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HIST364: Environmental History

Unit 8: Environmentalism: New Perspectives on Mankind’s Relationship with the Natural World   Scientific awareness coupled with intense environmental degradation inspired a backlash against total resource consumption and environmental waste.  Beginning with the industrial revolutions, the modern environmental movement has grown to offer sustainability as an alternate paradigm for unrestricted resource consumption and waste generation.  Nations that experienced industrialization from the eighteenth to twentieth centuries are now considered to be post-industrial.  Concern for protecting the environment is a feature of having moved into more knowledge-based economies.  Yet, consumption has not lessened, so manufacturing continues in nations currently in the midst of their own industrialization.  Although the paradigm shift has been dramatic, challenges remain.  This unit will explore the origins and outlines of modern environmentalism and will explore some key issues for the twenty-first century.

Unit 8 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 18.75 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 8.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 8.2: 4 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 8.2.1: 0.75 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 8.2.2: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 8.2.3: 0.75 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 8.2.4: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 8.3: 5.75 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 8.3.1: 0.75 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 8.3.2: 1.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 8.3.3: 1.75 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 8.3.4: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 8.4: 6 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 8.4.1: 0.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 8.4.2: 0.75 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 8.4.3: 1.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 8.4.4: 1.75 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 8.4.5: 1.75 hours

Unit8 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Investigate the history and philosophy of conservation and preservation movements. - Explain the origins of the modern environmental movement and how attitudes about human relationships with the Earth are changing. - Investigate ways that environmental regulations have been introduced, and describe the resistance to such regulations. - Detail some current trends in environmental thinking. 

8.1 Conservation and Preservation   - Reading: PBS: Ken Burns’ “The National Parks: America’s Best Idea” Link: PBS: Ken Burns’ “The National Parks: America’s Best Idea” (JWPlayer)

 Instructions: Note that this resource is optional.  Explore it as
your interest extends.  Please click on each video in the “Video
Clips from the Series” section (25 videos total).  To scroll, use
the arrows on the right and left.  

 Viewing these videos and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.1.1 Origins of Conservation and Preservation Movements   - Reading: YouTube: The Graduate Council Lectures, University of California, Berkeley (UCTV): Carolyn Merchant’s “Environmentalism: From the Control of Nature to Partnership” Link: YouTube: The Graduate Council Lectures, University of California, Berkeley (UCTV): Carolyn Merchant’s “Environmentalism: From Control of Nature to Partnership” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  
 iTunes U  

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch the entire
video lecture.  Viewing this lecture and pausing to take notes
should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Library of Congress: “Evolution of the Conservation Movement in America, 1850-1920” Link: Library of Congress “Evolution of the Conservation Movement in America, 1850-1920” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please read the overview, and then click on each of the following subheadings: “History,” “Critical Thinking,” “Arts & Humanities.”  Read each entry in its entirety.  Under “Critical Thinking,” make sure to read the five subsections: “Chronological Thinking,” “Historical Comprehension,” “Historical Analysis and Interpretation,” “Historical Research,” and “Historical Issues Analysis.”  Under “Arts & Humanities,” make sure to read the three subsections: “Descriptive Writing,” “Persuasive Argument,” and “Journal Writing.”

    Studying this material should take approximately 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.1.2 Social and Environmental Consequences: Conservation of Habitat and Fire Hazard   - Reading: National Geographic: Alex Chadwick’s “Radio Expeditions, Yellowstone Fires” Link: National Geographic: Alex Chadwick’s “Radio Expeditions, Yellowstone Fires” (RealAudio)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and then listen to
both parts of the radio broadcast by clicking on “Part 1” and “Part
2.”  You may also click on the links on this webpage to download the
transcript of each video.  Click on “The Story behind the Story,”
and read the “Post-Expedition Interview” conducted by Michael
Heasley.  The Yellowstone Park fire of 1988 changed a lot of minds
about whether human interference in conserving wild lands should
include fire suppression.  The presence of human habitation
determines when foresters allow fires to burn and when they fight
them.  In the last 100 years, conservationists are seeing the
results of their policies, and whether conservation policies have
done more harm than good is unclear.  

 Listening to the broadcasts and reading the interview should take
approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Pushback.com: Dr. Bill Wattenburg’s “Re-examine ‘Let It Burn’” Link: Pushback.com: Dr. Bill Wattenburg’s “Re-examine ‘Let It Burn’” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please read linked article.  Dr. Bill Wattenburg’s response to the idea of letting forest fires burn is highly opinionated with a strong ideological bias, but it does indicate the depth of the controversy and the strong feelings engendered by official fire policies.

