# MA101: Single-Variable Calculus I

Unit 4: Transcendental Functions   In this unit, you will investigate the derivatives of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions.  Along the way, you will develop a technique of differentiation called implicit differentiation.  Aside from allowing you to compute derivatives of inverse function, implicit differentiation will also be important in studying related rates problems later on.

This unit should take you approximately 17 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 4.1: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 4.2: 0.25 hourd

☐    Subunit 4.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 4.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 4.5: 1.25 hours

☐    Subunit 4.6: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 4.7: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 4.8: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 4.9: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 4.10: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 4.11: 1 hours

Unit4 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Use implicit differentiation to find derivatives. - Find derivatives of inverse functions. - Find derivatives of trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, and inverse trigonometric functions. - State and apply L’Hopital’s Rule for indeterminate forms.

4.1 Trigonometric Functions   - Reading: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.1: Trigonometric Functions” Link: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions:  “Section 4.1: Trigonometric Functions” (PDF)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and read Section 4.1 (pages 71-74) in its entirety.  This reading will review the definition of trigonometric functions.

This reading should take you approximately one hour to complete.

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  This text was originally written by Professor David Guichard.  It has since been modified to include edited material from Neal Koblitz of the University of Washington, H. Jerome Keisler of the University of Wisconsin, Albert Schueller, Barry Balof, and Mike Wills.  You can access the original version here.

• Assignment: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Exercises 4.1: Problems 1-4 and 11” Link Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Exercises 4.1: Problems 1-4 and 11” (PDF)

This assignment should take you approximately 30 minutes to complete.

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  This text was originally written by Professor David Guichard.  It has since been modified to include edited material from Neal Koblitz of the University of Washington, H. Jerome Keisler of the University of Wisconsin, Albert Schueller, Barry Balof, and Mike Wills.  You can access the original version here.

4.2 The Derivative of Sine   - Reading: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.2: The Derivative of sin x” Link: Whitman College: Professor David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.2: The Derivative of sin x” (PDF)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and read Section 4.2 (pages 74-75) in its entirety.  This reading begins the computation of the derivative of the sine function.  Two specific limits will need to be evaluated in order to complete this computation.  These limits are addressed in the following section.

This reading should take you approximately 15 minutes to complete.

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  This text was originally written by Professor David Guichard.  It has since been modified to include edited material from Neal Koblitz of the University of Washington, H. Jerome Keisler of the University of Wisconsin, Albert Schueller, Barry Balof, and Mike Wills.  You can access the original version here.

4.3 A Hard Limit   - Reading: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.3: A Hard Limit” Link: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.3: A Hard Limit” (PDF)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and read Section 4.3 (pages 75-77) in its entirety.  You have read this section previously to become acquainted with the Squeeze Theorem.  When you read the section the second time, pay particular attention to the geometric argument used to set up the application of the Squeeze Theorem.

`````` This reading should take you approximately 30 minutes to
complete.

text was originally written by Professor David Guichard.  It has
since been modified to include edited material from Neal Koblitz of
the University of Washington, H. Jerome Keisler of the University of
Wisconsin, Albert Schueller, Barry Balof, and Mike Wills.  You can
access the original version
[here](http://www.whitman.edu/mathematics/calculus/).
``````
• Assignment: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Exercises 4.3: Problems 1-7” Link: Professor David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Exercises 4.3: Problems 1-7” (PDF)

This assignment should take you approximately 30 minutes to complete.

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  This text was originally written by Professor David Guichard.  It has since been modified to include edited material from Neal Koblitz of the University of Washington, H. Jerome Keisler of the University of Wisconsin, Albert Schueller, Barry Balof, and Mike Wills.  You can access the original version here.  You can access the original version here.

4.4 The Derivative of Sine, continued   - Reading: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.4: The Derivative of sin x, continued” Link: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.4: The Derivative of sin x, continued” (PDF)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and read Section 4.4 (pages 77-78) in its entirety.  This reading completes the computation of the derivative of the sine function.  Be sure to review all of the concepts involved in this computation.

