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K12ELA006: English Language Arts 6

Unit 3: Oh My Word   Words are arguably one of the most powerful tools existing on this Earth. When connected with other words, they have the power to become magical stories and messages of hope, letters of love, and tales of courage. Words have the power to hurt - they can incite panic and fear, cause anger and hatred, and sometimes divide people. But words can also calm, express love and friendship, unify people despite differences, and allow for the spread of knowledge. The ability to speak, read, and write words may truly be the greatest gift of humanity.
 
In this unit, you will use poetry as a means for exploring the many dimensions of these almighty and powerful words. You will learn about the functions of different types of words in the English language as you explore the parts of speech. You will learn how many words’ definitions are derived from the meanings of word roots and affixes, and you will study some of the most common word parts. Furthermore, you will examine how many words and phrases have come to have meanings that extend beyond their literal definitions by exploring the beauty of figurative language in poetry

Unit 3 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take approximately 13 hours and 15 minutes.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 1 hour and 45 minutes

☐    Subunit 3.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 3.3: 3 hours and 30 minutes

☐    Subunit 3.4: 5 hours ☐    Subunit 3.4.1: 45 minutes

☐    Subunit 3.4.2: 15 minutes

☐    Subunit 3.4.3: 3 hours and 30 minutes

☐    Subunit 3.4.5: 30 minutes

☐    Subunit 3.5: 1 hour

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
- Increase vocabulary by determining unknown word meanings through knowledge of roots and affixes. - Increase vocabulary through the study of figurative language. - Describe the difference between the connotation and denotation of a word or phrase. - Compare and contrast texts in different forms and genres. - Demonstrate command of the English language, especially parts of speech, by recognizing and correcting improper pronoun usage. 

Standards Addressed (Common Core):
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.1 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.4 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.7 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.10 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.1 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.3 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.4 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.5 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.6 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.9

3.1 Parts of Speech   Earlier in your academic career, you learned that different words have different functions in sentences. For example, some words are verbs and show action or state of being. Other words are nouns, which are people, places, things, or ideas. The following lessons are designed to help you review the parts of speech that you have previously studied, as well as to help you focus specifically on pronouns, the part of speech that you will be expected to know how to masterfully use in your speaking and writing by the time you complete this course.

3.1.1 Review of the Eight Parts of Speech   - Explanation: SOPHIA: Karen Hamilton Silvestri’s “Parts of Speech Overview” Link: SOPHIA: Karen Hamilton Silvestri’s “Parts of Speech Overview” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Watch the tutorial about the various parts of speech. As you watch the video, be sure to take notes that provide you with a brief definition and examples of each part of speech described.
 
Watching the tutorial and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.1](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/1/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/).

3.1.2 Pronouns   - Explanation: SOPHIA: Dan Reade’s “Pronouns” Link: SOPHIA: Dan Reade’s “Pronouns” (HTML)
 
Instructions: In your notebook, title a new section “Pronouns.” Pronouns are a tricky part of speech and are the part of speech that sixth-grade curriculum most focuses on teaching. Read through the explanations on this page and watch the tutorial. Take notes on the definitions and commonly confused pronoun-usage situations.
 
Watching the tutorial and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.1a](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/1/a/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/).

3.1.2.1 Pronoun Case   - Activity: SOPHIA: Melissa Stephenson’s “Pronoun Cases” Link: SOPHIA: Melissa Stephenson’s “Pronoun Cases” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Watch the tutorial and take notes on the rules and situations involving pronoun case.
 
Watching the tutorial and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.1a](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/1/a/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/).

3.1.2.2 Pronouns and Antecedents and Pronoun Problems   - Explanation: SOPHIA: Linda Neuman’s “Pronouns” Link: SOPHIA: Linda Neuman’s “Pronouns” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Watch the tutorial and take notes about pronouns, antecedents, and common problems with pronouns.
 
Watching the tutorial and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.1d](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/1/d/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/).

3.1.3 Parts of Speech Checkpoint   - Checkpoint: The Saylor Foundation: Amy Kasten’s “Parts of Speech Checkpoint #2” Link: The Saylor Foundation: Amy Kasten’s “Parts of Speech Checkpoint #2” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This checkpoint offers you the opportunity to see what lessons from this unit have stuck with you. Being able to successfully answer these questions shows that you are on track for success in this course. If you’re unsure of an answer or would just like to double check yourself, look back at the resources provided so far for review.
 
You must be logged into your Saylor account in order to access this exam. If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.
 
Completing this activity should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.1](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/1/)

3.2 The Building Blocks of Words   As you learned during Unit 1 of this course, the English language is rooted in words and phrases from many other world languages. Latin and Greek are two of the languages that many English words are borrowed from, and many of the words that you use each day include Latin or Greek word parts. The lessons that follow will help you continue to build your knowledge of root words, which in turn help you to increase your vocabulary.

