# ME302: Mechatronics

Unit 2: Electrical and Electronic Principles   This unit will review some of the electrical and electronic principles that you have already studied and will introduce you to some new ones. In PHYS102 (Introduction to Electromagnetism), you studied the three main electrical components: the resistor, the capacitor, and the inductor. You also studied the analysis of circuits containing these components, such as RLC circuits. In this unit, we will revisit the operation of these components and show how they are analogous to some of the mechanical components that you are already familiar with (such as dampers, springs, and masses). You will then be introduced to some simple circuits to analyze. This will be followed by the study of electronic components such as diodes and transistors. The last part of this unit will introduce you to digital logic and associated electronic devices that are used to implement digital logic. The electrical and electronic principle that you will study in this unit are critical to building control-systems for the mechatronic system and interfacing the controllers to the physical system.

This unit should take approximately 25.75 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 11.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 2.1.1: 3.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 2.1.2: 3.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 2.1.3: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2: 3.75 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 2.75 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4: 4 hours

☐    Web Media: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.5: 2.25 hours

☐    Subunit 2.6: 1.5 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Analyze and solve simple electrical and electronic circuits. - Describe how to build simple logic circuits to implement logic functions, and perform this task.

2.1 Basic Electrical Components   There are three basic electrical components of all electrical circuits: resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These components are referred to as passive components, as they do not contain a power supply. This is in contrast with active components, such as amplifiers that require a power supply to operate.