This reading should take you approximately 30 minutes to complete.

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  This text was originally written by Professor David Guichard.  It has since been modified to include edited material from Neal Koblitz of the University of Washington, H. Jerome Keisler of the University of Wisconsin, Albert Schueller, Barry Balof, and Mike Wills.  You can access the original version here.

• Assignment: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Exercises 4.4: Problems 1-5” Link: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Exercises 4.4, Problems 1-5” (PDF)

This assignment should take you approximately 30 minutes to complete.

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  This text was originally written by Professor David Guichard.  It has since been modified to include edited material from Neal Koblitz of the University of Washington, H. Jerome Keisler of the University of Wisconsin, Albert Schueller, Barry Balof, and Mike Wills.  You can access the original version here.

4.5 Derivatives of the Trigonometric Functions   - Reading: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.5: Derivatives of the Trigonometric Functions” Link: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.5: Derivatives of the Trigonometric Functions” (PDF)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and read Section 4.5 (pages 78 and 79) in its entirety.  Building on the work done to compute the derivative of the sine function and the rules of differentiation from previous readings, the derivatives of the remaining trigonometric functions are computed.

This reading should take you approximately 15 minutes to complete.

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  This text was originally written by Professor David Guichard.  It has since been modified to include edited material from Neal Koblitz of the University of Washington, H. Jerome Keisler of the University of Wisconsin, Albert Schueller, Barry Balof, and Mike Wills.  You can access the original version here.

• Assignment: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Exercises 4.5: Problems 1-18” Link: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Exercises 4.5: Problems 1-18” (PDF)

This assignment should take you approximately one hour to complete.

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  This text was originally written by Professor David Guichard.  It has since been modified to include edited material from Neal Koblitz of the University of Washington, H. Jerome Keisler of the University of Wisconsin, Albert Schueller, Barry Balof, and Mike Wills.  You can access the original version here.

4.6 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions   - Reading: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.6: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions” Link: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.6: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions” (PDF)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and read Section 4.6 (pages 80-81) in its entirety.  This reading reviews the exponential and logarithmic functions, their properties, and their graphs.

This reading should take you approximately 30 minutes to complete.

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  This text was originally written by Professor David Guichard.  It has since been modified to include edited material from Neal Koblitz of the University of Washington, H. Jerome Keisler of the University of Wisconsin, Albert Schueller, Barry Balof, and Mike Wills.  You can access the original version here.

4.7 Derivatives of the Exponential and Logarithmic Functions   - Reading: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.7: Derivatives of the Exponential and Logarithmic Functions” Link: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.7: Derivatives of the Exponential and Logarithmic Functions” (PDF)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and read Section 4.7 (pages 82-86) in its entirety.  In this reading, the derivatives of the exponential and logarithmic functions are computed.  Notice that the number e is defined in terms of a particular limit.

This reading should take you approximately one hour to complete.

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  This text was originally written by Professor David Guichard.  It has since been modified to include edited material from Neal Koblitz of the University of Washington, H. Jerome Keisler of the University of Wisconsin, Albert Schueller, Barry Balof, and Mike Wills.  You can access the original version here.

• Lecture: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: David Jerison’s Single Variable Calculus: “Lecture 6: Exponential and Log” Link: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: David Jerison’s Single Variable Calculus: “Lecture 6: Exponential and Log” (YouTube)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and watch the entire video (47:57).  Lecture notes are available here. Professor Jerison makes use of implicit differentiation at times during this lecture.  You should take note of this and re-watch those portions of the video after completing subunit 4.8 below.

Viewing this video and taking notes should take you approximately one hour to complete.

• Assignment: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Exercises 4.7: Problems 1-15 and 20” Link: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Exercises 4.7: Problems 1-15 and 20” (PDF)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and work through problems 1-15 and 20 for Exercise 4.7.  When you are done, check your answers against “Appendix A: Answers”.

This assignment should take you approximately one hour to complete.

