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ME303: Thermal-Fluid Systems

Unit 1: Thermodynamics, Mechanics, and Energy Conversion   In this course, you will need to rely heavily upon material from previous work.  For convenience, this unit reviews fundamental topics in thermodynamics and fluid mechanics that you will find useful in subsequent units.

Unit 1 Time Advisory
This unit should take you 13 hours to complete

☐    Introductory Review: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 1.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 1.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 1.3: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 1.4: 1 hours

☐    End of Unit Self-Assessment: 1 hour

Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Use scientific notation and engineering units for quantities concerning fluid flow and energy transfer.
  • Apply and explain the significance of conservation laws for momentum, mass, and energy.
  • Recognize and interpret the significance of several thermodynamic cycles and their descriptive parameters.
  • Apply and explain the significance of dimensionless groups.

  • Reading: MIT: Professor Zoltan Spakovszky's “Prelude: Introduction and Review of Unified Engineering Thermodynamics” Link: MIT: Professor Zoltan Spakovszky's “Prelude: Introduction and Review of Unified Engineering Thermodynamics” (PDF)
     
    Also available in:

    EPUB

    Instructions: Click on the “PDF” hyperlink listed for Section 0 after the title “Prelude: Introduction and Review of Unified Engineering Thermodynamics” to download the text. Please read the entire PDF (18 pages total) for a review of thermodynamic concepts used in this section.
     

    Terms of Use: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to Zoltan Spakovszky and can be found in its original form here.

1.1 Definitions and Units   1.1.1 Fundamental Units   - Reading: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: Russ Rowletts’ “Base Units of the International System” Link: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: Russ Rowletts’ “Base Units of the International System” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the definitions of the seven base units for the SI system. Speculate on how these units might be combined to form derived units.
 
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1.1.2 First Law of Thermodynamics and State Variables   - Reading: Georgia State University’s “First Law” and “State Variables” Link: Georgia State University’s “First Law” (HTML) and “State Variables” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read these two webpages.  You may also find it useful to review other sections of the GSU’s Hyperphysics pages (HTML). For example, you may review the definitions of the state variables enthalpy, internal energy, and entropy.  To access these definitions, click on the hyperlink for each term in the Index on the right-hand side of the webpage.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.1.3 Derived Quantities   - Reading: Georgia State University’s “Hyperphysics Pages” Links: Georgia State University’s “Hyperphysics Pages” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on quantities of interest in the right-hand index for the pages.  Please review the concise definitions of terms such as momentum, velocity, force, work, energy, and power.  Make sure that you understand both the physical meaning of the quantities and the units of that quantity.  For example, velocity is a vector indicating the speed and direction of movement with units of length/time.  Note that a very large number of units can be derived from the fundamental units.  
 
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1.2 Conservation Laws   1.2.1 Control Volume Approach   - Reading: WikiBooks’ Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 3” Link: WikiBooks’ Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 3” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read only Section 1 of this chapter.  This material is rather dense, so you may wish to spend some time thinking about it and drawing pictures.
 
Note that much of engineering analysis is concerned with the consequences of the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy.  You might consider an engineer to be an accountant of such quantities; the engineer considers the generation, accumulation or depletion, and motion from place to place of such quantities.  This accounting may be done for finite containers or volumes or differential (infinitesimal) volume elements.  This material should be a review for you.
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikibooks version of this article here (HTML).

1.2.2 Differential Forms for Energy, Momentum, and Mass Conservation   - Reading: WikiBooks’ Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 3” Link: WikiBooks’ Fluid Mechanics: “Chapter 3” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read only Section 2 of this chapter.  As noted earlier, this material is rather dense; take your time working through it.
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikibooks version of this article here (HTML).

1.3 Thermodynamic Cycles   1.3.1 Definition   - Reading: Wikipedia’s “Thermodynamic Cycle” Link: Wikipedia’s “Thermodynamic Cycle” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read the entire text and attempt the following activity.  Write down a concise definition of a thermodynamic cycle and categorize the various different thermodynamic cycles.
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

  • Reading: MIT: Professor Zoltan Spakovszky’s “Thermal Energy: Introduction and Review of Engineering Thermodynamics” Lecture Notes Link: MIT: Professor Zoltan Spakovszky’s “Thermal Energy: Introduction and Review of Engineering Thermodynamics” Lecture Notes 1a, 2a, and 2b. (PDF)
     
    Also available in:
    EPUB 1a, 2a, 2b

    Instructions: Please click on the “PDF” hyperlink after each title for sections 1a, 2a, and 2b.  You may skim through this material, but attempt to find reference to each of the power cycles listed below in sections 1.3.2-1.3.6.
     

    Terms of Use: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to Zoltan Spakovszky and can be found in its original form here.

1.3.2 Carnot Cycle   1.3.3 Rankine Cycle   1.3.4 Brayton Cycle   1.3.5 Otto Cycle   1.3.6 Diesel Cycle   1.4 Dimensionless Groups   - Reading: EnggCylopedia’s “Dimensionless Groups” Link: EnggCyclopedia’s “Dimensionless Groups” (HTML)
 
Instructions: For each of the groups listed in subunits 1.4.1-1.4.4 (Re, Pr, Nu, and Gr), find and read quantitative and qualitative definitions of the group.  Many dimensionless groups appear in fluid mechanics and heat–transfer problems.  Several of these are tabulated in this resource.  Please pay particular attention to the Reynolds number, the Prandtl number, the Grashof number, and the Nusselt number.  Please note that this material covers information for subunits 1.4.1-1.4.4.
 
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1.4.1 Re   1.4.2 Pr   1.4.3 Nu   1.4.4 Gr   Unit 1 Assessment   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME303: Unit 1 Quiz" Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “ME303: Unit 1 Quiz
 
Instructions: Please complete the linked assessment.
 
You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this quiz.  If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.