3.2.1 Greek and Latin Roots, Part I   - Explanation: Open High School of Utah’s “Root Words” Link: Open High School of Utah’s “Root Words” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This reading gives a background about root words and their importance in building vocabulary. Read through this list and familiarize yourself with the roots and their meanings. Then, make flash cards - on paper or using a free flash-card-making website such as Quizlet - for each of these root words and any additional examples you may find. These flashcards will be a useful tool for you to use to study the root words. By the end of this course, you should have familiarized yourself with the meanings of all of the root words and affixes presented. Your knowledge of these word parts’ meanings will help you to figure out the meaning of unfamiliar words that contain these roots and affixes.
 
Reading about root words, making flashcards, and reviewing flashcards should take approximately 1 hour.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.4b](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/4/b/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

3.2.2 Greek and Latin Roots, Part II   - Explanation: Open High School of Utah’s “Root Words II” Link: Open High School of Utah’s “Root Words II” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This reading gives a background about root words and their importance in building vocabulary. Read through this list and familiarize yourself with the roots and their meanings. Then, make flash cards - on paper or using a free flash-card-making website such as Quizlet - for each of these root words and any additional examples you may find. These flashcards will be a useful tool for you to use to study these root words.
 
Reading about root words, making flashcards, and reviewing flashcards should take approximately 1 hour.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.4b](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/4/b/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

3.3 Figurative Language   Figurative language refers to speech or writing that uses words in a non-literal way to create a special meaning or effect. Often, figurative language is used as a way to compare things that don’t appear to be very similar. Some types of figurative language include similes, metaphors, personification, alliteration, and idioms.

3.3.1 Connotation and Denotation   - Explanation: SOPHIA: Sydney Bauer’s “Connotation and Denotation” Link: SOPHIA: Sydney Bauer’s “Connotation and Denotation” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Open the tutorial as well as your notebook so that you’ll be ready to take notes on this concept. Understanding the difference between denotation, the literal definitions of words, and connotation, the created meanings of some words and phrases, is essential to truly understanding the English language. Scroll to the bottom of this tutorial and first listen to the audio commentary provided for this lesson. As you’re listening, take notes on any key ideas that are new or sound especially important to you. After listening to the audio, read through the text and take any additional notes you feel will help you master the difference between connotation and denotation. It is very important for you to understand that many words and phrases have created meanings, or connotations, as this will aid in your comprehension of poems and other texts with complex figurative language.
 
Completing the activities and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.5c](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/5/c/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/).

3.3.2 Similes and Metaphors   3.3.2.1 Similes and Metaphors   - Explanation: SOPHIA: LaShanda Lawrence’s “Similes and Metaphors” Link: SOPHIA: LaShanda Lawrence’s “Similes and Metaphors” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Open to a new page in your notebook and title it “Similes and Metaphors.” Read through the slides provided in this tutorial and take notes on what similes and metaphors are, examples of them, and key words and ideas describing the differences between the two.
 
Similes and metaphors are two of the most frequently used forms of figurative language that you will come across in your reading, and chances are that this is not the first time you’ve learned about them. However, at this point in your academic career, you should work to become skillful at not only identifying similes and metaphors, but also at being able to explain what similes and metaphors mean. For example, as a younger student, you were probably applauded for being able to find a simile, such as “She was like a toddler when she went ice skating,” and correctly identify it as a simile. However, now, you should be able to explain that this simile means that the person wasn’t a very good ice skater and was probably pretty unsteady on ice skates.

 Completing the activities and taking notes should take
approximately 15 minutes.  
    
 Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.6](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/6/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/).

3.3.2.2 A Closer Look at Metaphors   - Explanation: SOPHIA: Sydney Bauer’s “Metaphors” Link: SOPHIA: Sydney Bauer’s “Metaphors” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Now it’s time to add to your notes on similes and metaphors. In the last lesson, you focused on exploring the definitions and differences between the two types of figurative language. In this lesson we’re focusing more on metaphors, as they are usually the type of figurative language that readers have a more difficult time understanding. Read through the slides provided in this tutorial and take any additional notes on metaphors to help you more deeply understand how to identify and analyze these unique comparisons in text.
 
Reading this tutorial and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.6](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/6/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/).

3.3.3 Idioms   - Explanation: SOPHIA: LaShanda Lawrence’s “Idioms” Link: SOPHIA: LaShanda Lawrence’s “Idioms” (HTML)
 
Instructions: During this lesson, you will be adding to your notes on figurative language by analyzing idioms. Idioms are phrases that have developed connotations, which you will recall mean created meanings that differ from the literal dictionary definitions of words. To a person who is just learning the English language, these idioms can be very confusing! For example, a common idiom is “break a leg,” which means “good luck.” Imagine how upset you might feel if you were unaware of the meaning of this idiom and someone told you that they hoped you broke a leg! You would most likely be offended and perhaps pretty upset.
 
Even to expert English-language speakers, some of these idioms are just plain strange. This brief tutorial explains further what idioms are and gives some examples of common idioms and their meanings. As you view each slide, take notes on idioms, examples, and their meanings. You will be responsible for explaining idioms during your upcoming midcourse examination.
 
Completing the activities and taking notes associated should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.5](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/5/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/).