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  This text was originally written by Professor David Guichard.  It has since been modified to include edited material from Neal Koblitz of the University of Washington, H. Jerome Keisler of the University of Wisconsin, Albert Schueller, Barry Balof, and Mike Wills.  You can access the original version here.

4.8 Implicit Differentiation   - Reading: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.8: Implicit Differentiation” Link: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.8: Implicit Differentiation” (PDF)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and read Section 4.8 (pages 87-90) in its entirety.  As a result of the chain rule, we have a method for computing derivatives of curves which are not explicitly described by a function.  This method, called implicit differentiation, allows us to find tangent lines to such curves.

This reading should take you approximately one hour to complete.

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  This text was originally written by Professor David Guichard.  It has since been modified to include edited material from Neal Koblitz of the University of Washington, H. Jerome Keisler of the University of Wisconsin, Albert Schueller, Barry Balof, and Mike Wills.  You can access the original version here.

• Lecture: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: David Jerison’s Single Variable Calculus: “Lecture 5: Implicit Differentiation” Link: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: David Jerison’s Single Variable Calculus: “Lecture 5: Implicit Differentiation” (YouTube)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and watch the entire video (49:01).  Lecture notes are available here.

Viewing this lecture and taking notes should take you approximately one hour to complete.

• Assignment: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Exercises 4.8: Problems 1-9 and 11-16” Link: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Exercises 4.8: Problems 1-9 and 11-16” (PDF)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and work through problems 1-9 and 11-16 for Exercises 4.8.  When you are done, check your answers against “Appendix A: Answers”.

This assignment should take you approximately one hour to complete.

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  This text was originally written by Professor David Guichard.  It has since been modified to include edited material from Neal Koblitz of the University of Washington, H. Jerome Keisler of the University of Wisconsin, Albert Schueller, Barry Balof, and Mike Wills.  You can access the original version here.

4.9 Inverse Trigonometric Functions   - Reading: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.9: Inverse Trigonometric Functions” Link: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.9: Inverse Trigonometric Functions” (PDF)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and read Section 4.9 (pages 91-94) in its entirety.  In this reading, implicit differentiation and the Pythagorean identity are used to compute the derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions.  You should notice that the same techniques can be used to find derivatives of other inverse functions as well.

This reading should take you approximately one hour to complete.

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  This text was originally written by Professor David Guichard.  It has since been modified to include edited material from Neal Koblitz of the University of Washington, H. Jerome Keisler of the University of Wisconsin, Albert Schueller, Barry Balof, and Mike Wills.  You can access the original version here.

• Assignment: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Exercises 4.9: Problems 3-11” Link: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Exercises 4.9: Problems 3-11” (PDF)

This assignment should take you approximately one hour to complete.

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  This text was originally written by Professor David Guichard.  It has since been modified to include edited material from Neal Koblitz of the University of Washington, H. Jerome Keisler of the University of Wisconsin, Albert Schueller, Barry Balof, and Mike Wills.  You can access the original version here.

4.10 Limits Revisited   - Reading: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.10: Limits Revisited” Link: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Section 4.10: Limits Revisited” (PDF)

Instructions: Please click on the link above and read Section 4.10 (pages 94-97) in its entirety.  In this section, you will learn how derivatives relate back to limits.  Limits of Indeterminate Forms (or limits of functions that, when evaluated, tend to 0/0 or ∞/∞) have previously been beyond our grasp.  Using L’Hopital’s Rule, you will find that these limits are attainable with derivatives.

This reading should take you approximately one hour to complete.

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  This text was originally written by Professor David Guichard.  It has since been modified to include edited material from Neal Koblitz of the University of Washington, H. Jerome Keisler of the University of Wisconsin, Albert Schueller, Barry Balof, and Mike Wills.  You can access the original version here.

• Assignment: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Exercises 4.10: Problems 1-10 and 21-24” Link: Whitman College: David Guichard’s Calculus: Chapter 4: Transcendental Functions: “Exercises 4.10: Problems 1-10 and 21-24” (PDF)