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K12ELA008: English Language Arts 8

Unit 3: What is Courage?   You will gain critical reading and viewing skills in this unit, with a focus on true stories. This unit’s materials feature two important periods in American history. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl by Harriet Jacobs is a first-person account of a young woman’s life in slavery. In addition to this text, you will examine letters from World War II, from soldiers to their loved ones, and study some of the persuasive posters that were used to inspire patriotism and boost morale during the war. The letters and posters will give you the opportunity to explore nontraditional texts that still convey important stories and information. As with the previous units, the texts will give you the chance to practice important reading comprehension and literary analysis skills.
 
This unit’s writing task is an argumentative essay. You may already have some topics you feel strongly about; if so, you should jot some of them down now for future exploration. If you don’t have any ideas now, you will have time when you get to that part of the unit. You will also learn about the difference between verbs and verbals and the importance of subject-verb agreement.
 
You will also get the chance to incorporate art into your study of language and literature by creating a persuasive poster. This project will require you to use critical thinking skills as you figure out how to visually represent your message. 

Unit 3 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 20 hours to complete.
 
☐    Subunit 3.1: 10 hours and 25 minutes ☐    Subunit 3.1.1: 9 hours

☐    Subunit 3.1.2: 1 hour and 25 minutes

☐    Subunit 3.2: 2 hours and 45 minutes ☐    Subunit 3.2.1: 1 hour and 35 minutes

☐    Subunit 3.2.2: 1 hour and 10 minutes

☐    Subunit 3.3: 3 hours and 15 minutes ☐    Subunit 3.3.1: 1 hour and 45 minutes

☐    Subunit 3.3.2: 1 hour and 30 minutes

☐    Subunit 3.4: 2 hours and 55 minutes ☐    Subunit 3.4.1: 25 minutes

☐    Subunit 3.4.2: 30 minutes

☐    Subunit 3.4.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 3.5: 40 minutes ☐    Subunit 3.5.1: 20 minutes

☐    Subunit 3.5.2: 20 minutes

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
- Cite new information about two notable historic periods. - Estimate the cultural and historic value of both pieces of literature. - Identify common themes across historical periods. - Write original texts for multiple purposes: to be read and to be shared orally. - Identify themes in art, and connect them to themes in texts from the same time period. - Demonstrate understanding of Standard English grammar and usage.

Standards Addressed (Common Core): - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.8.5 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.8.6 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.8.7 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.5 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.8 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.1 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.2 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.8 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.8.3 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.8.4 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.8.1

3.1 Reading Informational Text: Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl by Harriet Ann Jacobs   Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl by Harriet Ann Jacobs tells the true story of a young woman’s experiences in slavery. Published in the years leading up to the Civil War, it provides a first-person account of what it was like to be a slave. As you actively read Harriet’s story, you will continue to develop reading comprehension and literary analysis skills. You should have a notebook nearby as you read so you can note anything you want to remember or write about in more detail at a later time.

3.1.1 Reading Comprehension   3.1.1.1 The Main Idea   - Reading: Project Gutenberg: Harriet Ann Jacobs's *Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl* Link: Project Gutenberg: Harriet Ann Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (HTML)
 
Instructions: From your previous study, you know the main idea of the text refers to what the text is mostly about. Before you start reading, it’s also helpful to think about your prior knowledge in order connect your previous ideas to your new learning. Think about what you already know about slavery, specifically the day-to-day experiences of slaves. Then, read Chapter 1 through Chapter 12. After you complete a chapter, summarize the main idea of that chapter in a sentence or two.
 
It should take approximately 3 hours to read and write a brief summary of each chapter.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.5](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RI/8/5)
-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.8](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RI/8/8)

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3.1.1.2 Sequence of Events   - Reading: Project Gutenberg: Harriet Ann Jacobs’s *Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl* Link: Project Gutenberg: Harriet Ann Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read from Chapter 13 through Chapter 26. As you read, focus on the sequence of events in the story. What were some of the key events in the story’s first 12 chapters? How do you think the middle of the story will proceed? Identify events you think are important. In the next subunit, you will focus on cause and effect again, so as you identify events, think about the connections between events and causal relationships.
 
It should take approximately 3 hours to read this part of the text.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.5](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RI/8/5)
-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.8](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RI/8/8)

Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.1.1.3 Cause and Effect   - Reading: Project Gutenberg: Harriet Ann Jacobs’s *Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl* Link: Project Gutenberg: Harriet Ann Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read Chapter 26 through Chapter 42, which is the end of the book. During your study of South: Journal of His Last Expedition to Antarctica, you read a short document about cause and effect. If you need to review it, you can find it here. As you read the last several chapters of Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, try to identify some of the cause and effect relationships from the text. You aren’t limited to this final section; you may go back to earlier parts of the text. What are some of the “chains” of events, where one thing happens as a result of something else? Write down your responses in your notebook.
 
