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K12ELA006: English Language Arts 6

Unit 1: Under the Sea   This unit takes us on a journey to an unfamiliar place - the world that exists under the sea. During this unit, you will read Jules Verne’s classic novel, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, as well as a number of informational texts and articles about marine biology, environmental issues affecting oceanic waters, and shipwrecks. Each text you will read is not only associated with Earth’s oceans and seas but also deals with the underlying theme of the struggle between people and nature.
 
To prepare you for the extensive array of new vocabulary words that you will encounter in your reading, you will begin this unit by studying strategies for determining the meanings of unknown words. In addition, you will be introduced to a number of root words and affixes that are part of words related to the study of water, oceans, and life. These word parts and vocabulary-building strategies will help you decode new words that you encounter both in your readings during this course and in your life beyond it.
 
Finally, you will synthesize your thoughts about the information you have read by learning to write logical arguments about your opinion on environmental issues related to Earth’s oceans. You will focus on developing arguments supported by substantial research-based evidence and clear reasoning. Writing evidence-based claims will be a skill that you will continue to develop later in this course and as you progress through your academic career.

Unit 1 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 31 hours and 15 minutes.

☐    Subunit 1.1: 1 hour and 45 minutes

☐    Subunit 1.2: 21 hours

☐    Subunit 1.2.1: 15 minutes

☐    Subunit 1.2.2: 20 hours and 45 minutes

☐    Subunit 1.3: 5 hours, 45 minutes

☐    Subunit 1.3.1: 1 hour and 15 minutes

☐    Subunit 1.3.2: 45 minutes

☐    Subunit 1.3.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 1.3.4: 45 minutes

☐    Subunit 1.3.5: 30 minutes

☐    Subunit 1.3.6: 30 minutes

☐    Subunit 1.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 1.5: 1 hour and 45 minutes

Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
- Demonstrate strategies for improving reading comprehension of complex fiction texts. - Analyze the structure of text and use this analysis to accurately summarize the main ideas of a text. - Cite evidence from fiction texts to support a claim or analysis or to answer questions about a text. - Analyze story elements and determine how they combine to develop universal themes. - Increase vocabulary by determining unknown word meanings through the use of context clues and/or knowledge of word parts (roots and affixes) and figurative language. - Compare and contrast story elements or main ideas of different texts. - Conduct research by gathering information from a variety of credible sources. - Write logical arguments supported by evidence and substantial claims.

Standards Addressed (Common Core):
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.1 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.2 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.3 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.5 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.6 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.10 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6.1 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6.2 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6.5 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6.6 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6.7 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6.8 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6.9 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.1 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.6 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.7 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.8 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.9 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.10 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.4 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.6 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.6.2 - CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.6.3

1.1 Language   A person’s vocabulary is a powerful piece of that person’s ability to communicate with, understand, and make a positive impression on other people. The following lessons are focused on helping you to build your vocabulary in a number of ways. First, you will review how to use context clues in text or conversations to determine the meaning of unknown words. Then, you will arm yourself with knowledge of the meaning of a number of word parts that will resurface in many words you will encounter throughout your life. Finally, you will learn how to use a number of reference sources to determine word meanings when context clues or knowledge of root words isn’t enough to help you figure out a word’s definition.

1.1.1 Using Context Clues to Define Unknown Words   - Explanation: SOPHIA: Elizabeth Wilbur’s “Context Clues” Link: SOPHIA: Elizabeth Wilbur’s “Context Clues” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Watch this instructional lesson on context clues and pay close attention to how the teacher models her thinking as she uses context clues to define unknown words. Readers at all skill levels regularly come across words with meanings that are unfamiliar to them. Knowing how to use strategies for finding clues surrounding these words will help you to determine the meaning of unknown words in your reading in this course and beyond. After watching the lesson, navigate down the page and review the copies of the slides from the lesson that are located below the video. Take notes on the main types of context clues, noting any examples that that you think would be helpful to you.
 
Watching this lesson and taking optional notes should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.4a](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/4/a/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). It is
attributed to Elizabeth Wilbur.

1.1.2 Identifying Word Parts: Greek and Latin Roots and Affixes   - Explanation: The Saylor Foundation: Amy Kasten’s “Roots and Affixes - Marine Unit” Link: The Saylor Foundation: Amy Kasten’s “Roots and Affixes - Marine Unit” (PDF)
 
Instructions: This document provides a brief explanation of Latin and Greek roots and affixes, and outlines some of the roots and affixes that relate to the study of oceans and life that will be a focus in this unit. You may want to annotate the document for key words and information.
 
Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.4b](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/4/b/)
  • Web Media: YouTube: Flocabulary’s “Prefixes Rap” Link: YouTube: Flocabulary’s “Prefixes Rap” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch the graphics and lyrics as you listen to the rap. You may want to replay this rap two or three times until you can identify the meanings of the prefixes introduced in the rap and are able to explain what prefixes are and how they can change a word’s meaning. Taking notes with a pencil and paper on the topics in this rap may be helpful to you, as you will be responsible for knowing this content during assessments later in this course.
     
