# ME103: Thermodynamics

Unit 6: Introduction to Power Cycles   This last unit of the course will introduce you to power cycles as a means of explaining how the concepts we have learned thus far relate to real-world problems.  A power cycle is a series of thermodynamic process that alters a system and eventually returns it to its original state.  By studying power cycles, we can answer questions like: what happens when we fill up our cars with gas and then are able to drive forward?  What is the difference between diesel and gasoline engines?  Keep in mind, however, that this unit will serve as only an introductionto power cycles.  In Thermal-Fluid Systems (a 300-level course), you will learn about these systems in much greater detail.

This unit will take you approximately 30 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 6.1: 10 hours

☐    Subunit 6.1.1: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 6.1.2: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 6.2: 15 hours

☐    Subunit 6.2.1: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 6.2.2: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 6.2.3: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 6.3: 5 hours

Unit6 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Define and classify different types of power cycles. - Calculate Rankine cycle thermal efficiency. - Calculate properties of Otto, Diesel and Brayton cycles. - Calculate properties of refrigeration cycle.

6.1 Introduction to Power Cycles   - Reading: Queen’s University, Canada: Professor G. Ciccarelli’s Lecture Notes on Applied Thermodynamics: “Lecture 24: Vapor Power Cycle” Link: Queen’s University, Canada: Professor G. Ciccarelli’s Lecture Notes on Applied Thermodynamics: “Lecture 24: Vapor Power Cycle” (PDF)

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the entire document.  In this reading, you will take a look at power
cycles and learn how to calculate the Rankine cycle thermal
efficiency for vapor power cycles.  This reading will cover the
material you need to know for subunits 6.1.1 and 6.1.2.

kind permission of G. Ciccarelli, and can be viewed in its original
note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced
in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright
holder.
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• Reading: University of Notre Dame: Professor J. M. Powers’ Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics: “Chapter 10: Cycles” Link: University of Notre Dame: Professor J. M. Powers’ Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics: “Chapter 1: Introduction to Thermodynamics” (PDF)

Instructions: Please read section 10.1 (pages 41–46).  In this reading, you will learn how to evaluate a Rankine cycle.  Please work through Example 10.1.

• Lecture: IIT Kharagpur Lecture Series on Applied Thermodynamics: Professor P.K.Das’ "Introduction to Vapour Power Cycles" Link: IIT Kharagpur Lecture Series on Applied Thermodynamics: Professor P.K.Das’ “Introduction to Vapour Power Cycle” (YouTube)

Instructions: Please watch this video (54:07 minutes), which will explain the derivation of the basic equations for power cycles.

6.1.1 Vapor Power Cycles   - Lecture: IIT Kharagpur Lecture Series on Applied Thermodynamics: Professor P.K.Das’ “Vapor Power Cycles” Link: IIT Kharagpur Lecture Series on Applied Thermodynamics: Professor P.K.Das’ “Vapor Power Cycles” (YouTube)

Instructions: Please watch this video (54:08 minutes), which will introduce to you the basic equations of vapor power cycles.

6.1.2 Rankine Cycle Thermal Efficiency   6.2 Gas Power Cycles   - Reading: Queen’s University, Canada: Professor G. Ciccarelli’s Lecture Notes on Applied Thermodynamics: “Lectures 25-28: Gas Power Cycles” Link: Queen’s University, Canada: Professor G. Ciccarelli’s Lecture Notes on Applied Thermodynamics: “Lectures 25-26 & 27-28: Gas Power Cycle” (PDF)

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Notes 25-26)

Notes 28-28)

27-28 and read the documents in their entirety.  For these types of
power cycles, gas is the working fluid and there is no phase change.
The most well-known applications of gas power cycle are internal
combustion engines, which are responsible for modern-day
transportation.  You will learn about the three basic gas power
cycles, namely, the Otto cycle, the Diesel cycle, and the Brayton
cycle.  This reading will cover the material you need to know for
subunits 6.2.1-6.2.3.

kind permission of G. Ciccarelli, and can be viewed in its original
from [here](http://me.queensu.ca/Courses/230/LectureNotes.html) and [here](http://me.queensu.ca/Courses/230/LectureNotes.html).<span
class="Apple-style-span"
style="border-collapse: collapse; ">  </span><span
note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced
in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright
holder.</span><span> </span>
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• Reading: North Carolina State University: Professor Boles’ Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics: “Chapter 8: Gas Power Cycles” Link: North Carolina State University: Professor Boles’ Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics: “Chapter 8: Gas Power Cycles” (PDF)

Instructions: Please click on “Study Guide for Chapter 8.”  Please read the entire chapter.  You will learn how evaluate performance of gas power cycles.  State the four processes of a Diesel power cycle.  What does the efficiency of an Otto power cycle depend on?  Which cycle if the most efficient, Otto or Diesel, if they both have the same compression ratio and heat rejection?

• Assessment: McGraw Hill: Yunus A. Çengel and Michael A. Boles’ Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 4/e: "Multiple Choice Quiz for Chapter 8" Link: McGraw Hill: Yunus A. Çengel and Michael A. Boles’ Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 4/e: "Multiple Choice Quiz for Chapter 8" (HTML)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and answer all 10 questions in the quiz. Select your answer from the choices given for each question. Click on “Submit Answers” at the bottom of the webpage when you have answered all questions.  The webpage will tell you whether your answer is correct and what the correct answer is. This assessment will cover topics discussed in subunit 6.2.

6.2.1 Otto Cycle   Note: The reading for this unit is covered by subunit 6.2.

6.2.2 Diesel Cycle   Note: The reading for this unit is covered by subunit 6.2.

6.2.3 Brayton Cycle   Note: The reading for this unit is covered by subunit 6.2.

6.3 Refrigeration Cycle   - Reading: Queen’s University, Canada: Professor G. Ciccarelli’s Lecture Notes on Applied Thermodynamics: “Lecture 29: Refrigeration Cycle” Link: Queen’s University, Canada: Professor G. Ciccarelli’s Lecture Notes on Applied Thermodynamics: “Lecture 29: Refrigeration Cycle” (PDF)

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basic equations of the refrigeration cycle.

kind permission of G. Ciccarelli, and can be viewed in its original
note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced
in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright
holder.
``````
• Assessment: University of South Florida's Dr. Carlos A. Smith’s “Thermodynamics: Homework A – Set 7” Link: University of South Florida's Dr. Carlos A. Smith’s “Thermodynamics: Homework A – Set 7” (PDF)

Instructions: Please attempt all questions in the assessment.  You can find the answers here (PDF).  This assessment will cover all topics discussed in Unit 6.

Terms of Use: This resource is used with the kind permission of Dr. Carlos A. Smith.  To view the original assessment on the University of South Florida's website click here (HTML).

• Reading: North Carolina State University: Professor Boles' Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics: “Chapter 10: Refrigeration Cycles” Link: North Carolina State University: Professor Boles’ Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics: “Chapter 10: Refrigeration Cycles” (PDF)

Instructions: Please click on “Study Guide for Chapter 10.”  Please read the entire chapter.  You will learn how evaluate performance of refrigeration cycles.  What are the effects of subcooling and superheating on a refrigeration cycle.