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HIST365/STS203: History of Technology

Unit 7: Second Industrial Revolution   The first Industrial Revolution in Britain centered on cotton, steam, and iron production (Unit 5). Nations that were turning to industrialization in the 19th century, such as Germany, the United States, Japan, and Russia, followed the British example. However, by the turn of the 20th century, a new model of technological development eventually rendered the British model obsolete. This new model was the so-called Second Industrial Revolution, which was driven by steel, petroleum, electricity, and chemical production.
 
In this unit, you will learn about the defining features of the Second Industrial Revolution, the industrial application of scientific research, the first socio-technical systems – a handy way to refer to networks of humans, machines, and institutions such as the telephone or car industries  and the electrification of the household, which was a revolution that particularly affected women. Rather than isolating one or another invention from this period – for example, the light bulb or internal combustion engine – you will look at the rich social and cultural contexts of industry innovations.

Unit 7 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 20.75 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 7.1: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 7.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.5: 5.25 hours ☐    Sub-subunit 7.5.1: 0.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 7.5.2: 0.75 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 7.5.3: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 7.6: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 7.7: 6.5 hours ☐    Taylor Reading: 3 hours

☐    Nelson Reading: 3.5 hours

Unit7 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- define a socio-technical system. - define the Second Industrial Revolution. - identify examples of applied science of the 19th century. - explain the components of the telephone and automotive systems. - describe Ford’s model of production. - explain how appliance companies marketed to women. - define Scientific Management.

7.1 Defining the Second Industrial Revolution   - Reading: Northwestern University: Joel Mokyr’s “The Second Industrial Revolution, 1870-1914” Link: Northwestern University: Joel Mokyr’s “The Second Industrial Revolution, 1870-1914” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above, scroll down to the title, and open the PDF link for “The Second Industrial Revolution, 1870-1914.” Read and take notes on the following sections: “Introduction,” “Steel,” “Chemicals,” “Electricity,” and “Transportation.” Pay close attention to such developments as the Bessemer process, fertilizers, the production of rubber, electric generators, and the Internal Combustion Engine. Note that some of the material in the reading pertains to subunit 7.5 below.
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 2 hours.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: “Tables Illustrating the Spread of Industrialization” Link: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: “Tables Illustrating the Spread of Industrialization” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link above, and study these charts and graphs for a comparative look at industrialization in the decades leading up to WWI. Among other suggestive points of comparison, note India’s dramatic drop in manufacturing or de-industrialization (due to the British takeover), Germany’s spectacular rise, as well as Russia’s late but significant development.
     
    Study of these tables and note-taking should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.2 Petroleum   - Reading: History.com’s “Oil Industry” Link: History.com’s “Oil Industry” (HTML)
                     
Instructions: Click on the link above, and read this history of the petroleum industry. Pay close attention to the Standard Oil Company, the 1911 Supreme Court decision, and role of both world wars in defining the industry.
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 2 hours.
 
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7.3 The Case of Germany   - Reading: Ohio State University’s Open Access Initiative: Wilfried Feldenkirchen’s “The German Economy in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century” Link: Ohio State University’s Open Access Initiative: Wilfried Feldenkirchen’s “The German Economy in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above, and select the link for Chapter One, “The German Economy in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century,” to access the PDF. Read the entire chapter (13 pages). Germany was at the center of the Second Industrial Revolution. This chapter provides a close look at its rapid development. Pay close attention to how production levels rivaled Great Britain and the importance of the electrical industries, for example, the Siemens Company. Like all major belligerents, Germany would showcase its newfound industrial might in WWI.
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 2 hours.
 
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7.4 Applied Science   - Reading: University of Houston: John H. Lienhard’s “Mysterious Heat;” Purdue University: Jules Janick’s “The Origins of Horticulture Technology and Science;” and IEEE Global History Network’s “Early Application of Electricity” Links: University of Houston: John H. Lienhard’s Engines of our Ingenuity, “Mysterious Heat” (HTML or M3U); Jules Janick’s “The Origins of Horticulture Technology and Science” (PDF); and IEEE Global History Network’s “Early Applications of Electricity” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the links above, and read these webpages in their entirety. These short readings are case studies in an important 19th - century development: the application of science toward industrial ends. The examples concern engines, fertilizers, and electricity, respectively. In the organic movement reading, pay special attention to the “Nineteenth Century Horticulture” section. Note that in the mysterious heat reading you may also click on the link available on the webpage to listen to the episode. 
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 1 hour.
 
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7.5 Socio-Technical Systems   7.5.1 Defining Socio-Technical Systems   - Reading: ComputingCases.org’s “Why a Socio-Technical System?” Link: ComputingCases.org’s “Why a Socio-Technical System?” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this page for a good introduction to how important technologies of the modern-day unite artifacts, physical environments, people, procedures, and institutions.
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
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7.5.2 The Telephone System   - Reading: Frederique Krupa’s “The Evolution of the Telephone System” Link: Frederique Krupa’s “The Evolution of the Telephone System” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this account of the system that developed around the technical invention of the telephone. Pay close attention to the social acceptance of telephony, the switching system and operators (mostly women), and the major companies involved. You may stop at “Technological Innovation.”
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 45 minutes.
 
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7.5.3 The Automotive System   - Reading: Virginia Tech: William Shields’ “Theory and Practice in the Study of Technological Systems” Link: Virginia Tech: William Shields’ “Theory and Practice in the Study of Technological Systems” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above, and click on the link at the bottom of this page to open the PDF file. Read “The Automobile as an Open-Closed Technological System” on pages 71-90 of the PDF. This reading provides a comprehensive account of the automotive technological system that surrounds the central technology: the internal combustion engine (ICE). Pay close attention to all the social and cultural factors that shape this system and the important debate as to why the system favored the ICE above steam-powered and electric motors.
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 4 hours.
 
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7.6 Electrification of the Household   - Reading: Loretta Lorence’s “Promises, Promises: The Allure of Household Appliances in the 1920s” Link: Loretta Lorence’s “Promises, Promises: The Allure of Household Appliances in the 1920s” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above, and read the entire article. The reading will show how industrialization changed the nature of the household and family life itself. Notice how the appliance companies marketed to women especially, presenting electrification as “clean” and healthy technology for the ideal home.
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
 
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7.7 Scientific Management   - Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s version of “Frederick W. Taylor: The Principles of Scientific Management, 1911” Link: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s version of “Frederick W. Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management, 1911” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above, and read the entire primary source. You should be able to define scientific management upon completion of this reading. Also, note the concept of “soldiering” and Frederick Taylor’s strong belief that his system would serve to minimize discord between labor and management. 
 
Reading and note-taking should take approximately 3 hours.
 
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  • Reading: The Ohio State University’s Open Access Initiative: Daniel Nelson’s “Scientific Management in Retrospect” Link: The Ohio State University’s Open Access Initiative: Daniel Nelson’s “Scientific Management in Retrospect” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link above, locate the title “Scientific Management in Retrospect,” and select the link for the title to download the PDF. Read pages 1-27 of the text. This is a thorough introduction to Taylor and scientific management. Take notes on these three subjects: the interest of the U.S. federal government, the spread of Taylorism around the globe (e.g., to Germany, Japan, France, and the Soviet Union), and the response of workers and unions to Taylorism.
     
    Reading and note-taking should take about 3 hours and 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

Unit 7 Assessment   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 7 Assessment” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 7 Assessment” (HTML)

 Instructions: Complete the linked assessment.  
    
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