    Reading this document, listening to the rap and taking notes on the content should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Standards Addressed (Common Core):

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.1.3 Consulting Reference Materials   - Explanation: The Saylor Foundation: Amy Kasten’s “Guide to Consulting Vocabulary Reference Materials” Link: The Saylor Foundation: Amy Kasten’s “Guide To Consulting Vocabulary Reference Materials” (PDF)
 
Instructions: This document outlines different types of reference materials, their purposes, and tips for effectively navigating them. Many types of reference materials, such as dictionaries and thesauruses, are being replaced by web-based versions that are even simpler to use, and a discussion of these resources is included, as well. Read this document carefully, and annotate any important thoughts, understandings, questions, or key details that you note while reading. After reading, you should know which types of information you can find in different reference books.
 
Reading this document and annotating key points should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.4c](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/4/c/)
-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.4d](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/4/d/)

1.1.4 Language Checkpoint   - Did I Get This? Activity: The Saylor Foundation: Amy Kasten’s “Language Checkpoint #1” Link: The Saylor Foundation: Amy Kasten’s “Language Checkpoint #1” (PDF)
 
Instructions: This document offers you the opportunity to see what lessons from this first unit have stuck with you. Being able to successfully answer these questions shows that you are on track for success in this course. If you’re unsure of an answer or would just like to double check yourself, look back at the resources provided so far for review.
 
Completing this activity should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.4a](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/4/a/)
-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.4b](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/4/b/)
-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.4c](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/4/c/)
-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.4d](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/6/4/d/)

1.2 Reading Literature: Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea   Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea is a classic work of fiction that was written by Jules Verne in 1870. This story is especially unique because it is one of the first science fiction novels ever written. You are going to read this novel, and as you read, you will use a number of reading and vocabulary strategies to help you think about and make sense of your reading.

1.2.1 Reading Comprehension Strategies   - Explanation: Next Vista for Learning: Julie Presant’s “Reading Strategies” Link: Next Vista for Learning: Julie Presant’s “Reading Strategies” (Flash)
 
Instructions: As you learned to read, you were taught how to utilize numerous strategies to aid in your comprehension of text. These strategies include previewing, predicting, inferring, summarizing, and evaluating your comprehension. Because these strategies help you make meaning of what you have read, they give you insights into the text. Sometimes, despite your best attempts at using all the reading strategy tools that you have to help you, you get stuck. At this point, you have a break in your understanding, and you must go back and reread a section or consult an outside reference to clarify. If you don’t attempt to fix this break in your understanding, your overall comprehension of the text will begin to break down as well.
 
Annotation is a reading strategy through which the reader interacts with a text by marking the text with reactions, questions, connections, and other thoughts. It is a strategy that we will employ throughout this course. When I annotate a text and find myself using a reading strategy such as predicting or inferring for example, I mark a “+” in the margins of the text to indicate that I have an insight into the text at that point. Then I usually jot down a few words to describe that insight. If I find myself stuck on a word, or having trouble comprehending a section, I indicate the break in my understanding with a “-” and a few words describing what I did to get back on track.
 
After watching this video lesson and reading this description of annotation and insights, you should prepare to annotate your insights throughout your reading of Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea.
 
Reading these instructions, watching this video lesson, and taking optional notes should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.10](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RL/6/10/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). It is
attributed to Julie Presant and Next Vista for Learning.

1.2.2 Literary Analysis of Story Elements   - Reading: Jules Verne’s *Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea* Link: Jules Verne’s Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (PDF)
 
Instructions: Now that you’ve reviewed some vocabulary and reading strategies to help you comprehend this story, it’s time to dive into Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea! The novel is divided into two main parts, with each part broken into chapters. Read the entire story and annotate your thinking about insights and breaks in your reading comprehension. Once you have read at least the first part of the story, you may move on to the subunits below that will help you explore the story elements of character, plot, conflict, and theme. Your annotations will help you analyze the story elements present in the story in the lessons that follow.
 
Reading this novel from beginning to end and annotating your thoughts as you read should take approximately 18 hours.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.10](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RL/6/10/)

Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

1.2.2.1 Character Development   - Explanation: Open High School of Utah: “Types of Characters” Link: Open High School of Utah: “Types of Characters” (Flash)
 
Instructions: Watch this instructional media lesson about the types of characters commonly found in fictional stories. Take notes on the different types of characters, noting any examples that you think would be helpful to you. Then, think back about the story so far. Which characters would you classify as the protagonists in the story? Which characters where the antagonists? How have the major characters in the story (including Captain Nemo, Ned Land, Conseil, and Dr. Pierre Arronax) changed and developed as the plot moved forward? What things are motivating the characters to act the way that they act? Keep these questions in mind as you think about and analyze the characters as you finish reading this story.
 
Watching this lesson, answering the questions posed in the instructions, and taking optional notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.3](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RL/6/3/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). It is
attributed to Open High School of Utah.