2.1.1 Resistors   - Reading: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume I, DC: “How Voltage, Current, and Resistance Relate”, “An Analogy for Ohm’s Law”, “Power in Electric Circuits”, “Calculating Electric Power”, and “Resistors” Link: All about Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume I, DC: “How Voltage, Current, and Resistance Relate” (HTML), “An Analogy for Ohm’s Law” (HTML), “Power in Electric Circuits” (HTML), “Calculating Electric Power” (HTML), and “Resistors” (HTML)

`````` Instructions: Please click on the links above, and read these
webpages in their entirety. These five readings will provide you
with an introduction to the resistor as a component in electrical
circuits. A resistor provides a means of resisting the flow of an
electric current. It dissipates electrical power, converting it to
heat.

Reading these webpages should take approximately 3 hours.

displayed on the webpage above.
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• Web Media: Colorado State University’s “Video Demonstrations of Mechatronic Devices and Principles” Link: Colorado State University’s “Video Demonstrations of Mechatronic Devices and Principles” (Windows Media Player)

Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to the section “Electrical Components and Measurements,” and select the link for “Resistors” to download the video. Watch the brief video, which shows you examples of some resistors. In general, you will notice that the size of a resistor depends on its power rating (how much power it can dissipate) regardless of the value of the resistance.

Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take less than 10 minutes.

• Web Media: Colorado State University’s “Video Demonstrations of Mechatronic Devices and Principles” Link: Colorado State University’s “Video Demonstrations of Mechatronic Devices and Principles” (Windows Media Player)

Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down the webpage to the “Circuit Examples” section, and select the link titled “Light Bulb Series and Parallel Circuit Comparison” to download the video. Watch this brief video, which illustrates the effect of parallel and series connection of resistors.

Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 5 minutes.

2.1.2 Capacitors   A capacitor acts as a storage medium for an electric charge. A capacitor is formed as soon as two conducting plates are placed in parallel positions. As the charge accumulates on the plates of the capacitor, an electric field results. The material between the two plates is important as it has an effect on the final value of the capacitance. The capacitor stores energy in an electrical format. In order to revise the basic concepts of capacitors, read the material accessed via the resources linked below.

• Reading: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume I, DC: “Electric Fields and Capacitance”, “Capacitors and Calculus”, “Factors Affecting Capacitance”, “Series and Parallel Capacitors”, and “Practical Considerations” Link: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume I, DC: “Electric Fields and Capacitance” (HTML), “Capacitors and Calculus” (HTML), “Factors Affecting Capacitance” (HTML), “Series and Parallel Capacitors” (HTML), and “Practical Considerations” (HTML)

Instructions: Please click on the links above and read these webpages. A capacitor resists a sudden change in the voltage across its terminals. Calculus can be used to capture this in an equation format. On the “Factors Affecting Capacitance” webpage, note that capacitance is directly proportional to the area of each plate and the permittivity of the material between the plates and inversely proportional to the distance between the plates.

Reading these webpages should take approximately 3 hours.

• Web Media: Colorado State University’s “Video Demonstrations of Mechatronic Devices and Principles” Link: Colorado State University’s “Video Demonstrations of Mechatronic Devices and Principles” (Windows Media Player)

Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to the section “Electrical Components and Measurements,” and select the link to “Capacitors” to launch the video. Watch this brief video, which shows examples of different types of capacitors. From the video, you will notice that the physical size of a capacitor depends on two factors: the value of the capacitance and the rated voltage.

Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 5 minutes.

2.1.3 Inductors   Inductance results when a conductor is wound a number of turns around a former. An inductor resists the sudden change of the value of the current flowing through it. Energy is stored in a magnetic form within the inductor. The inductance of a coil is sometimes referred to as self-inductance.

• Reading: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume I, DC: “Magnetic Fields and Inductance”, “Inductors and Calculus”, “Factors Affecting Inductance”, “Series and Parallel Inductors”, and “Practical Considerations” Link: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume I, DC“Magnetic Fields and Inductance” (HTML), “Inductors and Calculus” (HTML), “Factors Affecting Inductance” (HTML), “Series and Parallel Inductors” (HTML), and “Practical Considerations” (HTML)

Reading these webpages should take approximately 3 hours.

• Reading: University of Jordan: Dr. Lutfi Al-Sharif ‘s “Analogy to Mechanical Basic Components” Link: University of Jordan: Dr. Lutfi Al-Sharif ‘s “Analogy to Mechanical Basic Components” (PDF)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and read this article to learn some general information on resistors, capacitors, and inductors as well as to learn an analogy for basic mechanical components.

• Reading: Rensselear Polytechnic Institute and Marquette University: Kevin Craig’s Multidisciplinary Mechatronic Innovations: “Analogies among Engineering Systems” Link: Rensselear Polytechnic Institute and Marquette University: Kevin Craig’s Multidisciplinary Mechatronic Innovations: “Analogies among Engineering Systems” (PDF)

Instructions: Click on the link above to access the “Tutorials” page on Kevin Craig’s Multi-mechatronics website. Then, select the link titled “Analogies” to access the PDF. Study this presentation (13 pages). Notice how the slides compare electrical components with analogous mechanical components.

Studying these slides should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

2.2 Analysis and Solving of Simple Electrical Circuits   Having been introduced to the individual electrical components, in this subunit we will move on to look at the analysis of circuits that comprise these components.

• Reading: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume I, DC: “What Are ‘Series’ and ‘Parallel’ Circuits?”, “Simple Series Circuits”, and “Simple Parallel Circuits” Link: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume I, DC“What Are ‘Series’ and ‘Parallel’ Circuits?” (HTML), “Simple Series Circuits” (HTML), and “Simple Parallel Circuits” (HTML)

Reading these webpages should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

• Web Media: Colorado State University’s “Video Demonstrations of Mechatronic Devices and Principles” and YouTube: Dr. Dave Billiards’ “Breadboard Rules of Thumb” Link: Colorado State University’s “Video Demonstrations of Mechatronic Devices and Principles” (Windows Media Player) and YouTube: Dr. Dave Billiards’ “Breadboard Rules of Thumb” (YouTube)

Instructions: Please click on the links above and view both videos. To access the Colorado State University video, go to the website linked above, scroll down to the “Electrical Components and Measurements” section, and select the “Construction” link to download the video. A breadboard is a simple tool to build simple circuits. Watch these videos to learn about the correct use of a breadboard.

Watching these videos and pausing to take notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