It should take approximately 3 hours to read and respond.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.5](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RI/8/5)
-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.8](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RI/8/8)

Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.1.2 Literary Analysis   3.1.2.1 Character Motivations   - Reading: Project Gutenberg: Harriet Ann Jacobs’s *Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl* Link: Project Gutenberg: Harriet Ann Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (HTML)

 Instructions: Revisit Chapter 24 and Chapter 25, which give
attention to the character of Dr. Flint. What motivates Dr. Flint to
continue looking for Linda? Write a few paragraphs in your notebook
explaining what you think drives Dr. Flint to do what he does.  
    
 It should take approximately 40 minutes to review the chapters and
write your response.  
    
 Standards Addressed (*Common Core*):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.8.5](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RL/8/5)
-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.8.6](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RL/8/6)

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3.1.2.2 Identifying Themes in *Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl*   - Activity: SOPHIA: Laura Knifflin’s “Common Themes in Literature” Link: SOPHIA: Laura Knifflin’s “Common Themes in Literature” (HTML) (PPT) (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Read the content in the slide show and watch the 10-minute video, which uses popular movies to illustrate the themes. Then think about which theme (or themes) best applies to Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. Choose one or two themes. In your notebook, write a page about what elements of the story support your decision.
 
It should take approximately 45 minutes to read the slides, watch the video, make your decision about the theme, and write your response.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.8.5](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RL/8/5)

Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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3.2 Reading Informational Text: Accounts of World War II   We are going to jump ahead, chronologically and historically, for the next set of readings. This part of the unit features letters and artwork from World War II. Like Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, the letters will provide you with a firsthand account of wartime experience.

3.2.1 Reading Comprehension   In this part of the unit, you will be introduced to a new type of informational text: letters. You will read two letters written during World War II. Though we are moving to a new historical period, the emphasis will continue to be on reading skills.

3.2.1.1 The Main Idea   - Reading: Internet Archive: Kurt Vonnegut’s “World War II Letter to His Family” Link: Internet Archive: Kurt Vonnegut’s “World War II Letter to His Family” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Kurt Vonnegut (1922 - 2007) was an American author, whose novel Slaughterhouse-Five is frequently cited as one of the best books of the 20th Century. After you follow the link, choose your preferred format from the “View the Book” box on the left side of the page. The letter details Vonnegut’s experiences as a POW (prisoner of war) during the last months of World War II.

 As you read, think about what his letter is mostly about. In your
notebook, describe the main idea of the letter in a short paragraph.
Then explain whether or not you feel some of Vonnegut’s details were
irrelevant or unnecessary.  
    
 It should take approximately 30 minutes to read and respond to the
letter.  
    
 Standards Addressed (*Common Core*):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.8](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RI/8/8)

Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.2.1.2 Cause and Effect   - Reading: WWII Letters: “1939 Letter from Albert Einstein to Franklin D. Roosevelt” Link: WWII Letters: “1939 Letter from Albert Einstein to Franklin D. Roosevelt” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this letter written by renowned scientist Albert Einstein. It addresses the possibility of creating a bomb for America to use against its enemies. Though there are no explicit cause and effect relationships, think about the effects of Einstein’s ideas. If you’re interested in the role nuclear science played in WWII, you can research the Manhattan Project and Hiroshima.
 
It should take approximately 20 minutes to read the letter.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.5](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RI/8/5)

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3.2.1.3 Compare and Contrast   - Reading: WWII Letters: “Sailor Describes Sinking of USS Princeton 1944” Link: WWII Letters: “Sailor Describes Sinking of USS Princeton 1944” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this letter written by an American soldier to his wife or girlfriend back home. When you are finished, create a Venn diagram in your notebook. Revisit the letter by Kurt Vonnegut. What are the main similarities and differences in the experiences of the two soldiers? After you’ve created and completed the Venn diagram, write a response of one to three paragraphs where you explain which letter affected you more.
 
It should take approximately 45 minutes to read this letter, review the Vonnegut letter, complete the Venn diagram, and write the response.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.8](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RI/8/8)

Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.2.2 Poster Art of World War II   3.2.2.1 Part 1: Images of Strength   - Web Media: National Archives: “Poster Art from World War II” Link: National Archives: “Poster Art from World War II” (HTML)
 
Instructions: View the posters and read the accompanying text. It gives additional information about each poster, its purpose, and the reason it was created. Look at the images and colors chosen by the artists. How were the creators of the posters trying to persuade people? What was the message?
 