    Studying this material should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.2 Modern Environmental Movement   8.2.1 Origins in the U.S.   - Reading: National Humanities Center: Max Oelschlaeger’s “The Roots of Preservation: Emerson, Thoreau, and the Hudson River School” Link: National Humanities Center: Max Oelschlaeger’s “The Roots of Preservation: Emerson, Thoreau, and the Hudson River School” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the essay in
its entirety.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 45 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.2.2 The Soil Conservation Movement   - Reading: U.S. Department of Agriculture: Douglas Helms’ “Conserving the Plains: the Soil Conservation Service in the Great Plains” Link: U.S. Department of Agriculture: Douglas Helms’ “Conserving the Plains: the Soil Conservation Service in the Great Plains” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire
essay.  In this reprint from the journal *Agricultural History,*
Douglas Helms discusses the idea of federal action to conserve
topsoil and prevent soil erosion.  Although most date the modern
environmental movement to Rachel Carson’s 1962 *Silent Spring*
(discussed in sub-subunit 8.2.3), educating farmers in sustainable
farming techniques was an early step in changing how people thought
about stewardship of the land.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: YouTube: PublicResourceOrg’s Post of Pare Lorentz’s The Plow That Broke the Plains Link: YouTube: PublicResourceOrg’s Post of Pare Lorentz’s The Plow That Broke the Plains (YouTube)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch the video in its entirety (25:24).  The Plow That Broke the Plains was a groundbreaking documentary produced by the Department of Agriculture in 1937, written and directed by Pare Lorentz, and featuring art direction by photographer Paul Strand.  The film sought to explain how unsustainable farming techniques had depleted topsoil in the U.S. Midwest and created the conditions for both flood and drought in the region.

    Viewing this video should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.2.3 Science, Advocacy, and Public Policy   - Reading: University of Indiana: Professor Randall Baker’s “Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring and the Beginning of the Environmental Movement in the United States” Link: University of Indiana: Professor Randall Baker’s “Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring and the Beginning of the Environmental Movement in the United States” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire
webpage.  In this essay, author Randall Baker discusses the social
and political impact of environmentalist Rachel Carson’s 1962 book
*Silent Spring.  *Carson had warned that indiscriminate use of
chemical pesticides for farming and other purposes would endanger
entire ecosystems and threaten human health.  Baker notes that the
American chemical industry strongly objected to Carson’s arguments,
but grassroots efforts by concerned citizens as a result of her
book’s publication eventually led to national regulation of
pesticides and other hazardous chemicals by the early 1970s.  

 Studying this article should take approximately 45 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.2.4 Impact on Global Society   - Reading: iTunes U: Stanford University: Global Climate and Energy Project: Thomas Friedman’s “New Thoughts on a Hot, Flat, and Crowded World” Link: iTunes U: Stanford University: Global Climate and Energy Project: Thomas Friedman’s “New Thoughts on a Hot, Flat, and Crowded World” (iTunes)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to the
lecture titled “New Thoughts on a Hot, Flat, and Crowded World,” and
click on “View in iTunes” to download the video lecture.  Please
watch the entire video lecture.  

 Viewing this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.3 Regulation and Resistance   8.3.1 National and International Regulatory Efforts   - Web Media: NPR’s Morning Edition: Rob Gifford, Lawrence Sheets, and Sylvia Poggioli’s “Kyoto Accords Take Effect” Link: NPR’s Morning Edition: Rob Gifford, Lawrence Sheets, and Sylvia Poggioli’s “Kyoto Accords Take Effect” (Flash)

 Instructions: Please click on the play button to listen to the clip
of the radio program.  

 Listening to the podcast and pausing to take notes should take less
than 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the iTunes resource above.
  • Reading: U.S. Central Intelligence Agency’s World Factbook: “Appendix C: Selected International Environmental Agreements” Link: U.S. Central Intelligence Agency’s World Factbook: “Appendix C: Selected International Environmental Agreements” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire webpage, noting especially the subject of each agreement and which countries have signed and/ or ratified each agreement.

    You should dedicate approximately 30 minutes to exploring this resource.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.3.2 Successes and Failures   - Reading: Greenspirit: Dr. Patrick Moore’s “Mining and the Environment” Link: Greenspirit: Dr. Patrick Moore’s “Mining and the Environment” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire
webpage.  Dr. Patrick Moore, a co-founder of Greenpeace who has
recently been named an enemy of the environment, writes about
pragmatic solutions to environmental challenges and exposes the
fallacies behind environmental extremism.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Discover Magazine: Rachel Cernansky’s “9 of Humanity’s Greatest Environmental Successes” and “Man’s Greatest Crimes against the Earth, in Pictures” Link: Discover Magazine: Rachel Cernansky’s “9 of Humanity’s Greatest Environmental Successes” (HTML) and “Man’s Greatest Crimes against the Earth, in Pictures” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please view each slide on both webpages, and read the accompanying text.  Click on the white arrows to advance or repeat the slides.  Please also click on any embedded hyperlinks to learn more about each issue.