1.2.2.2 Plot Events   1.2.2.2.1 Plot Structure   - Explanation: SOPHIA: Victoria Costley’s “Story Elements” Link: SOPHIA: Victoria Costley’s “Story Elements” (HTML5)
 
Instructions: Scroll down to the section titled “Story Elements Notes part 1.” Watch the narrated lessons labeled “Story Elements Notes part 1,” “Story Elements Notes part 2,” “Story Elements Notes part 3,” and “Story Elements ‘Other’ Notes part 4,” which define the different elements of plot, the sequence of events that occur in a story. In plot, one event leads to another in closely related cause-and-effect chains of events. In your notebook, take notes on the elements of plot outlined in this lesson: exposition, conflict, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution, major characters, and setting.
 
After watching the four narrated lessons, explore the story map and other activities linked at the bottom of the page. Can you identify the major plot events including the exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea?
 
Watching these lessons, taking notes, and answering the questions posed in the instructions should take approximately 45 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.3](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RL/6/3/)
-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.5](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RL/6/5/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/). It is
attributed to Victoria Costley.

1.2.2.2.2 Conflict   - Explanation: Open High School of Utah: “Conflict” Link: Open High School of Utah: “Conflict” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this essay explanation on the different types of conflict possible in narrative writing. Take notes on any information that is new to you or that you feel could be helpful to your reading comprehension. After reading the essay, watch the video clip under the “Human vs. Machine/Technology” section. You do not need to complete the conflict assessment mentioned below the video clip. You should, however, think about the types of conflict that you have noticed developing in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea.
 
Most lengthy novels, including Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seahave more than one type of conflict that develops through the story’s plot events. As you continue reading this story, try to identify and classify at least one example of a man versus man conflict, man versus society conflict, man versus nature conflict, and man versus machine/technology conflict that occurs at some point during this story’s plot. Creating a page in your notes to identify and classify these conflicts may be helpful to you as you prepare for the end of unit assessment.
 
Reading this explanation and essay and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.3](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RL/6/3/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). It is
attributed to Open High School of Utah.

1.2.2.3 Point of View   - Explanation: Open High School of Utah: “Point of View” Link: Open High School of Utah: “Point of View” (Flash)
 
Instructions: Watch the video lesson and take notes on the different types of point of view. Pay close attention to the differences between first person, second person, third person omniscient, and third person limited point of view. Also note the key words associated with each point of view type.
 
Next, refer to the fictional novel that we are reading, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea. Answer the following questions in complete sentences in your notebook: (1) From whose perspective is this story told? (2) In which point of view is it written? (3) What key words do you notice that are associated with that point of view?
 
Watching this lesson and answering the questions related to our novel should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.6](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RL/6/6/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). It is
attributed to Open High School of Utah.

1.2.2.4 Theme   - Explanation: Next Vista for Learning: Mark Ooka’s “Theme” Link: Next Vista for Learning: Mark Ooka’s “Theme” (Flash)
 
Instructions: The theme of a story is a universal lesson that can be applied in situations existing beyond the text. Sometimes the theme is a lesson that a character learns that you in turn could also learn from. Other times, a reader can learn a universal lesson from cause-and-effect relationships that unfold throughout a story’s plot. Because theme isn’t something that is clearly spelled out during a story, it is often difficult to pinpoint and is typically the most debatable and discussed story element.
 
Watch the video lesson provided in this subunit to help you think about the concept of theme. The teacher provides examples of themes in some familiar texts. Once the video is over, jot down some of the themes or lessons that you think Jules Verne wanted readers to learn from Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea. Write a few paragraphs in your notebook about these themes, and identify examples from the story to support your thinking.
 
Watching this lesson and writing about themes from our novel should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.2](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RL/6/2/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/). It is
attributed to Mark Ooka and Next Vista for Learning.

1.3 Reading Informational Text: Selected Topics   Now that you have finished reading a fictional account of life at sea, you will now read a number of informational texts and articles about marine biology, environmental issues affecting oceanic waters, and shipwrecks. Each text you will read in the following subunits is somehow associated with the earth’s oceans and seas. As you read, also focus on how these nonfiction texts deal with the struggle between people and nature.

1.3.1 “The Seafloor”   - Reading: CK-12: “The Seafloor” Link: CK-12: “The Seafloor” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read this textbook excerpt and make a notes page for it in your notebook. You will reference this reading as you complete the following lessons.
 
Reading this excerpt and taking optional notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Standards Addressed (Common Core):

-   [CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6.2](http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RI/6/2/)

Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/). It is
attributed to CK-12 Foundation and the original version can be found
[here](http://www.ck12.org/earth-science/Seafloor/lesson/Seafloor/).

1.3.1.1 Author’s Purpose   - Explanation: Next Vista for Learning: Plattsmouth Elementary School’s “Author’s Purpose” Link: Next Vista for Learning: Plattsmouth Elementary School’s