It should take approximately 20 minutes to view the posters and read the text.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.8](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RI/8/8)

Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.2.2.2 Part 2: Images of Peril   - Web Media: National Archives: “Poster Art from World War II” Link: National Archives: “Poster Art from World War II” (HTML)
 
Instructions: You will be doing nearly the same task with the second set of posters. View each one and read the accompanying text. How do the images and colors differ from the posters in the first set? How did the creators of these posters try to convey their message? How were the messages in these posters different?
 
It should take approximately 20 minutes to view the posters and read the text.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.8](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RI/8/8)

Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.2.2.3 Responding to the Art   - Activity: Evaluating Persuasive Artwork Instructions: You just finished analyzing two collections of posters from World War II. Each set used a different emotion to motivate the audience. The first set appealed to feelings of strength and patriotism; the second set appealed to fear. In your opinion, which set of posters was more effective? Why? Write an informal three-paragraph essay where you introduce the topic, explain your perspective, and create a strong conclusion.
 
It should take approximately 30 minutes to complete this activity, which includes time for quickly reviewing the posters.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.2](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/W/8/2)

3.3 Writing   Argumentative essay writing is the focus of this subunit. Knowing how to craft a strong argument by organizing your key points and anticipating counterarguments is an important skill. You will be supported through this process by an excellent tutorial that breaks down the information so it’s more manageable. You will revisit this tutorial throughout the process, focusing on different parts of it as you work. Note: We will not be studying the tutorial in order. It seemed to make more sense to address counterarguments sooner rather than later.

3.3.1 Writing an Argumentative Essay   3.3.1.1 Overview of Argumentative Essays   - Explanation: SOPHIA: LaShanda Lawrence’s “Writing an Argument Paper” Link: SOPHIA: LaShanda Lawrence’s “Writing an Argument Paper” (HTML) (PPT)
 
Instructions: Go through the first slide show in the tutorial, titled “Writing an Argument: Its Purpose and Style.” Take your time while reading through each slide, as you are provided with a lot of useful content.
 
It should take approximately 10 minutes to read through this material.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.1](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/W/8/1)

Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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3.3.1.2 Identifying Counterarguments   - Explanation: SOPHIA: LaShanda Lawrence’s “Writing an Argument Paper” Link: SOPHIA: LaShanda Lawrence’s “Writing an Argument Paper” (HTML) (PPT)
 
Instructions: As indicated earlier, you are going to skip ahead temporarily in this tutorial. Go to the section titled “Addressing Counter-Arguments,” read the content on the three slides, and begin thinking about possible counterarguments for your topic.
 
It should take approximately 5 minutes to read through this material.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.1](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/W/8/1)

Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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3.3.1.3 Structuring, Outlining, and Writing   - Explanation: SOPHIA: LaShanda Lawrence’s “Writing an Argument Paper” Link: SOPHIA: LaShanda Lawrence’s “Writing an Argument Paper” (HTML)
 
Instructions: The final part of this tutorial features an excellent graphic organizer you can and should use. Now that you have learned how to write an argumentative essay, it’s time to begin writing. Once you have selected a solid topic, use the graphic organizer displayed in the “Argument Outline” section to help you keep track of your ideas. Your first draft should be between 300 and 500 words.
 
It should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to read through this material, begin your outline, and write the draft of your essay.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.1](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/W/8/1)

Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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3.3.2 Editing, Revising, and Sharing the Argumentative Essay   - Activity: The Saylor Foundation: Tracy Derrell’s Checklist for Revising and Editing the Argumentative Essay Link: The Saylor Foundation: Tracy Derrell’s Checklist for Revising and Editing the Argumentative Essay (PDF)
 
Instructions: Use the attached rubric to help you zero in on what you have done well and what you need to improve. Rating your paper with the rubric for support is a great way to help you strengthen your paper. When you have finished, you will have a solid idea of what you need to work on in order to write a better paper. After you have identified your paper’s strengths and weaknesses, use that information to help you write a second draft.
 
It should take approximately 1 hour to rate your paper and write a second draft, depending on the amount of revisions needed.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.1](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/W/8/1)
-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.2](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/W/8/2)

Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Activity: Sharing and Publishing Instructions: Share your writing with a friend or family member. Ask for feedback: What did you do well? What do you need to improve? Before you begin, you can ask your audience to focus on specific parts of your argument. Maybe you want to make sure your counterargument was effective, or maybe you want to make sure you described your topic well.

    It should take approximately 1 hour to share your writing with a friend or family member and listen to their feedback. 

