several types of pumps, blowers, and compressors.
• Choose a suitable type and size of equipment for a pumping/blowing operation.
• Estimate the efficiency and power consumption for specific pumping/blowing operations.

• Reading: Engineering Toolbox’s “Pumps, Compressors, Blowers, and Fans” Link: Engineering Toolbox’s “Pumps, Compressors, Blowers, and Fans” (HTML)

Instructions: Read the working definitions of the equipment.

3.1 Pumps for Moving Liquids   3.1.1 Centrifugal   - Reading: Engineering ToolBox’s “Centrifugal Pumps” Link: Engineering ToolBox’s “Centrifugal Pumps” (HTML)

Instructions: Read the section to understand the centrifugal pump’s mode of operation.  You may skim the mathematical description at this stage, as you will return to that topic later in this unit.  At this stage, you should consider the primary difference between the operation of a centrifugal and positive displacement pump.

3.1.2 Positive Displacement   - Reading: Engineering ToolBox’s “Positive Displacement Pumps” Link: Engineering ToolBox’s “Positive Displacement Pumps” (HTML)

Instructions: Read the text to learn about the positive displacement pump’s mode of operation.  You may skim the mathematical description at this stage.  Identify the primary difference between the operation of a centrifugal pump and the operation of a positive displacement pump.

3.1.3 Specialized Pumps   3.1.3.1 Jet Pumps   - Reading: Wikipedia’s “Injector” Link: Wikipedia’s “Injector” (PDF)

Instructions: Read the article to learn the basic principles of operation of an injector or jet pump.  Consider the following question: Where have you seen the operation of a jet pump in your daily life?

3.1.3.2 Screw Pumps   - Reading: Chris Rorres’ “Archimedes” Link: Chris Rorres’ “Archimedes” (HTML)

Instructions: Read the linked pages concerning the history, theory, and applications of the screw pump.  After your reading, be sure you can answer the following questions: To whom is the first screw pump commonly attributed?  For what types of applications is a screw pump best suited? Is there a major screw pump installation  near you? After answering these questions, download and read the PDF entitled “THE TURN OF THE SCREW: OPTIMAL DESIGN OF AN ARCHIMEDES SCREW”.

Instructions: Skim the article to gain an appreciation for the many types of specialized pumps available.  You may find the hydraulic ram pumps of particular novelty.

Instructions: View the video (9:33 minutes) and ponder the source of the water flow.  Similar pumps are used for liquid metals.  What are the advantages of such a pump?

3.2 Operational Considerations for Centrifugal Liquid Pumping   - Reading: Wikipedia’s “Centrifugal Pumps” Link: Wikipedia’s “Centrifugal Pumps” (PDF)

Instructions: Read this Wiki article and take notes to concisely describe flow rate, operating speed, efficiency, cavitation or gas binding, and power consumption.  In the readings in this subunit, you will examine the operating characteristics of centrifugal pumps in detail.  This reading will provide you with a generic description of the centrifugal pump, while the next few resources will review the ways in which different manufacturers describe the performance of their products.  You will have to adapt your thinking to accommodate the jargon and preferred units of each manufacturer.  This sort of activity is common for the engineer.

• Reading: PumpFundamentals.com: Jacques Chaurette's (PE) "Pump System Analysis and Centrifugal Pump Sizing" Link: PumpFundamentals.com: Jacques Chaurette's:  Fundamentals! Pumps that is (HTML)

Instructions: Download the free pdf book "Pump System Analysis and Centrifugal Pump Sizing". You may skim through the first three chapters; this material should be review.
Read in detail Chapter 4 “Centrifugal Pump Selection, Sizing, and Interpretation of Performance Curves”.

• Reading: CheResources: Mukesh Sadev’s “Centrifugal Pumps: Basic Concepts of Matnenance, Operation, and Troubleshooting (Pt I)” Link: CheResources: Mukesh Sadev’s “Centrifugal Pumps: Basic Concepts of Matnenance, Operation, and Troubleshooting (Pt I)” (HTML)

Instructions: Note that there are several pages to this article (8 pages total); you may use the arrow key or click on the page number to navigate from one page to the next.  In your reading, you should become comfortable with the following terms and concepts: Flow Rate, Q; Pressure Head, H; Operating Speed; Performance Curves; Cavitation; Series and Parallel Configurations; Pump Efficiency and Power Consumption

3.3 Fans, Blowers, and Compressors   3.3.1 Pressure, Volume, and Temperature Relationships for Gases   - Reading: University of Kentucky: Sue Nokes’ “Gas and Vapor Behavior” Link: University of Kentucky: Sue Nokes’ “Gas and Vapor Behavior” (HTML)

Instructions: Read this material to make sure you understand phase diagrams, ideal gas behavior, and Raoult’s law.  You may wish to refer to resources used in your General Chemistry coursework.  This material is useful not only in this section, but also in the analysis of thermodynamic cycles in later sections of this course (i.e. refrigeration and power conversion).

3.3.2 Common Configurations, Efficiency, and Performance   - Reading: Scribd.com: Pramod B. Wankhade’s “Fans and Blowers” Link: Scribd.com: Pramod B. Wankhade’s “Fans and Blowers” (PDF)

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Instructions: Study this text (pages 93-112) and attempt to answer
the 10 questions at the end of the chapter.