    Studying this resource should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

8.3.3 The Politics of Climate Change   - Web Media: iTunes U: La Trobe University: Clive Hamilton and Andrew Glikson’s “The Politics and Science of Climate Change Denialism” Link: iTunes U: La Trobe University: Clive Hamilton and Andrew Glikson’s “The Politics and Science of Climate Change Denialism” (iTunes)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, locate the lecture
titled “The Politics and Science of Climate Change Denialism,” and
click on “View in iTunes” to download the video lecture.  Please
watch the entire video lecture.  

 Viewing this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour and 45 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.3.4 Religion   - Reading: Yale University’s Forum on Religion and Ecology: Mary Evelyn Tucker and John Grim’s “Overview of World Religions and Ecology” Link: Yale University’s Forum on Religion and Ecology: Mary Evelyn Tucker and John Grim’s “Overview of World Religions and Ecology” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read the “Overview of World Religions and
Ecology” introduction, and then click on each hyperlink at the left
to read about each world religion.  The authors in this Yale Forum
of Religion and Ecology put forth the position each religious
tradition currently holds on ecological health and human
interaction.  

 You should dedicate approximately 2 hours to exploring this
resource.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.4 Current Trends   8.4.1 Rethinking the Relationship between Humans and the Environment   - Reading: YouTube: University of Washington Press: James Feldman’s “A Storied Wilderness: Rewilding the Apostle Islands” Link: YouTube: University of Washington Press: James Feldman’s “A Storied Wilderness: Rewilding The Apostle Islands” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch this video
in its entirety (about 9 minutes).  The modern environmental
sensibility has encouraged many projects intended to correct past
degradation or prevent impact in the future.  Humans are part of
their ecosystems.  The imprint left by humans cannot be avoided, and
sometimes it cannot be erased.  

 Viewing this video and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Bloomberg: Joshua Goodman’s “North Face Founder Saves, Fights Nature as Chile Volcano Erupts” Link: Bloomberg: Joshua Goodman’s “North Face Founder Saves, Fights Nature as Chile Volcano Erupts” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire article.

    Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.4.2 Commerce and the Environment: Cap and Trade   - Reading: Pew Center on Global Climate Change: “Climate 101 Series: Cap and Trade” Link: Pew Center on Global Climate Change: “Climate 101 Series: Cap and Trade” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the title to download the PDF. 
Please read the essay in its entirety.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: YouTube: Ohio University: Ohioweb’s “Carbon Offsets” Link: YouTube: Ohio University: Ohioweb’s “Carbon Offsets” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and view the brief 4-minute video.  Trading in carbon offsets has become a growth industry for investors.  Essentially, industries and even individual companies can buy the right to pollute.  Carbon offsets were suggested in the 1980s as a way to lower the overall emission of greenhouse gases.  A company that is successful in limiting its own greenhouse gases can raise capital by trading with a company that has not been able to lower its emissions.  Even though one company is polluting too much, the fact that another company is not polluting very much can, if levels are maintained, reduce overall carbon emissions.  The idea is controversial; some environmentalists say no one should be able to buy the right to pollute and that all industries should lower their emissions.

    Viewing this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.4.3 Science and the Search for Solutions   - Reading: YouTube: Perspectives on Ocean Science: University of California, San Diego (UCTV): Charles Kennel’s “Science Solutions for a Planet in Peril: Global Earth Science and Sustainability” Link: YouTube: Perspectives on Ocean Science: University of California, San Diego (UCTV): Charles Kennel’s “Science Solutions for a Planet in Peril: Global Earth Science and Sustainability” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch the entire
video lecture.  

 Viewing this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.4.4 Thinking Globally/Acting Locally   - Reading: YouTube: UCTV, University of California, Santa Barbara: Bill McKibbens’ “Beyond Understanding the Problem: Citizen Action for Global Warming Solutions” Link: YouTube: UCTV, University of California, Santa Barbara: Bill McKibbens’ “Beyond Understanding the Problem: Citizen Action for Global Warming Solutions” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch the entire
video lecture.  

 Viewing this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour and 45 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.4.5 Environmental Justice   8.4.5.1 What Is “Environmental Justice?”   - Reading: EPA’s “Environmental Justice Program and Civil Rights” Link: EPA’s “Environmental Justice Program and Civil Rights” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire
webpage.  

 This reading should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.4.5.2 Environmental Justice and Policy Making   - Reading: University of California, Santa Cruz’s California Policy Research Center: Manuel Pastor, Jr.’s “Racial/Ethnic Inequality in Environmental-Hazard Exposure in Metropolitan Los Angeles” Link: University of California, Santa Cruz’s California Policy Research Center: Manuel Pastor, Jr.’s “Racial/Ethnic Inequality in Environmental-Hazard Exposure in Metropolitan Los Angeles” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and scroll down to
the section “Reports and Briefings.”  Then, click on the last entry
“CPRC Full Report.”  Read the report in its entirety.  Try to
understand how ethnicity and race play a role in the inequality of
receiving environmental-hazard exposure.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.