    Standards Addressed (Common Core):

3.4 Speaking, Listening, and Language   3.4.1 Differentiate among Forms of Verbs and Verbals   - Activity: SOPHIA: Lawrence Pizzi’s “Intro to Verbals and Participles” Link: SOPHIA: Lawrence Pizzi’s “Intro to Verbals and Participles” (HTML) (YouTube)
 
Directions: Watch both videos. The first one addresses verbals; the second one deals with participles. You do not have to complete the quiz at the end, but you should take notes about the three types of verbals and identify the participles in the sentences from the video.
 
It should take approximately 25 minutes to view both videos and identify the verbals and participles.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.8.1](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/8/1)

Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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3.4.2 Showing Understanding of Subject-Verb Agreement   - Reading: SOPHIA: Dan Reade’s “Subject-Verb Agreement” Link: SOPHIA: Dan Reade’s “Subject Verb Agreement” (HTML) (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Read the information at the beginning of the tutorial. It discusses subjects, verbs, and the importance of agreement between the two. When you have read through the material, you may want to think about taking notes on the key details. Then you should view the video, which is about five minutes long, because it offers additional illustration of the concept.
 
It should take approximately 30 minutes to read through the introductory material and the slides, view the video, and take some notes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.8.1](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/8/1)

Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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3.4.3 Creating a Poster Presentation   - Activity: The Saylor Foundation: Tracy Derrell’s “Create a Poster Presentation” Link: The Saylor Foundation: Tracy Derrell’s “Create a Poster Presentation” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Choose a topic you feel strongly about. Some possible examples include bullying, healthy eating and exercising, using social media and the Internet responsibly, and working hard in school. The topic you choose will become the subject of an original persuasive poster that you create. The link above will take you to a document that includes additional information and resources for creating your poster. Your goal is to create something intended to affect someone’s thinking about your topic, similar to the World War II posters. You can refer back to them if you need some ideas or inspiration.
 
It should take approximately 2 hours to complete this poster project, but you may find that you need or want to work on it over a longer period of time, doing a little in each session.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.1](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/W/8/1)

Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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3.5 Assessments   This Subunit checks your understanding of Unit 3 concepts from a speaking, listening, and language perspective.

3.5.1 Reading and Writing   - Checkpoint: The Saylor Foundation: Tracy Derrell’s “Reading and Writing” Link: The Saylor Foundation: Tracy Derrell’s “Reading and Writing” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above to complete the assessment, which is designed to test your understanding of the skills and concepts in Unit 3. It is recommended that you print these pages and do the work directly on the page. If you are unable to print the page, you may copy the tasks into your notebook and complete them there. To check your answers, click here.
 
It should take approximately 20 minutes to complete these tasks.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.8.3](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/SL/8/3)
-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.8.1](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/8/1)

Terms of Use: Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms
of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.5.2 Speaking, Listening, and Language   - Checkpoint: The Saylor Foundation: Tracy Derrell’s “Speaking, Listening, and Language” Link: The Saylor Foundation: Tracy Derrell’s “Speaking, Listening, and Language” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above to complete the assessment. It is designed to test your understanding of the skills and concepts in Unit 3. It is recommended that you print these pages and do the work directly on the page. If you are unable to print the page, you may copy the tasks into your notebook and complete them there. To check your answers, click here.
 
It should take approximately 20 minutes to complete these tasks.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.8.1](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/8/1)

Terms of Use: Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms
of use displayed on the webpage above.

Extension Resources   If any of the readings in this unit have inspired you to learn more, the following list will help you. It contains books and other resources you can use for further study. You will most likely be able to find many of these items in your local public library. 

  • Reading: The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank One of the most enduring stories of the Holocaust, The Diary of a Young Girl is a first-person account of Anne Frank, who spent two years in hiding. After leaving Germany for the Netherlands to escape growing anti-Semitism, Anne and her family led a carefree life until the Nazi invasion forced them into hiding. They spent two years living above her father’s office, until they were captured and arrested. 

  • Reading: The Boy Who Dared by Susan Campbell Bartoletti This is a fictionalized account of the life of Helmuth Hübener, a 17-year-old German boy who undertook a truth-telling campaign against the Nazis. Using an illegal radio and his typewriter, he anonymously wrote newsletters, hoping to get his neighbors and friends to see the truth. His capture and its aftermath is a chilling account of the lengths Hitler’s Nazis were willing to go to in order to maintain control over the people of Germany. 

  • Reading: Bull Run by Paul Fleischman This novella, told by 16 diverse characters hailing from the North and the South, provides a fictional account of the first battle of the Civil War. Each character provides unique perspectives of the experience of war, with vivid and harrowing details. 

  • Reading: Many Thousand Gone: African Americans from Slavery to Freedom by Virginia Hamilton This is a collection of three dozen biographies of well-known and lesser-known slaves, as well as whites who risked jail to help them. It stretches back to the pre-Revolutionary era through the Civil War.