3.3.4 Hyperbole   - Explanation: SOPHIA: Sydney Bauer’s “Hyperbole” Link: SOPHIA: Sydney Bauer’s “Hyperbole” (HTML)
 
Instructions: You will continue to add to your figurative language notes as you read through the slides presented here covering the figure of speech known as hyperbole. Hyperbole (which sounds like hi-per-bowl-lee) is the exaggeration of something for effect. Have you ever said that you were freezing when, in reality, your body was actually not turning into ice? Have you ever complained that you had a ton of homework when in reality you did not have 2,000 pounds worth of assignments? These are examples of hyperbole. Odds are, once you think about it, you’ll realize that you use hyperbole quite often without even realizing it.
 
Completing the activities and taking notes associated should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.5a](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/5/a/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/).

3.3.5 Personification   - Explanation: SOPHIA: Sydney Bauer’s “Personification” Link: SOPHIA: Sydney Bauer’s “Personification” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This will be the last type of figurative language you’ll study before you dive into reading and analyzing figurative language in poetry. Review the tutorial on personification, and add to your figurative language notes as you read through the slides. Personification, which is a word that you may notice begins with “person,” is a figure of speech in which something that is not a person is given human qualities. This tutorial will help you to explore and clarify this concept. Once you have finished reviewing it, try your hand at writing some examples of personification in your notebook following your figurative language notes.
 
Reviewing the tutorial and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.5a](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/5/a/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/).

3.3.6 Creative Writing Using Figurative Language   - Checkpoint: The Saylor Foundation: Amy Kasten’s “Create a Character - Creative Writing with Figurative Language” Link: The Saylor Foundation: Amy Kasten’s “Create a Character - Creative Writing with Figurative Language” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Complete the creative writing activity, following the instructions and using the example provided on the handout. Have fun with your writing, and see for yourself how figurative language can make writing sound extraordinary!
 
Completing this activity should take approximately 2 hours.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.5](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/5/)
-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.10](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/W/6/10)

3.4 Reading Poetry   During this section, you will combine the vocabulary and figurative language knowledge that you have been building throughout this unit to help you analyze and understand different forms of poetry. You will explore some of the different types of poetry, analyze some poetry to find examples of figurative language, and then compare different poems with similar themes.

3.4.1 Reading Informational Text: Types of Poetry   - Reading: K12 Handhelds: Types of Poetry Link: K12 Handhelds: Types of Poetry (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this electronic textbook that covers some of the different types of poetry that exist within the poetry genre. In your notebook, begin a new notes section and title it “Poetry.” In that section, take notes on the different forms of poetry covered in this text and, where helpful, note examples of each type. Also be sure to carefully review and make note of any academic vocabulary words that are new to you from the glossary section at the end of this text.
 
Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 45 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.5a](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/5/a/)
-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.6](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/6/)
-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6.4](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RI/6/4/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 United States
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/us/).

3.4.2 Figurative Language in Poetry   - Explanation: SOPHIA: A. J. Sandberg’s “Bits on Poetry” Link: SOPHIA: A. J. Sandberg’s “Bits on Poetry” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read through this tutorial and watch each of the video lessons (although the last one doesn’t work, so skip it). They review different types of figurative language, some that you have already studied in this unit. This tutorial will help you take your knowledge of figurative language and use it to analyze figurative language in poetry.
 
Completing the activities and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.5](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/5/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/).

3.4.3 Reading and Analyzing Poetry   - Reading: K12 Handhelds: Annotated Anthology of Poetry Link: K12 Handhelds: Annotated Anthology of Poetry (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this electronic poetry anthology textbook from the beginning to end. It includes 12 classic poems, and each poem is followed by a few questions and/or activities that will help you to extend your thinking and comprehension of the poems. Complete every question and activity for each assigned poem in your notebook. Also, if you come across unfamiliar words as you read these poems, be sure to carefully consult the glossary section at the end of the text. The glossary includes a long list of words and will be helpful to you in determining the meaning of unknown words, as poetry often has fewer context clues than longer texts.
 
Reading this text and completing all questions and activities should take approximately 3 hours and 30 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.10](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RL/6/10/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 United States
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/us/).

3.4.4 Comparing and Contrasting Texts   - Activity: The Saylor Foundation: Amy Kasten’s “Comparing and Contrasting Poetry and Personal Narrative” Link: The Saylor Foundation: Amy Kasten’s “Comparing and Contrasting Poetry and Personal Narrative” (PDF)
 
Instructions: During this activity, you will compare the similarities and analyze the differences between two texts; one being the poem “Casey at the Bat” from the textbook you read in Subunit 3.4.3, and the other being the personal narrative that you wrote during Unit 2. Be sure to think about the genres, story elements, and structures of the texts as you compare them. You may be surprised by how many similarities exist between the two, despite the major differences that you’ll identify as well.
 
Completing this activity should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.9](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RL/6/10/)

3.5 Midcourse Assessments   This subunit assessment will check your understanding of the reading comprehension, literary analysis, writing and language, and speaking and listening skills covered so far in this course.