• Reading: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume I, DC: “Analysis Technique”, “Building Series-Parallel Resistor Circuits”, “What Is Network Analysis”, and “Thevenin’s Theorem” Link: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume I, DC“Analysis Technique” (HTML), “Building Series-Parallel Resistor Circuits” (HTML), “What Is Network Analysis” (HTML), and “Thevenin’s Theorem” (HTML)

Instructions: Please click on the links above and read these webpages for further information on circuit analysis.

Reading these webpages should take approximately 2 hours.

2.3 Basic Electronic Components: Diode, Bipolar Junction Transistors, and Field Effect Transistors   In this subunit, we will examine various electronic components that comprise most electronic circuits. This subunit introduces two important electronic components: diodes and transistors. Diodes are semiconductor devices that allow currents to flow only in one direction. A diode is constructed using a PN junction. Transistors are semiconductor devices that can be used as electronic switches, whereby they can switch electrical devices on and off.

• Reading: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume III, Semiconductors: “The P-N Junction” Link: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume III, Semiconductors: “The P-N Junction” (HTML)

Instructions: Click on the link above, and read this webpage. Concentrate on understanding the principle of operation of the P-N junction and how it allows current to flow in one direction only. You might find the review notes at the end of the page useful.

Reading this chapter should take you approximately 30 minutes.

• Web Media: Colorado State University’s “Video Demonstrations of Mechatronic Devices and Principles” Link: Colorado State University’s “Video Demonstrations of Mechatronic Devices and Principles” (Windows Media Player)

Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to the “Electrical Components and Measurements” section, and select the “Diodes” link to download the video. Watch this brief video for a demonstration with diodes.

Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 5 minutes.

• Reading: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume III, Semiconductors: “Bipolar Junction Transistors”, “Introduction to Field Effect Transistors”, and “The Field Effect Transistor as a Switch” Link: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume III, Semiconductors“Bipolar Junction Transistors” (HTML), “Introduction to Field Effect Transistors” (HTML), and “The Field Effect Transistor as a Switch” (HTML)

Instructions: Click on the three links above that should take you to the three webpages on transistors. Read these webpages. Concentrate on understanding the principle of operation of the two transistors and how a transistor can be used as an amplifier. Notice how the bipolar junction transistor is current driven, while the field effect transistor is voltage driven. You might find the review notes at the end of these pages useful.

Reading these webpages should take you approximately 2 hours.

• Web Media: Colorado State University’s “Video Demonstrations of Mechatronic Devices and Principles” Link: Colorado State University’s “Video Demonstrations of Mechatronic Devices and Principles” (Windows Media Player)

Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to the section titled “Electrical Components and Measurements,” and select the “Transistors” link to download the video. This video shows examples of some transistors. Then, click on the link above, scroll down to the section titled “Actuators,” and click on the “DC Motor Turned on and off by a Transistor” link to download the video. This video shows how a transistor is used as an electronic switch to control a small DC motor.

Watching these videos and pausing to take notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

2.4 Basics of Boolean Logic   This subunit will introduce you to the basics of digital logic, referred to as Boolean logic in reference to the English born mathematician George Boole.

• Web Media: YouTube: Morgan Benton’s “Bits, Binary, Boolean Logic, and Computers” Link: YouTube: Morgan Benton’s “Bits, Binary, Boolean Logic, and Computers” (YouTube)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and view the entire video for an introduction to Boolean logic and how it is used in computers.

Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

• Reading: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume IV, Digital: “Decimal versus Binary Numeration” Link: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume IV, Digital: “Decimal versus Binary Numeration” (HTML)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and read this webpage, which shows you how to convert from decimal numbering systems to binary and vice versa. Binary numbering is the numbering system used in all digital devices and micro-controllers.

• Reading: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume IV, Digital: “Introduction (to Boolean Logic)”, “Boolean Arithmetic”, “Boolean Algebraic Identities”, “Boolean Algebraic Properties”, and “Boolean Rules for Simplification” Link: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume IV, Digital: “Introduction (to Boolean Logic)” (HTML), “Boolean Arithmetic” (HTML), “Boolean Algebraic Identities” (HTML), “Boolean Algebraic Properties” (HTML), and “Boolean Rules for Simplification” (HTML)

Instructions: Please click on the links above and read these webpages, which will give you a more detailed introduction to Boolean logic.

Reading these webpages should take approximately 3 hours.

2.5 Logic Gates   By using electronic components such as transistors, diodes, resistors, and capacitors – designed within integrated circuits – logic gates can be built. Logic gates can be successfully used to build control systems.

• Reading: University of Jordan: Dr. Lutfi Al-Sharif’s “Introduction to Logic Gates” Link: University of Jordan: Dr. Lutfi Al-Sharif’s “Introduction to Logic Gates” (PDF)

Instructions: Please click on the link above to access the PDF. Read this text for an introduction to three logic gates and how they are represented by using Venn diagrams.

Reading this chapter should take approximately 45 minutes.

• Reading: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume IV, Digital: “Venn Diagrams and Sets”, “The Exclusive-OR Function”, and “Digital Signals and Gates” Link: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume IV, Digital: “Venn Diagrams and Sets” (HTML), “The Exclusive-OR Function” (HTML), and “Digital Signals and Gates” (HTML)

Instructions: Please click on the first link above and read this webpage, which will provide you with a general introduction to Venn diagrams. Then, click on the second link above, and read this webpage for an introduction to the exclusive-OR function. Finally, click on the third link above, and read this webpage for an understanding on how electronic components are used to build logic gates, such as AND, OR and NOT gates.

Studying these webpages should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

2.6 Designing Basic Logic Circuits   Karnaugh mapping is a tool that can be used to design logic circuits to achieve the required logic function.

• Reading: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume IV, Digital: “Karnaugh Maps, Truth Tables, and Boolean Expressions” Link: All About Circuits: Tony R. Kuphaldt’s Volume IV, Digital“Karnaugh Maps, Truth Tables, and Boolean Expressions” (HTML)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and read this webpage. The page also contains six examples. You are advised to try to solve the examples before looking at the solutions.

Reading this webpage should take approximately 30 minutes.

• Reading: University of Jordan: Dr. Lutfi Al-Sharif’s “Using Karnaugh Maps to Design Logic Circuits” Link: University of Jordan: Dr. Lutfi Al-Sharif’s “Using Karnaugh Maps to Design Logic Circuits” (PDF)